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Renewable Energy

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  • 1. Renewable Energy Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
  • 2. Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S.Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one sourceResource recoverable recoverable and hoped forCoal 125 1300Petroleum 5 50?Natural gas 5 50?Oil shale 0 2500Conventional reactors 3 15Breeder reactors 115 750Fusion 106 to 109Geothermal surface 0.2 60 2 Wali Memon deep rock 0 600
  • 3. Estimates of renewable energyNumbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied foran indefinite period.Tidal energy 0.1Organic Waste 0.1Photosynthesis 0.23Hydropower 0.14Wind Power 5Solar radiation 740 3 Wali Memon
  • 4. GeothermalHeat near surface ofthe earth = geysers,volcanoes, hotsprings 4 Wali Memon
  • 5. Use heat to make steam to turnturbine for electrical generationNote: deep hot waters arecorrosive to best to inject cleanwater in a closed system and bringit back to the surface as steam. 5 Wali Memon
  • 6. In U.S., much done onpublic land = cheapVery little potential in eastand mid west 6 Wali Memon
  • 7. World wide distribution of Japan, Iceland,New Zealandvolcanos, hot springs, etc. 7 Wali Memon big users of geothermal.
  • 8. 8 Wali Memon
  • 9. Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hoteverywhere if you go down far enough.9 Wali Memon
  • 10. Bright idea!? – drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor ofheat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move – then pump 10down water to make steam. Wali Memon
  • 11. 11 Wali Memon
  • 12. Hydropower = damsNot much used in world,why??12 Wali Memon
  • 13. Norway, Zambia, Ghana big13 Wali Memon users
  • 14. 14 Wali Memon
  • 15. Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska, In World = Canada, Russia15 Wali Memon
  • 16. Problems with hydroelectric Location = unused rivers are in extreme north or low population areas Competition with recreational uses (U.S.) and environmental concerns Hard to build dams in populated river valleys Siltation of dams – limited life.16 Wali Memon
  • 17. Tidal Power1. In areas of large tides2. Anywhere – build offshore dam 17 Wali Memon
  • 18. Highest tides in the world = Bay of Fundy 16 meters = 48+ feet!18 Wali Memon
  • 19. Tidal power anywhere1. No dam – but a turbine.Problems:1. Corrosion2. Navigation3. Appearance4. Amount of energy available is low5. Best tides are near poles – away from people. 19 Wali Memon
  • 20. Wind Power =wijnd farmsBanning Pass 20 Wali Memon
  • 21. Best wind location = Aleutian Islands,why no wind development there?21 Wali Memon
  • 22. Best U.S. localitiesMidwest, mountainsAnd coastal areas. 22 Wali Memon
  • 23. 23 Wali Memon
  • 24. Netherlands =coastaldevelopment 24 Wali Memon
  • 25. England = off shore25 Wali Memon
  • 26. 26 Wali Memon
  • 27. Wind energy problems Location – near population center Bird migration – Visual Must be coupled with other sources of electricity. (intermittent supply)27 Wali Memon
  • 28. Solar farm = bigsolar plants28 Wali Memon
  • 29. 29 Wali Memon
  • 30. 30 Wali Memon
  • 31. At focal point = heat liquid – steam to turn turbine31 Wali Memon
  • 32. 32 Wali Memon
  • 33. 33 Wali Memon
  • 34. ‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths Hard = Soft = 1. Big plants 1. Decentralized 2. Centralized production 2. units per household 34 Wali Memon
  • 35. Energy efficient house; windpower on roof. Solar panelsfor heat and electricity. 35 Wali Memon
  • 36. Solar electricity generation36 Wali Memon
  • 37. Solar water heating solar air heating37 Wali Memon
  • 38. Solar house problems The Los Angeles air = smog Retrofitting- very expensive Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc.38 Wali Memon
  • 39. Solar house economics Add $16,000 to price of house Pay back - $1500 per year in energy costs 15 years to break evenFederal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in1986City of Claremont – solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water – solarExceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why nottrust solar? 39 Wali Memon
  • 40. 40 Wali Memon
  • 41. Electrical generationSwitch from petroleum to coaland natural gasWhy has hydroelectricdeclined?When did nuclear go up? 41 Wali Memon
  • 42. Note: drop in fusion, fission – why? drop in renewables, increase in fossil fuels.42 Wali Memon