Self Presentation and Impression Management


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Self Presentation and Impression Management

  1. 1. Self-Presentation andImpression Management1 Wali Memon Wali Memon
  2. 2. Chapter Outline Self-Presentation in Everyday Life Tactical Impression Management The Downside of Self-Presentation Detecting Deceptive Impression Management Ineffective Self-Presentation and Spoiled Identities2 Wali Memon
  3. 3. Self-presentation The processes individuals use to control the impressions of others social interaction.3 Wali Memon
  4. 4. Types of Self-presentation Authentic - Goal is to create an image consistent with the way we view ourselves. Ideal - Goal is to establish an image consistent with what we wish we were. Tactical self-presentation - Goal is to establish a public image consistent with what others want or expect us to be.4 Wali Memon
  5. 5. Tactical Impression Management In tactical self-presentation, a person cares only about the impact of the image they present to others, not about whether that image is consistent with their real or ideal self. People who engage in tactical self-presentation usually have an ulterior motive. They often want others to view them positively to get rewards.5 Wali Memon
  6. 6. Self-Presentation in Everyday Life Successful self-presentation involves: establishing a workable definition of the situation. disclosing information about the self that is consistent with the claimed identity.6 Wali Memon
  7. 7. Definition of the Situation For social interaction to proceed smoothly, people must achieve a shared definition of the situation. They need to agree on who they are, what their goals are, what actions are proper, and what their behaviors mean.7 Wali Memon
  8. 8. Establishing a Definition of the Situation People must agree on the answers to several questions: 1. What type of social occasion is at hand? – What is the frame of the interaction? 2. What identities do the participants claim and what identities will they grant one another?8 Wali Memon
  9. 9. Frames A frame is a set of widely understood rules or conventions pertaining to a transient but repetitive social situation that indicates which roles should be enacted and which behaviors are proper.9 Wali Memon
  10. 10. Situated Identity Each person participating in an interaction has a situated identity - a conception of who he or she is in relation to the other people involved in the situation.10 Wali Memon
  11. 11. Self-disclosure The process of revealing personal aspects of one’s feelings and behavior to others. Self-disclosure is usually two-sided and gradual, and it follows a norm of reciprocity.11 Wali Memon
  12. 12. Managing Appearances People often try to plan and control their appearance. The term, appearance, refers to everything about a person that others can observe.12 Wali Memon
  13. 13. Managing Appearances Personal appearance includes: Clothes Grooming Habits (such as smoking or chewing gum) Personal possessions Verbal communication Nonverbal communication13 Wali Memon
  14. 14. Regions Goffman draws a parallel between a theater stages and the regions we use to manage appearances. Front regions are settings in which people carryout interaction performances and exert efforts to maintain appearances. Back regions are inaccessible to outsiders in which people violate the appearances they present in front regions.14 Wali Memon
  15. 15. Ingratiation Attempts to increase a target person’s liking for us. Whereas much of the time we are authentic and sincere in our relations with others, occasionally we may resort to ingratiation.15 Wali Memon
  16. 16. Opinion Conformity Faced with a target person who has discretionary power, an ingratiatory may try to curry favor by expressing insincere agreement on important issues. This tactic is often successful because people tend to like others who hold opinions similar to their own.16 Wali Memon
  17. 17. Other Enhancement and Supplication Using flattery on the target person. To be effective, flattery cannot be careless or indiscriminate. Supplication is convincing a target person that you are needy and deserving.17 Wali Memon
  18. 18. Selective Self-Presentation Two distinct forms of selective self-presentation self- enhancement - A person advertises his or her strengths, virtues, and admirable qualities. self-deprecation - A person makes only humble or modest claims.18 Wali Memon
  19. 19. Aligning Actions Attempts to define their apparently questionable conduct as in line with cultural norms. Aligning actions repair cherished social identities, restore meaning to the situation, and re-establish smooth interaction. Two important types of aligning actions are disclaimers and accounts.19 Wali Memon
  20. 20. Disclaimers An assertion intended to ward off negative implications of impending actions by defining these actions as irrelevant to one’s established identity.20 Wali Memon
  21. 21. Accounts The explanations people offer to mitigate responsibility after they have performed acts that threaten their social identities.21 Wali Memon
  22. 22. Altercasting The use of tactics to impose roles and identities on others. Through altercasting, we place others in situated identities and roles that are to our advantage.22 Wali Memon
  23. 23. The Downside of Self-Presentation 1. Self- presentation may lead to risky behavior. 2. The consequences of tactical self-presentation in romantic relationships can include reduced commitment to the relationship.23 Wali Memon
  24. 24. Detecting Deceptive Impression Management To detect deceitful impression management: 1. Assess possible ulterior motives. 2. Scrutinize nonverbal behavior.24 Wali Memon
  25. 25. Consequences of Ineffective Self- presentation 1. People are embarrassed when their identity is discredited. 2. Repeated failures in self-presentation lead others to modify the offender’s identity through deliberate actions. 3. Physical, moral, and social handicaps stigmatize individuals and permanently spoil their identities.25 Wali Memon
  26. 26. Embarrassment The feeling we experience when the public identity we claim in an encounter is discredited.26 Wali Memon
  27. 27. Cooling-out Gently persuading a person whose performance is unsuitable to accept a less desirable, though still reasonable, alternative identity.27 Wali Memon
  28. 28. Identity Degradation The process of destroying the offender’s identity and transforming him or her into a lower social type.28 Wali Memon
  29. 29. Cooling-off and Degradation Two social conditions strongly influence the choice between cooling-out and degradation: 1. The offender’s prior relationships with others. 2. The availability of alternative identities.29 Wali Memon
  30. 30. Stigma A characteristic widely viewed as an insurmountable handicap that prevents competent or morally trustworthy behavior.30 Wali Memon
  31. 31. Perceptions of Partners by Stigmatized and Nonstigmatized Individuals31 Wali Memon