Social Evolution                      Wali Memon1   Wali Memon
The earliest ancestors of                                       humans (hominids) diverged                                ...
Between 2 and 1.5 million years ago,                 hominids began to migrate from Africa to                 other lands3...
4   Wali Memon           First Europeans: approx. 780,000 years ago
About 100,000 years ago, those early humans went almost completely extinct as aresult of a global ecological catastropheIt...
It was from those few survivors that                            man (homo sapiens) emerged in Africa6           Read this ...
As their numbers grew, homo sapiens began to move across the continentsin search of food, water, land, and security    7  ...
Human history can be described as a process of social evolution Just as biological evolution is development of simpler for...
From band to state9   Wali Memon
Band – a small community bound by blood ties     Not centralized, egalitarian (low inequality), low division of labour    ...
Tribe – a group of bands united for a common purpose     In order to survive, humans tend to form bigger groups.     Also ...
Chiefdom – a transitional form on the way from tribe to state.     A larger society with more developed division of labour...
State – a highly structured organization of power over a moredeveloped, more complex, class-divided society.     The state...
Ancient Egyptian kinglist 14   Wali Memon
God Horus                       – symbol of                       Pharaoh’s   The Pharaoh                       supreme   ...
Eagles16   Wali Memon
God Horus,                  Ancient Egypt17   Wali Memon
18    Wali Memon     Horus, the Sun God he represents, and the two ankhs
19   Wali Memon          Ancient Greece: the Eagle as Zeus’s messenger
20   Wali Memon             The Roman Eagle: Caesar and the Empire
21   Wali Memon                  The Roman Empire of Constantinople
22   Wali Memon                  The Habsburg Empire of Austro-Hungary
23   Wali Memon                  Republic of Austria, 2007
National flag of the Republic of Albania, 200724   Wali Memon
25         Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, 2007     Wali Memon
The                  American                  Eagle26   Wali Memon
The                  Russian                  Eagle27   Wali Memon
28   Wali Memon           First cities: ancient Babylon
From Band to State: Summing Up  -- As societies become more complex, differentiated,  populous, and technologically advanc...
From Antiquity to Modern AgeTimeline        Antiquity: 3000 B.C.E. (Before Common Era*) – 400 C.E.(Common Era**). Classica...
Modernization: 3 basic points        1. M. is the development of industrial, urban, capitalist (with importantexceptions) ...
Rise of productivity of human labourPer capita income in Europe, for 1,000 years before 1700 –Grew at 0.11% a year, doubli...
The Population Explosion*--10,000 years ago – 5-6 million people lived on Planet Earth--1,000 BCE – 150 million (grew by 3...
UrbanizationThe city appears in history 5,000 ago – as a product of theAgricultural Revolution.1500: 75 cities with total ...
Growth ofpopulation,the past 3,500yearsGrowth ofagriculturalproduction,the past3,500 years  35   Wali Memon
The 20th century     Modernization was tested and challenged.                    Achievements:     Humanity has survived  ...
Costs:     The endless war, the threat of total annihilation of mankind;     Massive misuse of science and technology (cre...
Are we entering a new age (post-modern, post-industrial)?Arguments in favour:1.The information technology revolution: prod...
Cooperation and ConflictBoth cooperation and conflict are easily observed in society.But different observers see different...
40   Wali Memon                  Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679
“So that in the nature of man, we find three principal causes ofquarrel. First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly...
Others tend to assume that humans are naturally inclined tolive together in peace and act together for common good.If peop...
Adam Smith(1723-1790) 43   Wali Memon
“Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, isleft perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own w...
NOTE: Both views proceed from the assumption thatcooperation is the essential condition of human life.It is possible to im...
Yet, conflict (competition) is also a natural feature of humanlife. Conflicts arise, for example: between individuals who ...
Competition and cooperation are interlocked in manyways.For instance:Individuals tend to compete with each other –       b...
So, why do people compete?Scarcity of resources (land, water, oil, money, etc.).        Cuts both ways…Distribution of wea...
Should differences always lead to conflict?Obviously not.Each individual is unique – and needs maximum freedom toactualize...
But this self-actualization can only be developed throughsociety – through relationships with other individuals. (JohnDonn...
Conflict is contained, and cooperation is enhanced, in a societywhich:---has achieved a high level of economic development...
Socioeconomic factors of conflictIndividuals belong to many groups: occupational, community, ethnic,religious, etc.They be...
Since mid-19th century, critics of capitalism predicted that acuteclass conflicts generated by capitalist modernization wo...
Society can function and grow despite the existence of classdivisions and conflicts – unless they reach explosive levels: ...
A major cause of the success of the Western model has beenits ability to contain class conflict. How:        Economic grow...
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Social Evolution

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Social evolution is a sub discipline of evolutionary biology that is concerned with social behaviors that have fitness consequences for individuals other than the actor. Social behaviors can be categorized according to the fitness consequences they entail for the actor and recipient.
Mutually beneficial – a behavior that increases the direct fitness of both the actor and the recipient
Selfish – a behavior that increases the direct fitness of the actor, but the recipient suffers a loss
Altruistic – a behavior that increases the direct fitness of the recipient, but the actor suffers a loss
Spiteful – a behavior that decreases the direct fitness of both the actor and the recipient

This classification was proposed by W. D. Hamilton. Citation needed] He proposes that natural selection favors mutually beneficial or selfish behaviors. Hamilton's insight was to show how kin selection could explain altruism and spite.

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Transcript of "Social Evolution"

  1. 1. Social Evolution Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
  2. 2. The earliest ancestors of humans (hominids) diverged from apes about 8 million years ago Between 3 and 2 million years ago, they learned to walk erect.2 Wali Memon
  3. 3. Between 2 and 1.5 million years ago, hominids began to migrate from Africa to other lands3 Wali Memon
  4. 4. 4 Wali Memon First Europeans: approx. 780,000 years ago
  5. 5. About 100,000 years ago, those early humans went almost completely extinct as aresult of a global ecological catastropheIt is possible that as few as 10,000 survived…5 Wali Memon
  6. 6. It was from those few survivors that man (homo sapiens) emerged in Africa6 Read this interview with Prof. Steven Pinker of MIT on Wali Memon the evolution of the human mind: Evolution: Library: Steven Pinker: Evolution of the Mind
  7. 7. As their numbers grew, homo sapiens began to move across the continentsin search of food, water, land, and security 7 Wali Memon
  8. 8. Human history can be described as a process of social evolution Just as biological evolution is development of simpler forms of life into morecomplex and highly organized forms of life,social evolution (or social development) is a process of growth of complexity and differentiation of social organization (cooperationbetween human beings,coordination of human activities) In other words,It is a process of creation and development of new, more complex, and moreeffective forms of social organization.It takes place under the influence of ecological, demographic, technological andeconomic factors.*See Stephen Sanderson, Social Transformations. Blackwell, 1995, Ch. 1 - andJared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Norton, 1997, 1999For an interesting discussion of theories of social evolution, go to:8ScienceWali Memon and Society: OVERVIEW PAGE
  9. 9. From band to state9 Wali Memon
  10. 10. Band – a small community bound by blood ties Not centralized, egalitarian (low inequality), low division of labour (mostly gender-based), Decisions are made collectively. Unity is based on customs and traditions Hunter and gatherer societies10 Wali Memon
  11. 11. Tribe – a group of bands united for a common purpose In order to survive, humans tend to form bigger groups. Also egalitarian: power is dispersed throughout the tribe. Leaders are first among equals, they don’t have the means to compel tribesmen to obey. Custom, tradition, ritual, religious belief are the main tools to maintain social order.Agricultural societies (farming, animal husbandry)11 Wali Memon
  12. 12. Chiefdom – a transitional form on the way from tribe to state. A larger society with more developed division of labour, higher productivity, which means that there is surplus product to use beyond mere subsistence. Private property appears, inequality grows, people are more and more divided by class. Power emerges as something separate from society. Authority is formalized (institutionalized) in the office of the chief, which can be filled by different people. The chief has means of compelling members of society (military force)Develops in agricultural societies, which increasingly rely onslave labourAppears about 10,000 years ago12 Wali Memon
  13. 13. State – a highly structured organization of power over a moredeveloped, more complex, class-divided society. The state is capable of performing massive tasks: suppressing social revolts, waging wars, organizing construction of fortresses, dams and canals, minting money. It has the power to tax and to punish those who break the law The city is the seat of state powerFirst states appear in Egypt, Babylon, Assyria and Persia (Iran),beginning around 5,000 years ago.The beginning of recorded history13 Wali Memon
  14. 14. Ancient Egyptian kinglist 14 Wali Memon
  15. 15. God Horus – symbol of Pharaoh’s The Pharaoh supreme power The Pharaoh’sTax collector enemy Enemy soldiers killed 15 Wali Memon
  16. 16. Eagles16 Wali Memon
  17. 17. God Horus, Ancient Egypt17 Wali Memon
  18. 18. 18 Wali Memon Horus, the Sun God he represents, and the two ankhs
  19. 19. 19 Wali Memon Ancient Greece: the Eagle as Zeus’s messenger
  20. 20. 20 Wali Memon The Roman Eagle: Caesar and the Empire
  21. 21. 21 Wali Memon The Roman Empire of Constantinople
  22. 22. 22 Wali Memon The Habsburg Empire of Austro-Hungary
  23. 23. 23 Wali Memon Republic of Austria, 2007
  24. 24. National flag of the Republic of Albania, 200724 Wali Memon
  25. 25. 25 Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, 2007 Wali Memon
  26. 26. The American Eagle26 Wali Memon
  27. 27. The Russian Eagle27 Wali Memon
  28. 28. 28 Wali Memon First cities: ancient Babylon
  29. 29. From Band to State: Summing Up -- As societies become more complex, differentiated, populous, and technologically advanced, their political organizations become more centralized and separate from society -- As societies develop from band to state, they become less egalitarian and less democratic -- As societies become more complex, the role of community decreases and the role of the state grows. 29 Wali Memon
  30. 30. From Antiquity to Modern AgeTimeline Antiquity: 3000 B.C.E. (Before Common Era*) – 400 C.E.(Common Era**). Classical (European) Antiquity: 400 B.C.E.- 400 C.E.(from the rise of Ancient Greece to the fall of Rome) Middle Ages: 400 – 1400 C.E. (from the fall of Rome to thebeginning of Renaissance) Modern Age: 1400 – now (or, are we in a post-modern agealready?)(Note: all dates are approximate, based on certain pivotal events, while inreal life, the transitions from one age to another were usually slow andgradual) *Old term: B.C. (before Christ) **Old term: A.D. (Anno Domini) 30 Wali Memon
  31. 31. Modernization: 3 basic points 1. M. is the development of industrial, urban, capitalist (with importantexceptions) societies, organized in nation-states, guided by belief in reason,science, and progress, and undergoing constant change 2. M. has led to Western dominance over the rest of the world throughglobal development of capitalism. The rest of the world has been forced tomodernize, too. In the 20th century, important countries tried alternative paths ofmodernization (socialist experiments in Russia, China, India, Cuba, severalother less developed countries) 3. The West and the Rest: can the Western model be implemented inthe rest of the world? If not, what will happen to the West and the Rest? 31 Wali Memon
  32. 32. Rise of productivity of human labourPer capita income in Europe, for 1,000 years before 1700 –Grew at 0.11% a year, doubling every 630 years.*1820-1990 (in 170 years):Grew by 10 times in Britain, by 15 times in Germany, by 18 times in USA,and by 25 times in Japan.***William J.Baumol, Sue Ann Batey Blackman, and Edward N.Wolff, Productivity andAmerican Leadership: The Long View (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989), p.12**Angus Maddison, Dynamic Forces in Capitalist Development(New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp.6-7 32 Wali Memon
  33. 33. The Population Explosion*--10,000 years ago – 5-6 million people lived on Planet Earth--1,000 BCE – 150 million (grew by 30 times in 9,000 years, result of theagricultural revolution)--1700 CE – 500 million (grew by 3.3 times in 2,700 years--Today – 6,723 billion (grew by 13.5 times in 300 years, result of theindustrial revolution) Follow this link to the current count:http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html*See Krishan Kumar, The Rise of Modern Society, Basil Blackwell, 1988,p.1333 Wali Memon
  34. 34. UrbanizationThe city appears in history 5,000 ago – as a product of theAgricultural Revolution.1500: 75 cities with total population of 7.5 million (est.)1800: 3% of the world’s population lived in cities2000: 47% of the world lived in cities (411 cities with population of 1million or more, 41 megacities with population of 5 million or more)2030 (forecast): 60% will live in cities34 Wali Memon
  35. 35. Growth ofpopulation,the past 3,500yearsGrowth ofagriculturalproduction,the past3,500 years 35 Wali Memon
  36. 36. The 20th century Modernization was tested and challenged. Achievements: Humanity has survived It has grown in numbers, as never before It has accumulated vast knowledge Its labour has become vastly more productive36 Wali Memon
  37. 37. Costs: The endless war, the threat of total annihilation of mankind; Massive misuse of science and technology (creation of weapons of mass destruction, above all); The ecological crisis; Growth of inequality and tensions within and between societies (rich vs. poor, North vs. South); Etc.Result: basic ideas of modernity are no longer taken for granted37 Wali Memon
  38. 38. Are we entering a new age (post-modern, post-industrial)?Arguments in favour:1.The information technology revolution: production and processing of information becomes the most important element of the production process. Continuous innovation. Decoding and reprogramming of living matter2 The rise of the network society: networks of capital, labour, information, and markets linked up globally through technology. Society becomes ever more complex,more fluid, more difficult to manage.3. The economic crisis of both socialism and capitalism4. The nation-state is retreating before global forces5. The rise of new social movements (feminism, environmentalism, human rights, antiglobalism, pacifism, etc.)See, for example, Manuel Castells. End of Millennium. Blackwell Publishers, 1998, 38 Wali Memon pp.335-360
  39. 39. Cooperation and ConflictBoth cooperation and conflict are easily observed in society.But different observers see different things Some people emphasize that the natural condition ofhumans is constant struggle with each other. If people are free to do what they want, they will likelyfight each other. Those who hold this view are more skeptical of freedomand stress the need for order which needs to be imposed. For instance, great English political thinker ThomasHobbes wrote in 1660 in his book Leviathan: 39 Wali Memon
  40. 40. 40 Wali Memon Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679
  41. 41. “So that in the nature of man, we find three principal causes ofquarrel. First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory.The first, maketh men invade for gain; the second, for safety;and the third, for reputation.The first use violence, to make themselves masters of othermens persons, wives, children, and cattle; the second, todefend them; the third, for trifles, as a word, a smile, adifferent opinion, and any other sign of undervalue, eitherdirect in their persons, or by reflection in their kindred, theirfriends, their nation, their profession, or their name.Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without acommon power to keep them all in awe, they are in thatcondition which is called war; and such a war as is of everyman, against every man.Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, p.62141 Wali Memon
  42. 42. Others tend to assume that humans are naturally inclined tolive together in peace and act together for common good.If people are free, they will likely cooperate with each other.From this view of human nature, it follows that society shouldbe organized in such a way as to allow maximum individualfreedom.The writings of classic liberal thinkers such as John Locke,Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill reflect this approach42 Wali Memon
  43. 43. Adam Smith(1723-1790) 43 Wali Memon
  44. 44. “Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, isleft perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, andto bring both his industry and capital into competition withthose of any other man, or order of men. The sovereign iscompletely discharged from a duty, in the attempting toperform which he must always be exposed to innumerabledelusions, and for the proper performance of which no humanwisdom or knowledge could ever be sufficient; the duty ofsuperintending the industry of private people, and of directingit towards the employments most suitable to the interest ofthe society.” Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, p.65144 Wali Memon
  45. 45. NOTE: Both views proceed from the assumption thatcooperation is the essential condition of human life.It is possible to imagine a human community without conflict.It is by definition impossible to imagine it without cooperation.The essence of social evolution, progress is development ofmore effective forms of social cooperation. 45 Wali Memon
  46. 46. Yet, conflict (competition) is also a natural feature of humanlife. Conflicts arise, for example: between individuals who compete for scarce resources between classes, social groups over distribution of wealthand power between businesses over market control between political parties over who will rule between citizens and the state over the use of state authority between nation-states over territory, resources, markets,security46 Wali Memon
  47. 47. Competition and cooperation are interlocked in manyways.For instance:Individuals tend to compete with each other – but they also form groups (associations) in which they cooperate tomake themselves stronger through their groupsSo, groups compete with each other – but they are compelled to cooperate to allow society to exist, andbecause together they can better achieve their common national goalsSo, nations compete with each other – but they cannot allow their competition to endanger the existence ofthe human species, so they must learn to cooperate internationally – or perish 47 Wali Memon
  48. 48. So, why do people compete?Scarcity of resources (land, water, oil, money, etc.). Cuts both ways…Distribution of wealth and power, access to them Who gets what, when and how…*Strongly held conflicting beliefs, ideas I am right, you are wrong… I am good, you are evil*Harold Lasswell’s famous definition of politics 48 Wali Memon
  49. 49. Should differences always lead to conflict?Obviously not.Each individual is unique – and needs maximum freedom toactualize (realize) her or his potential.In this sense, we are all individualists 49 Wali Memon
  50. 50. But this self-actualization can only be developed throughsociety – through relationships with other individuals. (JohnDonne: “No man is an island”).In this sense, we are all collectivists.We depend on others to survive and grow.We are interdependent – and more so each passing day – and,paradoxically, it is this growing interdependence that increasesthe individual power of each one of us.See The Social Animal, by David Brooks, in the New YorkTimes:http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/12/opinion/12brooks.html 50 Wali Memon
  51. 51. Conflict is contained, and cooperation is enhanced, in a societywhich:---has achieved a high level of economic development,---where inequality is not extreme, and rules of competition arefair, and upward social mobility is open to many,---and where people are tolerant of differences between them. 51 Wali Memon
  52. 52. Socioeconomic factors of conflictIndividuals belong to many groups: occupational, community, ethnic,religious, etc.They belong to different classes. Classes are defined by: levels of income ownership of the means of production role in the management of the economy and the state class consciousnessClasses depend on each other. Together, they form the fabric of societyAnd yet, class relations are often characterized by tension and conflictAt the core of class divisions is the issue of private propertyClass conflict can polarize and even destroy society 52 Wali Memon
  53. 53. Since mid-19th century, critics of capitalism predicted that acuteclass conflicts generated by capitalist modernization woulddestroy capitalism. But the Western model has turned out to bemore adaptive than many thought possible.Where did the critics go wrong? One of the possible answers:They overestimated the role of class conflict -and underestimated the role of the state. 53 Wali Memon
  54. 54. Society can function and grow despite the existence of classdivisions and conflicts – unless they reach explosive levels: Classes are not the only forms of social division - andclass conflict can be superceded by other social conflicts(gender, racial/ethnic, regional, state-society conflicts, etc.).This prevents total class polarization. Class interests rarely find direct and immediateexpression in politics – they are molded by many influencesand structures. One’s individual interests and class interests can be atodds. Classes don’t always fight – despite their differences,they are integrated in a social whole. Appeals to national unitycan be more powerful than calls for class struggle. 54 Wali Memon
  55. 55. A major cause of the success of the Western model has beenits ability to contain class conflict. How: Economic growth through global expansion ofcapitalism Political democracy which helps resolve class conflictsby allowing workers to organize and struggle for their interestsand influence governmental policies Social mobility – chances to move upwards on thesocial ladder Changes in the class structure as a result ofindustrialization – classes become more fragmented, diffused Promotion of ideas, beliefs and habits which discouragepeople from thinking in terms of class (us vs. them) 55 Wali Memon

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