Influence

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Power of Influence

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Influence

  1. 1. Social Psychology 1 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  2. 2. You’ve got an attitude. Follow the Crowd AttributionFirst Impressions Helping Others 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 2
  3. 3. First Impressions 500 400 300 200 1003 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  4. 4. Attribution 500 400 300 200 1004 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  5. 5. You’ve got attitude. 500 400 300 200 1005 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  6. 6. Follow the Crowd 500 400 300 200 1006 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  7. 7. Helping Others 500 400 300 200 1007 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  8. 8. 1. ___ refer(s) to the mentalprocesses people use to makesense out of their socialenvironment. A) Social psychology B) Social cognition C) Social influence D) Social constructs 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 8
  9. 9. 2. Mental processes we use to formjudgments and draw conclusions aboutthe characteristics and motives of otherpeople are called: A) social influence. B) social cognition. C) social psychology. D) person perception. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 9
  10. 10. 3. No one suspected that the man inthe clown suit visiting sick children in thehospital to cheer them up would be JohnGacy. He just wasn’t that “type” ofperson. This illustrates: A) implicit personality theories. B) social cognition. C) trait theory of personality. D) expectation evaluation. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 10
  11. 11. 4. Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She feels uncomfortable when the bus stops and only one person gets on and sits next to her. Her discomfort is, in part, caused by: A) social influence. B) person perception. C) social norms. D) implicit personality theory. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 11
  12. 12. 5. David was directed to an office with a man and a woman inside. He saw the name “Dr. Smith” on the door, and approached the man. He was engaged in the process of: A) implicit personality theory. B) person perception. C) social categorization. D) social norms. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 12
  13. 13. 6. While watching a homeless person begon the street corner, George thinks, “Hemust be lazy. If he would just get a job,he wouldn’t have to beg.” George is mostlikely demonstrating: A) good judgment. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) personal bias. D) stereotyping. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 13
  14. 14. 7. Rape victims are sometimes blamed for wearing clothes that are too revealing and thus “getting what she deserved.” This false conclusion is based on: A) the just-world hypothesis. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) social categorization. D) the social exchange theory. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 14
  15. 15. 8. The tendency to giveourselves credit when wesucceed and to blame ourfailures on externalcircumstances is called: A) actor-observer discrepancy. B) personal perception. C) fundamental attribution error. D) self-serving bias. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 15
  16. 16. 9. When you attribute your ownbehavior to the situation and others’behavior to the fact that “it’s justthe way they are,” you aredemonstrating: A) blaming the victim. B) self-serving bias. C) fundamental attribution error. D) actor-observer discrepancy. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 16
  17. 17. 10. The tendency to blameourselves for failures whileattributing our successes toexternal causes is called a(n): A) self-serving bias. B) self-effacing bias. C) actor-observer discrepancy. D) fundamental attributional error. 17 7/01/2009 Wali Memon
  18. 18. 11. When you behave in a waythat is in conflict with yourattitude, you experience: A) cognitive dissonance. B) thought confusion. C) attitude adjustment. D) behavior reassessment. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 18
  19. 19. 12. Prejudice is defined as:A) taking negative action towardpeople who belong to a differentsocial group.B) speaking badly about people whobelong to a different social group.C) a negative attitude toward peoplewho belong to a specific socialgroup.D) all of the above. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 19
  20. 20. 13. Barb believes that all teenagersare immature, aggressive, selfish,and irresponsible. Her attitudestoward teenagers represent her: A) prejudice. B) out-group classification. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 20
  21. 21. 14. Mr. Jamison believes it is justifiableto send troops to invade anothercountry because his country is morallysuperior to the other. His beliefsdemonstrate: A) ethnocentrism. B) prejudice. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 21
  22. 22. 15. This study demonstrated thatcooperation among groupmembers can lessen prejudice. A) Robbers Cave Experiment B) Jigsaw Classroom C) In-group, Out-group study D) Zimbardo’s Cognitive Dissonance study 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 22
  23. 23. 16. In Solomon Asch’s experimentabout how our perceptions may beinfluenced by others:A) more than a third of the peoplechanged their opinions to agree withothers.B) most people changed their opinionsto agree with others.C) most everyone ignored what otherssaid.D) more than two thirds of the peopledenied what they saw with their owneyes and instead chose to agree withthe group. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 23
  24. 24. 17. For teens, it is especiallyimportant to dress and act liketheir peers in order to be acceptedby the group. This pressure toconform is called: A) informational social influence. B) ethnocentrism. C) out-group homogeneity effect. D) normative social influence. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 24
  25. 25. 18. The results of Milgram’sexperiment found that: A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 25
  26. 26. 19. Further experiments by Milgramhelped to identify factors influencing theoutcome of destructive obedience.These factors include all of the following,except: A) volunteering to participate. B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. C) the repetitive escalation of the task. D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 26
  27. 27. 20. Phillip Zimbardo conducted theStanford Prison Experiment in 1971. Hisresults could have predicted problems ofprisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib, in that:A) people will follow the direct ordersof a superior when in the military.B) implied social norms can be just aspowerful as explicit orders.C) we will easily scapegoat thosedifferent from ourselves.D) people can not resist pressure toperform evil action. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 27
  28. 28. 21. According to studies done on helpingbehavior, if you want to collect for acharity, the person most likely to givewould be: A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he did a good job. B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in her pocket. C) David, who just lost a tennis match. D) Sarah, who has never given before. 7/01/2009 28 Wali Memon
  29. 29. 22. Kitty Genovese was killed whileothers watched and listened. Theyknew others were watching, too.Their behavior is explained by the: A) apathy. B) prosocial behavior. C) altruism. D) bystander effect. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 29
  30. 30. 23. Regarding size of the city/townand its relationship to helpingbehavior towards a stranger: A) people are less likely to help the larger the city is. B) people are more likely to help the smaller the town is. C) people are less likely to help in a large city or very small town. D) people are more likely to help in a large city. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 30
  31. 31. 24. According to the bystandereffect, if you needed help youwould be more likely to get it if: A) many people were present. B) few people were present. C) someone else was also helping. D) no one knew you. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 31
  32. 32. 25. Prosocial behavior with noexpectation of personal reward orbenefit is called: A) bystander intervention. B) altruism. C) diffusion of responsibility. D) cost-benefit analysis. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 32
  33. 33. 33 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  34. 34. 34 Wali Memon 7/01/2009
  35. 35. 1. ___ refer(s) to the mentalprocesses people use to makesense out of their socialenvironment. A) Social psychology B) Social cognition C) Social influence D) Social constructs 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 35
  36. 36. 2. Mental processes we use to formjudgments and draw conclusions aboutthe characteristics and motives of otherpeople are called: A) social influence. B) social cognition. C) social psychology. D) person perception. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 36
  37. 37. 3. No one suspected that the man inthe clown suit visiting sick children in thehospital to cheer them up would be JohnGacy. He just wasn’t that “type” ofperson. This illustrates: A) implicit personality theories. B) social cognition. C) trait theory of personality. D) expectation evaluation. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 37
  38. 38. 4. Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She feels uncomfortable when the bus stops and only one person gets on and sits next to her. Her discomfort is, in part, caused by: A) social influence. B) person perception. C) social norms. D) implicit personality theory. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 38
  39. 39. 5. David was directed to an office with a man and a woman inside. He saw the name “Dr. Smith” on the door, and approached the man. He was engaged in the process of: A) implicit personality theory. B) person perception. C) social categorization. D) social norms. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 39
  40. 40. 6. While watching a homelessperson beg on the street corner,George thinks, “He must be lazy. Ifhe would just get a job, he wouldn’thave to beg.” George is most likelydemonstrating: A) good judgment. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) personal bias. D) stereotyping. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 40
  41. 41. 7. Rape victims are sometimes blamed for wearing clothes that are too revealing and thus “getting what she deserved.” This false conclusion is based on: A) the just-world hypothesis. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) social categorization. D) the social exchange theory. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 41
  42. 42. 8. Tending to give ourselvescredit when we succeed andto blame our failures onexternal circumstances iscalled: A) actor-observer discrepancy. B) personal perception. C) fundamental attribution error. D) self-serving bias. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 42
  43. 43. 9. When you attribute your ownbehavior to the situation andothers’ behavior to the fact that“it’s just the way they are,” youare demonstrating: A) blaming the victim. B) self-serving bias. C) fundamental attribution error. D) actor-observer discrepancy. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 43
  44. 44. 10. The tendency to blameourselves for failures whileattributing our successes toexternal causes is called a(n): A) self-serving bias. B) self-effacing bias. C) actor-observer discrepancy. D) fundamental attributional error. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 44
  45. 45. 11. When you behave in away that is in conflict withyour attitude, youexperience: A) cognitive dissonance. B) thought confusion. C) attitude adjustment. D) behavior reassessment. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 45
  46. 46. 12. Prejudice is defined as: 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 46
  47. 47. 13. Barb believes that all teenagersare immature, aggressive, selfish,and irresponsible. Her attitudestoward teenagers represent her: A) prejudice. B) out-group classification. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 47
  48. 48. 14. Mr. Jamison believes it isjustifiable to send troops to invadeanother country because hiscountry is morally superior to theother. His beliefs demonstrate: A) ethnocentrism. B) prejudice. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 48
  49. 49. 15. This study demonstrated thatcooperation among groupmembers can lessen prejudice.A) Robbers Cave ExperimentB) Jigsaw ClassroomC) In-group, Out-group studyD) Zimbardo’s Cognitive Dissonancestudy 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 49
  50. 50. 16. In Solomon Asch’s experimentabout how our perceptions may beinfluenced by others:A) more than a third of the peoplechanged their opinions to agree withothers.B) most people changed their opinions toagree with others.C) most everyone ignored what otherssaid.D) more than two thirds of the peopledenied what they saw with their owneyes and instead chose to agree withthe group. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 50
  51. 51. 17. For teens, it is especiallyimportant to dress and act liketheir peers in order to beaccepted by the group. Thispressure to conform is called: A) informational social influence. B) ethnocentrism. C) out-group homogeneity effect. D) normative social influence. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 51
  52. 52. 18. The results of Milgram’sexperiment found that: A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 52
  53. 53. 19. Further experiments by Milgramhelped to identify factors influencing theoutcome of destructive obedience.These factors include all of the following,except: A) volunteering to participate. B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. C) the repetitive escalation of the task. D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 53
  54. 54. 20. Phillip Zimbardo conducted theStanford Prison Experiment in 1971. Hisresults could have predicted problems ofprisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib, in that:A) people will follow the direct ordersof a superior when in the military.B) implied social norms can be just aspowerful as explicit orders.C) we will easily scapegoat thosedifferent from ourselves.D) people can not resist pressure toperform evil action. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 54
  55. 55. 21. According to studies done on helpingbehavior, if you want to collect for acharity, the person most likely to givewould be: A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he did a good job. B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in her pocket. C) David, who just lost a tennis match. D) Sarah, who has never given before. 7/01/2009 55 Wali Memon
  56. 56. 22. Kitty Genovese was killed whileothers watched and listened. Theyknew others were watching, too.Their behavior is explained by: A) apathy. B) prosocial behavior. C) altruism. D) the bystander effect. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 56
  57. 57. 23. Regarding size of the city/townand its relationship to helpingbehavior towards a stranger: A) people are less likely to help the larger the city is. B) people are more likely to help the smaller the town is. C) people are less likely to help in a large city or very small town. D) people are more likely to help in a large city. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 57
  58. 58. 24. According to the bystandereffect, if you needed help youwould be more likely to get it if: A) many people were present. B) few people were present. C) someone else was also helping. D) no one knew you. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 58
  59. 59. 25. Prosocial behavior with noexpectation of personal reward orbenefit is called: A) bystander intervention. B) altruism. C) diffusion of responsibility. D) cost-benefit analysis. 7/01/2009 Wali Memon 59
  60. 60. Answers1. B 9. D 17. D 25. B2. D 10. B 18. C3. A 11. A 19. B4. C 12. C 20. B5. C 13. C 21. A6. B 14. A 22. D7. A 15. B 23. C8. 60 D 16. A 24. B Wali Memon 7/01/2009

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