Roofing Technologies

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Roofing Technologies

  1. 1. ROOFING TECHNOLOGY1 nomeM ilaW
  2. 2. ROOFING TYPES: THE TWO PRIMARY TYPES OF ROOFING WE MUST CONSIDER ARE FLAT AND PITCHED: Flat roofs are those slope is less than 1 in 4 and use waterproof membranes (also called Low Slope) Pitched roofs have slopes of 1 in 4 or greater and generally use shingles2 nomeM ilaW
  3. 3. Pitched Roof Materials: SHINGLES: asphalt, sawn wood, shakes, slate, clay tiles or concrete tiles THATCH: bundles of leaves, reeds or grasses ARCHITECTURAL SHEET METAL: lead, copper and terne (stainless steel or sheet steel) with flat or standing seams3 nomeM ilaW
  4. 4. 4 nomeM ilaW Pitched Roof: Shingle Detail
  5. 5. 5 nomeM ilaW Pitched Roof: Shingle Ridge Detail
  6. 6. 6 nomeM ilaW Pitched Roof: Shingle Valley Detail
  7. 7. 7 nomeM ilaW Pitched Roof: Clay Tiles
  8. 8. 8 nomeM ilaW Metal Roof: Flat Seam
  9. 9. 9 nomeM ilaW Metal Roof: Flat Seam
  10. 10. 10 nomeM ilaW Metal Roofing
  11. 11. 11 nomeM ilaW Metal Roof: Standing Seam
  12. 12. 12 nomeM ilaW Metal Roof: Standing Seam
  13. 13. 13 nomeM ilaW Metal Roof: Blocked Seam
  14. 14. 14 nomeM ilaW Metal Roof: Block Seam
  15. 15. Flat or Low Slope Roofs: PRIMARY COMPONENTS: structural roof deck thermal insulation vapour retarder (and air barrier) waterproof membrane15 nomeM ilaW
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  17. 17. Structural Roof Deck: must be designed to minimize deflection to reduce ponding and minimize drainage either slope roof deck or taper insulation to drain roof usual materials are: plywood wood decking cast or hollow core concrete steel decking17 nomeM ilaW
  18. 18. nomeM ilaW 18
  19. 19. Thermal Insulation: Can be installed in THREE positions: BELOW the deck BETWEEN the deck and the membrane ABOVE the membrane19 nomeM ilaW
  20. 20. A vented air space is mandatory when using batt insulation in a flatroof!! If you use rigid polystyrene insulation (the blue kind), no airspace is necessary as it is waterproof.20 nomeM ilaW Flat Roof: Insulation and Membrane Position
  21. 21. Insulation BETWEEN the Deck and the Membrane: Traditional location for insulation: use low density rigid panels to support the loads on the roof membrane without allowing puncture of membrane any water vapour trapped in insulation will cause deck to rot so use topside vents to relieve pressure21 nomeM ilaW
  22. 22. Insulation ABOVE the Membrane: New concept offering major advantages: membrane protected from extremes of heat and cold, is on the warm side of the insulation membrane protected from UV radiation membrane protected from puncture insulation must be extruded polystryrene foam board which is water resistant and covered with a filter layer to prevent migration of22 ballast nomeM ilaW
  23. 23. Vapour Retarders for Low Slope Roofs: membrane in a protected membrane roof is also the vapour/air barrier other types of low slope roofs use two layers of asphalt saturated roofing felt bonded together and to the roof with hot asphalt polyethylene film not used as it melts situated on the warm side of the insulation23 nomeM ilaW
  24. 24. 24 nomeM ilaW Flat Roof: BUR (traditional) vs. Inverted (newer methodology)
  25. 25. ROOFING MEMBRANES: THREE PRIMARY TYPES: conventional (bituminous built up roofing or BUR) prefabricated sheets cast in situ25 nomeM ilaW
  26. 26. The Built Up Roof (BUR): constructed of 3 to 5 layers of bitumen impregnated felts, layered on the roof deck with heated asphalt may be located either over or under the rigid insulation top layer of gravel ballast to protect asphaltic materials or insulation from UV rays, and to weight roofing materials against wind uplift forces26 nomeM ilaW
  27. 27. 27 nomeM ilaW BUR on concrete roof deck
  28. 28. 28 nomeM ilaW BUR on steel decking
  29. 29. Prefabricated Sheets: THERMOPLASTIC SHEETS: PVC and blends EP (ethylene interpolymer) CPA (copolymer alloys) ELASTOMERIC (SYNTHETIC) RUBBER SHEETS: vulcanized, EPDM or neoprene non vulcanized MODIFIED bituminous SHEETS: polymer modifiers29 nomeM ilaW
  30. 30. EPDM: the most widely used material for single ply roofs low in cost synthetic rubber made in large sheets joined with adhesive, laid loose, adhered, mechanically fastened or used in a protected membrane roof30 nomeM ilaW
  31. 31. 31 nomeM ilaW Loose laid, ballasted, membrane
  32. 32. 32 nomeM ilaW Mechanically fastened membrane: bar type
  33. 33. 33 nomeM ilaW Mechanically fastened with disc fasteners
  34. 34. 34 nomeM ilaW Disc fastener detail
  35. 35. 35 nomeM ilaW Flat Roof: fibre matt used to keep ballast away from insulation
  36. 36. Polymer Modified Bitumens: sheets of bituminous material to which polymeric compounds have been added to increase cohesion, toughness and resistance to flow reinforced with fibrous mats some self adhere, or loose laid or laid in hot asphalt seams sealed by torching or hot asphaltic adhesive36 nomeM ilaW
  37. 37. PVC: commonly known as vinyl seams are sealed either by solvent welding or hot air welding may be laid loose, mechanically attached, adhered or used as a protected membrane37 nomeM ilaW
  38. 38. Neoprene: high performance synthetic rubber compound applied in sheets and joined with an adhesive vulnerable to UV rays so coated with a protective layer may be adhered, mechanically fastened or laid loose and ballasted can be used in a protected membrane roof38 nomeM ilaW
  39. 39. Cast in Situ Membranes: HOT APPLIED RUBBERIZED ASPHALT COLD APPLIED LIQUID COMPOUNDS various polymeric and bituminous materials POLYURETHANE FOAM ROOF WITH PROTECTIVE COATING39 nomeM ilaW
  40. 40. PREFABRICATED SHEETS:Installation and Attachment require less on site labour less prone to cracking affixed to roof by: adhesives the weight of ballast fasteners concealed in seams between the sheets with ingenious mechanical fasteners that do not penetrate the membrane (if it is flexible enough...)40 nomeM ilaW
  41. 41. Fluid Applied Membranes: used primarily for domes, vaults and complex shapes applied with a roller or spray gun in several coats and cure to form a rubbery membrane used as a spray on waterproofing layer over sprayed on polyurethane foam insulation41 nomeM ilaW
  42. 42. REQUIREMENTS OF ROOFING MEMBRANES: tensile strength static puncture elongation impact resistance crack bridging low temp. flexibility fatigue resistance weatherability thermal shock heat aging tear resistance dimensional stability abrasion resistance granule embedment lap joint integrity42 nomeM ilaW
  43. 43. Requirements continued: membrane attachment These requirements apply to flashing attachment conditions during manufacture, during materials compatibility installation and in the field in wind uplift resistance service.43 nomeM ilaW
  44. 44. 44 nomeM ilaW Flat Roof: expansion joint detail
  45. 45. 45 nomeM ilaW Flat Roof: area divider
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  48. 48. nomeM ilaW 48
  49. 49. A significant environmental improvement to roofing applications has been the “invention” or “adoption” of green roof practices. Green roofs are installed over a modified version of more conventional flat roofs, and are normally comprised of a “system” that is sold by several green roof manufacturers (like Soprema) These roofs have been used widely in Europe for many years Two main types: intensive (thicker growth medium required for larger plants) extensive (thinner, lighter growth medium required for smaller plants) - this one is more popular49 nomeM ilaW
  50. 50. nomeM ilaW 50
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  52. 52. The Green Roof System:52 nomeM ilaW
  53. 53. Sopravert is Sarnafil’s European green roof system. It maintains that the green roof also helps to buffer from the effects of sound as well as weather, and controls/delays runoff from heavy rain.53 nomeM ilaW
  54. 54. Mountain Equipment Coop, Toronto: This environmentally conscious retailer has chosen to use green building practices on their buildings.54 nomeM ilaW
  55. 55. Vancouver Public Library: The green roof on VPL is not accessible to the public (has no guard rails at the edge) and is planted with grasses. The idea being to reduce urban heat island while providing a nice view for taller buildings adjacent55 nomeM ilaW
  56. 56. YMCA Environmental Learning Centre: This building illustrates the ability to install a green roof in a sloped situation56 nomeM ilaW
  57. 57. Fairmont Hotel, Vancouver:57 nomeM ilaW
  58. 58. Green Roof Benefits: Planting reduces urban heat island effects planting can be used to absorb rain water and decrease water that must be processed by the urban storm sewer system visually pleasing additional insulation58 nomeM ilaW
  59. 59. Green Roof Drawbacks: Why not do a green roof? Additional first expense additional structure required to support roof plants must be hardy and not need watering (over the long term) watering essential during the first 2 or so years until roots become established59 nomeM ilaW
  60. 60. Roof and membrane failures are the most often litigated parts of a building good detailing is paramount never use materials or systems that have not been “approved” or tested by a reputable agency60 nomeM ilaW

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