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Sustainable City and Urban Planning in Karachi

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  • 1. Sustainable City &Urban Planning Experiences in Karachi Wali Memon 1 Wali Memon
  • 2. Evolution of the Understandings of Sustainable Development2 Wali Memon
  • 3. Meanings of Sustainable Development 1962, Rachel Carson: Silent Spring 1972, United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Barbara Ward: Only One Earth 1983, the World Commission on Environment and Development was established 1987: Our Common Future “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”3 (WCED, 1987, p.8). Wali Memon
  • 4. Meanings of Sustainable Development 1992: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the First Earth Summit Rio Declaration on Environment and Development & Agenda 21 1992: the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development was established 1996: Habitat Agenda 2000: United Nations Millennium Development Goals 2002: Second Earth Summit in Johannesburg— Johannesburg Declaration & Action 214 Wali Memon
  • 5. Why Sustainable Development (SD) ?5 Wali Memon
  • 6. Why SD ? The world’s population is now at 6 billion, and estimated to grow to 8 billion in the next 20 years. While most countries’ economies have grown economically in the last 20 years, some have declined. In the developing world, one in every five persons lives in extreme poverty and many associated social problems result: disease, disintegration of family, crime and use of drugs. 800 million people in the world are still malnourished due to poor distribution in more remote areas.6 Diseases such as AIDS and malaria have greatly Wali Memon affected populations
  • 7. Why SD ? Since 1971, global energy use has increased by 70% and is expected to rise 2% per year in the next 15 years. This will increase greenhouse gases by 50% over current levels. The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased enormously since 1950, with the global climate changing drastically. Increased atmospheric nitrogen from fossil fuel combustion and farming of root crops, which release nitrogen, has intensified the occurrence in of acid rain Natural resources (e.g. soils, forests, fish aquatic habitats) continue to decrease in quantity due to fires, pollution and human influences. Loss of biological diversity has resulted from human activities such as deforestation and , pollution. 40% of our global economy is dependent on biologically derived products.7 Water, soil and air have been strained due to high pollution Wali Memon levels.
  • 8. Why SD? We are in a Risk Society! The aging of industrial modernity & the emergence of a risk society Risk society arises through “the ... modernization processes which are blind & deaf to consequences & dangers.” “Reflexive modernization”: self-confrontation with the consequences of risk society which cannot be addressed & overcome in the system of industrial society (Ulrich Beck)8 Wali Memon
  • 9. Why SD? We are in a Risk Society! Risk society: hazards produced by society undermine and/or cancel the established safety systems of the state’s existing risk calculations. Nuclear, chemical, ecological & genetic engineering risks: no time/place limit, not accountable, compensated or insured (Ulrich Beck). Risk Society: recognition of the incalculability of the hazards produced by technical-industrial development Compels self-reflection on the foundation of the social context & review of prevailing conventions & principles of “rationality” Risk society becomes self-reflexive: it becomes an9 issue & a problem to itself (Ulrich Beck) Wali Memon
  • 10. Why SD? We are in a Risk Society Answer: to let “politics & morality” gain priority over “shifting & inherently uncertain science”--a radical (second) modernity & a new ecological democracy (Ulrich Beck) a need to build a sustainable community10 Wali Memon
  • 11. Meanings of Sustainable Development11 Wali Memon
  • 12. Meanings of SD Future impacts People People Resources: renewable & non-rew Information & capital City Goods & services Energy & water Region Wastes & pollution Goods and services Resource depletion Carrying Capacity Source: Ravetz, Joe (2000), City Region 2020, London: Earthscan 12 Wali Memon
  • 13. Meanings of SD:Economic, Social & Environmental Capital Human & Social Capital Health impacts vs. Income & employment vs. Human impacts Labour & consumption Resources & Environ- assimilation of Economic mental pollution vs. Pollution Capital & its abatement Capital Some Interactions Between Economic, Social and 13 Environmental Capital Wali Memon
  • 14. Meanings of SD: Nested Sustainable Development ENVIRONMENTEnvironmental SOCIETY Capital: Air Human, Social & Cultural Capital Water Education ECONOMY Noise Health Minerals Housing Economic Capital Forests, Social Network Built environment Land, Community Spirit Machinery Species of Social Equity Vehicles Flora & Arts and Culture Investment, etc. Fauna Sports & recreation Soil, etc. Entertainment & media, etc. 14 Wali Memon(Modified from Giddings et. al, 2002, p.192)
  • 15. Meanings of Sustainable Development Basic Principles: an ethical utilization of natural resources an intra- and inter-generational equity Derived Sustainable Development Principles15 Wali Memon
  • 16. Meanings of SD: principles & policiesUrban Context Sustain. Development Policy Tools PrinciplesEconomic Capital GovernmentEconomy Basic Principles Long term strategic views &Urban fiscal base integrated policy making Ethical utilization of natural resourcesEconomic spaces Law & legislation Intra- and inter-generational equityInfrastructure Financing mechanismsBuilt environment Economic Capital Government vis-à-visHuman and Social Long-term economic prosperity Restorative economy MarketCapital Reforming market economy Ecological modernizationEducation Ecological modernization Green consumerismHealth Targeted inward investmentSports and Leisure Human and Social Capital Promotion of environmentalSafety business Diversities in human resourcesCommunity Encourage competition Cultural diversitiesPolitical System Information dissemination Satisfying basic needsGovernance Equity in governance Social cohesion Government vis-à-visEnvironmental (Physical Equal opportunities Community& Built) Capital A learning cultureFood Environmental (Physical & Built) Three-way (government, privateAir sector, community) partnershipWater Capital Community based initiativesNoise Geographical equity Social/cultural/attitudinalArchitecture Living within nature’s carrying capacity 16 changes Wali MemonCultural Heritage Enhancing biodiversity Replace/ Recycle/ Reuse
  • 17. Meanings of SD17 Wali Memon
  • 18. Meanings of SD 18 Wali Memon
  • 19. Characteristics of SD19 Wali Memon
  • 20. Characteristics of SD ECOLOGICALLY ETHICAL UTILIZATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Use of resources and pollution within carrying capacity of nature Biodiversity enhanced Three “R”s to minimize wastes and energy consumption INTRA- AND INTER-GENERATIONAL EQUITY Demographic stabilization Reforming market economy: “restorative”, community based economies vibrant Ecological modernization Diversities in human resources development Diversity in the built environment Diversity in economic activities Diversity in culture Meeting basic needs Strong social cohesion Equity in governance Equal opportunities available Geographical equity: self-reliance
  • 21. Characteristics of SD RESPONSES Strategic long term view with strategic information Horizontal cross-sectoral approach within the government Vertical integration (local-regional initiatives) Politics: new governance (three-way [public-private-community] partnership) Sustainable planning process: participation & dialogue Law & legislation on environmental management Market: green consumerism, ecological modernization Socio-cultural changes (public awareness) Green financing
  • 22. Characteristics of SD22 Wali Memon
  • 23. Characteristics of SDParticipation: participatory making good use of local knowledge perspectives of different stakeholders accessible participation channels and information participation should be engagement in making choices and determining future developmentCommunity character: respect community history strengthen community identity facilitate community building and fulfill the needs and expectations of the communityEquity: ensure equitable distribution of benefits and costs consider the impacts on different social groups ensure adequate resources and services are available to mitigate the impacts on disadvantaged groupsEnvironment: improve the overall living and working environment in order to promote health, safety and enjoyment safeguard resources and prevent environmental degradationEconomy: should improve the overall economic conditions
  • 24. Why Citizen Participation? Plans have a greater chance of being implemented when citizens play a meaningful role in shaping them. They know better what they want! Stakeholders must feel ownership of the plan. Identifying common values in divergent interests Building consensus 24 Wali Memon
  • 25. Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation DEGREE OF CITIIZEN PARTICIPATION 8. Citizen control 7. Delegated power 6. Partnership DEGREES OF TOKENISM 5. Placation 4. Consultation 3. Informing NON-PARTICIPATION 2. Therapy 1. Manipulation
  • 26. The ‘Wheel’ of Empowerment EMPOWERMENT Entrusted control Independent control Delegated control Limited decentralized decision making PARTICIPATION Limited decentralized decision making Partnership Effective advisory body CONSULTATION Genuine information Customer care Limited consultation INFORMATION Good quality information Limited information Minimal communication
  • 27. Techniques Citizen attitude surveys Guided tours Use of mediator or Workshops/ charettes facilitator Visual preference testing Citizen training Game simulation Telephone hotlines Citizen advisory board Interactive cable TV Media & public Open door policy information campaigns Community planning Visioning sessions centres Task forces Involving youths & kids Public hearings27 Wali Memon
  • 28. Characteristics of SD Vitality & Variety Traffic and transport •activity nodes public access to non-polluting transport •street activities connectivity of public transport modes •land uses and routes •texture (relationship of pedestrian accessibility buildings and space) pedestrian permeability •grain of street pattern pedestrian experience •visual quality •relation of buildings to Form of new development street Sympathetic to topography “Greening the city” Compatible with the desired character •colour of the area •shade Public space •softening appropriateness of location •air pollution absorption opportunities for ‘conferred life’ •micro-climate quality •aesthetics connectivity •ambience appropriateness of purpose
  • 29. Characteristics of SD Existing buildings Physical condition safety appearance New Building special individual quality (historic, scale architectural, or cultural merit) layout special group quality (contribution to form streetscape, townscape) appearance Use use Compatibility with area materials Compatibility with immediate adjacent uses Contribution to needs of area Contribution to character of area Re-use potential rehabilitation conservation recycling to other uses
  • 30. How to Develop Karachi into a Sustainable City ?30 Wali Memon
  • 31. SUSTAINABLE HOW TO DEVELOP DEVELOPNMENT Karachi INTO A PRINCIPLES SUSTAINABLE CITY? Ecologically Ethical Utilization of Natural ResourcesCarrying capacity of natureBiodiversityThree “R”s to minimize wastes and energy consumption
  • 32. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPNMENT HOW TO DEVELOP Karachi INTO A PRINCIPLES SUSTAINABLE CITY? Intra- and Inter-Generational EquityDemographic stabilizationReforming market economy: “restorative” & ecological modernizationDiversity in human resources developmentDiversity in built environmentDiversity in economic activitiesDiversity in cultureSatisfying basic needsSocial cohesionEquity in governanceEqual opportunitiesGeographical equity: self-reliance
  • 33. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPNMENT HOW TO DEVELOP Karachi INTO A PRINCIPLES SUSTAINABLE CITY? ResponsesLong term view with strategic informationHorizontal cross-sectoral approachVertical integration (local-regionalinitiatives)Politics: new governance (three-waypartnership)Sustainable planning process: participation& dialogueLaw & legislation on environmentalmanagementMarket: green consumerism, ecologicalmodernizationSocio-cultural changes (public awareness) 33 Wali MemonGreen financing
  • 34. How to Develop Karachi into a Sustainable City ?Participation: participatory making good use of local knowledge perspectives of different stakeholders accessible participation channels and information participation should be engagement in making choices and determining future developmentCommunity character: respect community history strengthen community identity facilitate community building and fulfill the needs and expectations of the communityEquity: ensure equitable distribution of benefits and costs consider the impacts on different social groups ensure adequate resources and services are available to mitigate the impacts on disadvantaged groupsEnvironment: improve the overall living and working environment in order to promote health, safety and enjoyment safeguard resources and prevent environmental degradationEconomy: should improve the overall economic conditions
  • 35. How to Develop Karachi into a Sustainable City ? Vitality & Variety Traffic and transport •activity nodes public access to non-polluting transport •street activities connectivity of public transport modes •land uses and routes •texture (relationship of pedestrian accessibility buildings and space) pedestrian permeability •grain of street pattern pedestrian experience •visual quality •relation of buildings to Form of new development street Sympathetic to topography “Greening the city” Compatible with the desired character •colour of the area •shade Public space •softening appropriateness of location •air pollution absorption opportunities for ‘conferred life’ •micro-climate quality •aesthetics connectivity •ambience appropriateness of purpose
  • 36. How to develop Karachiinto a sustainable city? Existing buildings Physical condition safety appearance New Building special individual quality (historic, scale architectural, or cultural merit) layout special group quality (contribution to form streetscape, townscape) appearance Use use Compatibility with area materials Compatibility with immediate adjacent uses Contribution to needs of area Contribution to character of area Re-use potential rehabilitation conservation recycling to other uses
  • 37. What are the Costs of Developing Karachi into a Sustainable City?37 Wali Memon
  • 38. “Costs” of SD in Karachi Whose costs? Fiscal costs? Hidden costs? Long term costs? Short-term costs? Monetary costs? Social costs? Political costs? Economic costs? Three major stakeholders in SD: the government, the private sector, the general public At different geographical scales: local, city-level, regional, national, global… Costs and benefits are relative… “One man’s meat is another man’s poison”—the cost of cleaning up may be too high for a factory but the unaccounted38 costs as a result of pollution could be a lot higher… Wali Memon
  • 39. “Costs” of SD in Karachi: some examplesUtilizing the environmental resources in an ecologically ethical way maymean:Economic capital: Controlled growth Fewer development projects Fewer jobs? However, maybe engaged in other productive activities A less materialistic and consumption-oriented society… (lowered living standards? Yet what is quality living standard?) Exit from the ‘world class’ city league?Social capital: Less convenience Families having more time together A lot of needs are satisfied through social networks rather than markets— ’moral economy’ More spiritual rather than materialistic endeavoursEnvironmental capital: Less pollution Sustainable resources for future generations 39Fresh water, air etc. Wali Memon
  • 40. “Costs” of SD in Karachi: some examples Recycling industries Economic capital Government subsidies? Self-sustaining? Capital costs, operating costs… Providing jobs (low paying though) Pushing ecological modernization: from design to disposal Social capital Nurturing social capital—labour intensive and educational process Community drive & social capital accumulation Environmental capital Minimizing ‘wastes’ (resources), turning ‘wastes’ into useful40 inputs to industries, etc. Wali Memon
  • 41. “Costs” of SD in Karachi: some examples Diversity in human resources, culture, urban environment Economic capital Needs investment in nurturing human capital More resources into designing and providing spaces for all sorts of activities Cannot do things by fiscal calculations alone However, “cultural turn of capitalism”—global tourism, cultural tourism etc. Social capital More vibrant and convivial society Happier individuals recognizing their unique potentials? Environmental capital Better quality of the built environment41 Expression of “tastes” in urban landscape… Wali Memon
  • 42. “Costs” of SD : some examples Sustainable planning process Economic capital Needs money and human resources in organizing events for public participation Time consuming and may delay implementation Social capital Building trust among stakeholders Gelling different groups together and allow mutual education: learning by doing and learning how to reach consensus Environmental capital Allowing “politics and morality” to take over uncertain42 science — the case of Harbour reclamation Wali Memon
  • 43. Sharing of Experiences43 Wali Memon
  • 44. Conclusion Sustainable development requires everyone’s efforts and creativity SD is not just a concept to be learnt. SD is a way of life, a commitment to social justice among fellow human beings and a respect for mother nature. SD perspective carries a long term view and requires us to seek comprehensive assessments of social, economic and environmental costs of our actions, be it government policies, programmes and projects; the private sector’s production activities; or the community’s individual and collective choices in their everyday life.44 Wali Memon