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Project Management - Beyond Basics


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Project Management - Beyond Basics

Project Management - Beyond Basics

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  • 1. Advanced Project Management Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
  • 2. Prepare to fail What % of projects fail? 80% don’t come in on budget, on time or deliver the planned benefits But they are vital to change and development Key skills of project management Focus on your projects Three objectives: understand how projects really work develop key planning & management skills improve the success of your projects2 Wali Memon
  • 3. Beware “It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of success, nor even more dangerous to handle, than to initiate a new order of things” Machiavelli, 15323 Wali Memon
  • 4. What’s so special about projects?4 Wali Memon
  • 5. Heroicfailures
  • 6. The business project “A collection of linked activities Carried out in an organised manner With a clearly defined start point and finish point, To achieve some specific results That satisfy the needs of the organisation As derived from the organisation’s business plans”6 Source: Trevor L Young, Handbook of Project Management, 2003 Wali Memon
  • 7. How important are projects to the organisation? Vision & Mission Strategic Objectives Operational plansIdeas and Opportunities Current Operations Step change Incremental growth growth Review & prioritise Active Portfolio of programmes Business Benefits
  • 8. Core project management principles1. Single leader experienced and willing to take responsibility2. Informed and supportive sponsorship delegating authority to the project manager3. Dedicated team of qualified people to do the work4. Goal clearly defined along with priorities of stakeholders5. Integrated plan that outlines actions required6. Schedule establishing the time goals7. Budget of costs and resources8. Process to accommodate changes8 Wali Memon
  • 9. What makes for good project management? Clear vision of the goal Focus on SMART objectives Recruitment of an effective team Careful planning of tasks and activities Attention to detail Contingencies and risks allowed for Motivation and determination to succeed Management of stakeholders and sensitivities Good communications and clarity of responsibilities Disciplined management of resources/finances, etc.9 Wali Memon
  • 10. Project Success… Strong and consistent sponsorship Clear definition Sensible scale Practical approach Planning the work Working the plan Effective management Inspiring leadership10 Wali Memon
  • 11. Project types Closed Projects Painting by Numbers Open Projects Fog Projects Semi-closed Projects Going on a Quest Semi-open Projects Making a Movie11 Wali Memon
  • 12. The Project Lifecycle12 Wali Memon
  • 13. What are the 4 key phases in managing a project? Conception & Planning Definition time? costs? why needed? methods? alternatives? contingency? objectives? Final appraisal? Launch & Execution Closure team management? Handover? change management evaluation? Leadership? recognition? Monitor & control? follow-up?13 Wali Memon
  • 14. PhasesPhase Start End Products Skills BusinessInitiate Idea Brief Phase case Detailed plan Approved Detailed plan Plan & schedule Phase business case & schedule approved Approved All tasksExecute Phase Phase plan completed All tasks Close Project review Phase Phase completed
  • 15. PRINCE® : Projects in Controlled Environments Organisation, management and control of projects PRINCE was first developed by the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) now part of the Office of Government Commerce (OGC) in 1989 as a UK Government standard for IT project management. Widely used in both the public and private sectors - now the UKs standard for project management Originally developed for IT projects, now used on all types PRINCE2, is designed to incorporate the requirements of existing users and to enhance the method towards a generic, best practice approach15 Wali Memon
  • 16. PRINCE 2 Process Model16 Wali Memon
  • 17. Phases Lifecycle Documentation Project Mandate Project Proposal Project BriefConception & DefinitionInvestigation Initial Authorisation Authorisation Business Case Project Feasibility Planning & Project Initiation Document Appraisal Initiation Full Project Authorisation Authorisation Project Execution & Launch & Implementation Execute Monitor Monthly status report Lifecycle Execution Delivery Change Control Amend Implement Post Implementation Post implementation Handover & Review Report Closure17 Wali Memon Project Closure Project Closure documents
  • 18. Conception/Start up Conception & Definition why needed? alternatives? objectives?18 Wali Memon
  • 19. MUSCOW Must do Should do Could do Won’t19 Wali Memon do!
  • 20. Conception/Start up Ensures the authority for undertaking the project exists Ensures we know enough about the objectives, scope and constraints around the project Appoints the project management team Decides on the approach used to provide a solution Creates the initiation stage plan20 Wali Memon
  • 22. The Project Dimensions & Environment Contractual Economic Legal SPECIFICATION Financial Technological QUALITY RESOURCES SCOPE Political TIME Social Aesthetic Geographical
  • 23. Business Case 1. Project SummaryIntroduction problem to be solved Timescales case for change phases, tasks, milestonesBackground major deliverables story so far Summary/RecommendationsStrategic focus Options fit to strategy Alternatives projected £ benefits Best/worst case outcomes business opportunities Benefit realisationCritical factors/risks Success criteria23 Wali Memon risks of doing/not doing
  • 24. Business Case 2. Expected Benefits Quantifiable benefits derived from NPV calculation cost savings/revenue contribution Non-quantifiable benefits impact on customer experience, risk reduction, reporting Assumptions business volumes, market conditions, business growth, etc.24 Wali Memon
  • 25. Business Case 3. Expected Costs Anticipated project cost dervied from NPV calcuation total costs of completing project Recurring costs ongoing annual costs support, maintenance, licence fees, etc. Assumptions25 Wali Memon
  • 26. Project BriefSponsor/client Approach – alternativesProject Background Outline Business CaseProjectGoal/Objective – budget – investment caseProject Deliverables StakeholdersScope of work – TeamCriteria for success – Customer(s),Constraints & – User(s)interfaces – Other Interested Parties26 Wali MemonTimescales &milestones
  • 27. Planning/Initiation Conception & Planning Definition time? costs? why needed? methods? alternatives? contingency? objectives? Final appraisal?27 Wali Memon
  • 28. Project kick-off meeting Background Context Approach Objectives Constraints Risks28 Wali Memon
  • 29. The Kick off Meeting 1. Background Why is the project necessary? What is the problem/opportunity? Do we really understand the situation? How long has the problem been around? Who wants to change things and why now? Have we tried this before – if so, what happened?29 Wali Memon
  • 30. The Kick off Meeting 2. Context Does the project help deliver the corporate strategy? Is it part of a programme of projects? What is the timescale? Is there an external business critical date? Does the project have benefits beyond the user and sponsor?30 Wali Memon
  • 31. The Kick off Meeting 3. Approach Have all the needs been identified & analysed? Are there predetermined solutions? If so, what are they? Are there known checkpoint milestones other than phase gates? What needs are there for specialist skills?31 Wali Memon
  • 32. The Kick off Meeting 4. Objectives What are the primary deliverables? What would the customer like, need, must get from the project? How does the end user feel about the deliverables? What are the costs and how do these relate to the intended benefits?32 Wali Memon
  • 33. The Kick off Meeting 5. Constraints What time and cost constraints apply to the project? What needs are there for external suppliers? Are there security implications?33 Wali Memon
  • 34. The Kick off Meeting 6. Creativity Get excited about the project Reframe it to get at the real benefit (the wow factor) Identify how you can maximise the opportunity to make a difference Thinking tools: Brainstorming Mindmapping 5 Whys Pareto analyis Rule reversal34 Wali Memon
  • 35. Planning Tools35 Wali Memon
  • 36. Events:The Planning ProcessObjectives What do we want to achieve? Generation and screening of ideas Overall event aims and smart objectivesOutline Plan Environmental analysis: competition, precedents, stakeholders, risks Information gathering: dates, costs and revenues, venues, staffing, suppliersDetailed Plan Financial: budget, pricing & income, sponsorship, investment, cashflow, targets and break-even analysis Operational: resources, staffing, location, logistics, equipment, production, health, safety and risk management, contingency planning Marketing: market research; promotional literature & advertising, PR, marketing scheduleOrganisation & Critical path analysisPreparation Development activities, preparation, milestones, handling setbacks and problemsImplementation Clear plans, communications, leadership, control, handling problems, delegation and decisionmakingDivestment/legacy Closedown: evaluation, feedback and recording
  • 37. Planning terms Creating a breakdown of the products to be generated that will go together to form the project a product is the outcome of a task Writing clear product descriptions in terms of their purpose, composition, derivation and quality so that those creating them have a clear brief Drawing a product flow diagram to establish the logical order in which the products are produced and to clarify the dependencies between the products37 Wali Memon
  • 38. Levels of PlanningProject plan high level overview of key deliverables and control points summarises resource requirements and provides a baseline against which to monitor progressStage plan Detailed day-to-day plan produced/updated near the end of the previous stageTeam plan38 may be used when there are a number of Wali Memon teams working together
  • 39. More key definitions Task a small piece of work - often carried out by one person Product the outcome of the task Activity a parcel of work comprising several tasks Phase/Stage A major and discreet portion of the project producing key deliverables and marked by milestones Milestone39 aWali Memon significant, measurable event in the project life cycle
  • 40. Phases, tasks & milestones PARIS 50kmsTASK PHASE/STAGE ACTIVITY TASKTASK TASK TIME
  • 41. Ownership Every product, task, activity, risk , issue etc. must have an identified owner The owner is accountable for delivery Ownership is a baton, it can be passed with agreement but not put down Move it where it belongs The project is owned by the business The dollars are owned by the sponsor41 Wali Memon
  • 42. What do you do when you reach a milestone? Celebrate with the team Re-plan the next phase Review with sponsor Re-check overall timescale & viability Cancel the project….42 Wali Memon
  • 43. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Project 1st level Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3, etc. activities Each key phase is expanded to Activity 1.1 show 2nd level activities. Further detail is shown by going to a 3rd level2nd level Activity 1.2 The WBS provides theactivities basis for generating: Budget Activity 1.3 PERT analysis Gantt charts3rd levelActivities Task 1.3.1Terminalelements Task 1.3.2
  • 44. Task Responsibility Matrix Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4Resource X1Resource X2Resource X3 Resource X X 444 Wali Memon
  • 45. What is the difference between planning & scheduling? Planning determining what must be done Scheduling creating the flow of tasks determining when tasks must be completed; when they can and when they must be started which tasks are critical to timely project completion45 Wali Memon
  • 46. Now what else do we need to knowto create a schedule? Who is doing the tasks? How long will they take? How does this add up to the total duration of the project?46 Wali Memon
  • 47. Managing time and resources Elapsed days/duration is sufficient for resources outside your control Hours and availability are your concern when staff are under your control Elapsed days for your team is a function of Hours required and Hours/Days available47 Wali Memon
  • 48. Estimating time Previous projects Past experience Consulting a range of suppliers Benchmarking48 Wali Memon
  • 49. Task duration Three supplier estimates, moderated by past experience and constraints: Optimistic time: to Like to achieve Pessimistic time: tp Must achieve Most likely time: tm Intend to achieve Which version do you agree with the sponsor? Which version do you agree with the suppliers?49 Wali Memon
  • 50. Scheduling Tools & Techniques Gantt charts Critical Path Method (CPM) Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) analysis Microsoft Project NIKU Workbench (formerly ABT, PMW)50 Wali Memon
  • 51. Relationships between tasks Concurrent activities Activities (or tasks) that can be carried out in parallel, ie at the same time Series activities Activities (or tasks) that are designed to be carried out one after another, each dependent on completion of the earlier activity Dependencies Finish-start; start-start51 Wali Memon
  • 52. GANTT Chart Developed by Henry Gantt Graphical representation Employs a viewable timescale Bar length is an analogue of task duration ABT/MS Project standard display Works best for projects with a smaller number of tasks52 Wali Memon
  • 53. Gantt chart Activities Plans Building Decorating Time Moving in
  • 54. 54 Wali Memon
  • 55. 55 Wali Memon
  • 56. Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Developed in 1960s Used to manage the building of the Polaris submarine Creates a network that relates the tasks together Harder to do but can deal with a wider range of activities56 Wali Memon
  • 57. Conventions Nodes: activities described in boxes containing the key information Arrows: indicate dependency between activities One activity finishes, enabling 3 others to start simultaneously Three activities need to be finished, before another starts
  • 58. Network DiagramTask A Task B Task C2 days 3 days 4 days Task D Task E 1 days 5 days Task F 4 days Finish
  • 59. 59 Wali Memon
  • 60. Optimising your schedule Smoothing workflow and resources Maintaining a balance between: The schedule - time The resources available - cost Performance - scope and quality60 Wali Memon
  • 61. How can you optimise your schedule to save time? Review original estimates Revise assigned durations Adjust contingencies Seek more or different resources Re-evaluate dependencies Split key stages to get more concurrency61 Wali Memon
  • 62. When you update the plan… Recalculate timings Extend the end-date Draft in more resources/money Reduce the size of the project Scrap the project!62 Wali Memon
  • 63. So what could go wrong?63 Wali Memon
  • 64. Risk64 Wali Memon
  • 65. What is Risk? ‘The possibility of suffering harm or loss’ (dictionary definition) ‘The potential for realisation of unwanted negative consequences of an event’ (Rowe,1977) outcomes that have probabilities, which can be estimated by experience or statistical data Usually balanced by a potential positive outcome65 Wali Memon
  • 66. Issues, Risks and Project Risk Risk: probability of adverse consequences of future events ownership, probability, impact, mitigation Issue: a current problem that requires fixing ownership, decisions, actions Project Risk: assessment of total risk within a project at a given time
  • 67. Risks and Issues Project Schedule Risks Occur to become Issues
  • 68. Two variables of risk Consequence how significant would the impact be? Probability how likely is the risk to happen? The two variables determine: How serious a risk is perceived to be Whether anything is done is reduce risk68 Wali Memon
  • 69. Risk Analysis Risk identification what are the potential risks to the project? Risk estimation how important is each risk - based on assessment of its likelihood and consequences Risk evaluation whether the level of risk is acceptable, and if not, what measures can be taken to make it so69 Wali Memon
  • 70. Calculating risk Project using new equipment which no-one is trained to use. Risk of a time overrun worth £5,000 per week. £10,000 cost x 20% likelihood = £2,000 £5,000 cost x 30% likelihood = £1,500 £0 cost x 50% likelihood = £0 Probable cost of overrun = £3,500 Strategy: invest in training for operators at a cost of up to £3,50070 Wali Memon
  • 71. Two variables of riskIncreasing Impact Highest Medium Risk Risk Low Medium Risk Risk71 Wali Memon Increasing Likelihood
  • 72. Two variables of risk Increasing Impact Decrease Impact Decrease Likelihood72 Wali Memon Increasing Likelihood
  • 73. Risk Management Planning the countermeasures Resourcing the countermeasures Monitoring the work on countermeasures and any changes to the risk Controlling my taking actions to ensure the countermeasures are successful73 Wali Memon
  • 74. 3 types of Project Risk Business risks viability and context of the project Project risks technical aspects of work required to achieve objectives Process risks associated with the project process, procedures, and tools used to manage the project74 Wali Memon
  • 75. Group decision making reduces risk… Collective responsibility should mean that the quality of decisionmaking will be better. Why isn’t it? Diffusion of responsibility Culture value of risk Groupthink75 Wali Memon
  • 76. Prince Risk LogPurpose: Covers: allocate a unique number to each – Risk No. risk – Type * record the type of – Author risk – Date Identified be a summary of – Date of Last Update the risks, their – Description analysis and – Likelihood status. – SeverityTypes* of Risk: – Countermeasure(s) B (Business) – Owner – Status P (Project)76 SWali(Stage) Memon
  • 77. Generic Contingency Scale larger projects, much larger contingency Unclear objectives add 50% New technology add 50% New people add 30% Low commitment from sponsor add 50% Uncertain start date77 add 25% Wali Memon
  • 78. Project Initiation Document (PID) Initiation refers to beginning the building of whatever the project is intended to produce The PID is a contract between the sponsor/board and the project manager78 Wali Memon
  • 79. Project Implementation Document(PID) DELIVERY STRATEGY – Approach – Critical Success Factors – Constraints EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – Dependencies INTRODUCTION – Assumptions Why is the project required now? HIGH LEVEL MILESTONE PLAN Case for Change – Key Dates Impact of not proceeding - Milestones Objectives FINANCES PROJECT SCOPE – Budget In Scope PROJECT ORGANISATION – Roles and Responsibilities Out of Scope – Key Resources Business Requirements – External Suppliers BENEFITS – Project Infrastructure Requirements Tangible Benefits – Project Control and Reporting Intangible Benefits INITIAL RISKS
  • 80. Other project time traps Sponsor changing their mind Not assembling the resources soon enough Doing one job at a time Failing to build the team Too many/few meetings Too much detail/too high level Excessive perfectionism80 Wali Memon
  • 81. Making timing realistic Schedule full time team members at 3.5 – 4 working days pw (to allow for holidays, etc.) Add a further 10% for management time Build in time for unscheduled, urgent tasks on non-project activities Build in spare time for problem solving and project meetings81 Wali Memon
  • 82. Planning & Identify key phasesSchedulin Work Breakdowng Process Structure Allocate responsibilities PERT Analysis Estimate key durations Project logic diagram Optimise schedule Review & finalise Review risks Project budget Finalised gantt chart Update risk log or PERTdiagram Freeze project baseline Business case Reviewed/revalidated Project rejected: Planning Review More data, re-plan, by Steering Group Suspend or kill GO: Project approved
  • 83. Launch & Execution Conception & Planning Definition time? costs? why needed? methods? alternatives? contingency? objectives? Final appraisal? Launch & Execution team management? Leadership? Monitor & control?83 Wali Memon
  • 84. Customers & Suppliers Customers the sponsors commissioning and paying for the work and and who will benefit from the end results Users those who will use or operate the final product (in some cases the same as the customers) Suppliers providing specialist resources/skills or goods and services to the project Sub contractors providing products and services to the supplier84 Wali Memon
  • 85. Project Management & ControlSteering Board Overall responsibility for delivery Chaired by sponsor, includes senior members from suppliers and users Overall direction and standardsBoard Sponsor Business case & funding Focal pointBusiness Champion Senior representative of prime user of deliverables Stakeholder management Communication within the businessProject/Programme Manager Ensures project is delivered within plan Manages project team85 Reports to board Wali Memon
  • 86. Programme steering team Mission: Overall management of the portfolio of major programmes and projects Tasks: Evaluating programmes Approving overall portfolio spend Monitor and review at a high level Composition Senior executives who also act as sponsors of the main programmes and projects Reporting to board86 Wali Memon Approach – non executive but accountable
  • 87. Project Management team Portfolio/Programme/Project Steering team Project Sponsor Project Sponsor Project Sponsor Project Manager Project Manager Project Manager Core/visible team Core/visible team Core/visible team Extended/ Extended/ Extended/ invisible team invisible team invisible team
  • 88. Project/Matrix structure CEO PM accountable to director as sponsor Director Director DirectorProjectManager Div Manager Div Manager Div Manager Team member Team member Dept Manager Dept Manager Dept Manager Team member Team member Team members assigned from Team member different depts/divisions, and at all levels
  • 89. 2 levels of Project Team Core/Visible project team involved throughout project publicly associated involved in decisionmaking substantial part of their job (60%+) Extended/Invisible project team suppliers to the project work to individual team members89 Wali Memon
  • 90. Core Team Committed to project success Liaise, work with & support other team members Contribute to documentation, planning & risk management Manage their own work packages Resolve issues pro-actively or escalate them90 Wali Memon
  • 91. Stakeholders – your help and your curse Decision makers Providing resources or resolving issues Direct influencer Direct input on, or impacted by project Indirect influencer No direct input but may be needed to agree some actions Observer Not obviously affected, but may still have a view91 Wali Memon
  • 92. Project sponsor - the client Visualising the goal and establishing the business context Signing off initiation and planning documents providing for and agreeing budget/resources contributing to decision-making concerning project progress, rescheduling etc informing the project manager of quality issues, changing business requirements etc accepting & signing off deliverables motivating and encouraging manager & team92 Wali Memon
  • 93. Sponsors must have... Vision and direction Deep pockets High level influence & seniority Commitment & enthusiasm Knowledge Relationship with Project Manager Who needs to take responsibility for maintaining these?93 Wali Memon
  • 94. One golden rule ONE project sponsor
  • 95. Too many sponsors spoil the broth… Who’s paying? Who has the most influence or commitment? Form them into a steering group with chair as sponsor95 Wali Memon
  • 96. The Project Manager Prepares project and stage plans Defines responsibilities and allocates work Monitor progress and quality against the plan Schedules stage control points enforces quality and change control procedures Devise corrective actions for problems Manage the project team Inform and advise the sponsor/board of progress and problems96 Wali Memon
  • 97. Project team members need: Overall project goals Task clarity (but not methods) Clear deadlines Feedback Removal of obstacles Provision of resources Awareness of/by sponsor97 Wali Memon
  • 98. What are the differences between a group and a team? Groups are connected but do not need each other to produce results e.g. a swimming team Teams can only produce results as a team and rely on each other e.g. a football team Teams have a shared goal, a sense of identity and care about each other98 Wali Memon
  • 99. Dept vs Project Management Project Manager Line ManagerStable team Temporary teamSimilar tasks Various tasksKnow their role ExpertYou know their role too A mystery to youShort term planning Long term planningResource maintenance Resource findingProcedure maintenance No proceduresProcess motivationKnown territory Self/project motivation 99 Wali Memon New unstable territory
  • 100. Process vs Project How people issues differ Project Manager Process Manager Report elsewhereReport to you No formal reward or coercionReward and coercion Temporary teamStable team Various tasksSimilar tasks ExpertKnow their roleYou know their role A mystery to you too No team spiritStrong team spirit You don’t know themYou know them well 100 task appraisal Wali Memonone to one appraisal
  • 101. Process vs Project How task issues differ Process Manager Project ManagerShort term planning Long term planningResource maintenance Resource findingProcedure No procedures maintenance Delegating & contractingHands on Monitor & controlProblem solving based Managing upwards in direct knowledge MediationFire-fighting Budget managementCoaching & development Change managementAppraisal 101 Wali MemonRecruitment
  • 102. Process vs Project How psychological issues differ Project Manager Process Manager Self/project motivationProcess motivation Temporary powerLegitimate power No automatic team supportSupported by team Rollercoaster moodsStable moods High profileLow profile Short term peopleLong term people Long term goal deliveryShort term goal delivery New unstable territory102 Wali MemonKnown territory
  • 103. What motivatesyou?
  • 104. Motivation and Project Relationships Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Growth, Partnership, Strategic value Self actualisation Motivators Empowerment, responsibility Self esteem Recognition Esteem from others Team spirit Social belonging Contract/ Shelter & safetyjob security Hygiene Income Physiological needs (food & water) factors
  • 105. Managing suppliers Build strong team relationships Define contracts (and penalties) clearly Don’t confuse cheapness with best value Agree SLAs in detail Never tolerate poor performance Don’t put up with poor performance from incumbent ‘framework’ suppliers Identify key decisionmakers105 Wali Memon
  • 106. Is a leader just a manager?“Managers do the things right Leaders do the right things” ~Warren Bennis106 Wali Memon
  • 107. Is good project management enough? Manager Motivates people to do their agreed job Administers resources to achieve current goals Implements plans Makes rational practical decisions Monitors others ‘Steady as she goes’ Leader Motivates people to develop new objectives Plans and visualises future goals Shapes the organisation Creates emotional challenges Trusts others107 Wali Memon ‘Charting new waters’
  • 108. Action centred Project Leadership John Adair TASK INDIVIDUAL TEAM
  • 109. ACL and the project phases Phases Task Team Individual Identify need and idea Encourage ideas & opinions Sell idea to key individuals Consider alternatives Seek support Assess skills, interestsConception Determine feasibilities, Consider who can help and attitudes Business Case Decide "Go" or "No Go" Agree goals & objectives Identify skills needed Delegate tasks and roles Define tasks & activities Select team Give authority Check resources and risks Balance team style Set individual targets Planning Set timetable & milestones Set team culture Challenge Build budgets Generate team commitment Consider stakeholders Allow for contingencies Check progress Brief team Set individual goals Maintain standards Coordinate resources Coach and delegate Stay on schedules Build and maintain team spirit DisciplineExecution Keep to budget Celebrate successes Empower Maintain quality Overcome loss of enthusiasm Reward & recognition Replan Reallocate resources Gather feedback Review goal achievement Celebrate with team Assess performance Assess performance against Lessons learned for future Reward Closure baseline team work Reassign
  • 110. What does each circle cover? TASK Vision & mission Goals & objectives Develop plans Provide resources Set time limits Monitor performance Ensure delivery INDIVIDUAL TEAM Know the individuals IdentityAssign individual tasks & Recruit & build the team responsibilities Balance workload Coach & Discipline Set behaviour standards Promote and modify Create culture & morale individual roles Coach as a group Dev/Career planning Socialise & Celebrate
  • 111. The reality of leadership behaviour TASK INDIVIDUAL TEAM
  • 112. Crisis, what crisis!112 Wali Memon
  • 113. Reactions Don’t put your head in the sand Don’t panic Don’t rush into action you will regret later Don’t be afraid to ask for help113 Wali Memon
  • 114. The crisis checklistwhat is actually happening? spreading or containment activities ignore the shouts what might happen if youwhy it is happening? do nothing? develop a theory; get who else is involved or facts; test theory; try might get dragged in? again what resources do youhow quickly you have to act have available?before things get seriouslyworse? especially look for 114 Wali Memon timescales on stopping it
  • 115. Two approaches to crisis adaptive measures: what could be done to help us carry on “normal” business in the new circumstances corrective measures: what has to be done to fix the underlying problem that caused the crisis115 Wali Memon
  • 116. Rating IssuesRed flag Major issue. Prompt action needed by sponsor to implement a decision to resolve. Overdue yellow flag issues become red flags!Yellow flag Significant impact on the project/related projects. Unless resolved promptly will delay milestones. Project Manager responsible for resolution.Goes red if not resolved in 5 daysGreen flag Limited impact. Within authority of key stage116 owner to resolve. Goes yellow if not resolved Wali Memon in 5 days.
  • 117. Team development - Tuckman1. forming inhibited, polite, guarded2. storming conflict over approach, belief3. norming agreeing objectives & methods4. performing cohesive, mutual support5. adjourning reflection, departure or new tasks Results
  • 118. Identifying root causes Mindmap the problem Identify contributing factors Core headings are: Process People Equipment Materials118 Wali Memon
  • 119. Stage Management Authorising work to be done Monitoring progress and events Taking corrective actions Taking delivery of completed products and ensuring they meet quality criteria Recording and reporting on progress Recommending and seeking approval for continuation to next stage119 Wali Memon
  • 120. Communications120 Wali Memon
  • 121. Communications Plan Purpose of Document To define all parties with an interest in the project and the means and frequency of communication between them and the project. Interested parties (for example, Accounts, user forum, stakeholders, internal audit, quality assurance) Information required Information providers Frequency of communication Method of communication121 Wali Memon
  • 122. Communication Strategy122 Wali Memon
  • 123. Reporting End of phase/stage reports completion against project plan status of the business case status of risks next stage plan123 Wali Memon
  • 124. Project Control Three Operating Modes: Measuring Determining progress through formal and informal reporting Evaluating Determining the causes of deviations from the plan and how to respond to them Correcting Taking actions to correct deviations124 Wali Memon
  • 125. Control System Checklist1. Awareness of plan 6. Clear individual responsibility by team members for each work package2. Budgets for hours & 7. Reporting of delays costs 8. Accuracy of information3. Actuals vs planned data 9. Time-cost-quality trade-off decisionmaking4. Measurement methods for work 10. Early warning systems completed5. Motivation for early completion & cost saving125 Wali Memon
  • 126. Why you need reports Share information Proof of correct procedure Raise issues, problems and slippage Capture knowledge gained Meet statutory obligations126 Wali Memon
  • 127. Rules of engagement ‘One page’ periodic progress reports Immediate ‘exception’ reporting of problems and fundamental changes Log progress and methods End of project report127 Wali Memon
  • 128. Status reports What has been completed What has not been completed – and why What is being done about incomplete work What problems remain unsolved What needs to be done about these unsolved problems and when What difficulties are anticipated in the work waiting to be done128 Wali Memon
  • 129. Meetings, bloody Meetings Ad hoc Regular Problem solving meetings asProject start-up needed meetingOne-to-one update Meetings with key stakeholders meetings with sponsorOne-to-one meetings with team membersProject progress meetings with teamTeam meetings to celebrate 129 Wali Memon milestones
  • 130. Meetings – golden rules? Clear objectives Short, comprehensible agenda Appropriate attendees Tight timescale (15 minutes, anyone?) Action minutes130 Wali Memon
  • 131. Prince Acceptance Criteria AccuracyA definition in Availabilitymeasurable terms ofwhat must be done Reliabilityfor the final productto be acceptable to – Mean/Maximum Time To Repair,the Customer and Mean Time Between Failuresstaff who will be Development Costaffected. Running CostsTarget Dates SecurityMajor Functions Ease Of UseAppearance TimingsPersonnel LevelRequired ToUse/Operate TheProduct Performance Levels131 Wali MemonCapacity
  • 132. How should you delegate tasks? Clarify roles & responsibility Give background Set objectives Define deliverable/product Assign authority level Provide resources Set timescale132 Wali Memon
  • 133. Key DefinitionsResponsibility The obligation to ensure that the project tasks or a piece of work is carried out efficiently, to the relevant quality standards and on time Responsibility is discrete to an individual and cannot be shared. A shared or split responsibility is no responsibility and generates a blame cultureAuthority The right to take and implement management decisions Authority clearly defined and delegated at the outset speeds decisions and improves the probability of success. It is an essential part of empowermentAccountability The management control over authority Accountability is the partner of authority - you are only accountable for the use of management authority that is given by delegation133 Wali Memon Source: Trevor L Young, Handbook of Project Management, 2003
  • 134. Prince Work Package A set of information about one or more required products collated by the Project Manager to formally pass responsibility for work or delivery to a Team Manager or team member. This product will vary in content, and indeed in degree of formality, depending on circumstances. Administration verbal instruction formal written instruction contract. Although the content may vary greatly according to the relationship between the Project Manager and the recipient of the Work Package, it should cover:134 Wali Memon
  • 135. Prince Work Package Joint Agreements On Effort, Cost, Start And End Dates Team Or Person Authorised Sign-Off Requirements Work Package Description Work Return Arrangements Product Description(S) How Completion Is To Be Advised Techniques/Processes/Proc Any Constraints To Be Observed edures To Be Used Independent Quality Checking Interfaces To Be Satisfied Arrangements By The Work Reporting Arrangements Interfaces To Be Maintained During The Work Quality Checking Method To Be Used135 Wali Memon Stage Plan Extract
  • 136. Project Change136 Wali Memon
  • 137. Project Issues Requests for change modifications to the proposed specification or acceptance criteria Off-specifications current or forecasted failures to meet specification Questions or concerns not necessarily leading to extra work137 Wali Memon
  • 138. Handling project change Recognise change as change Analyse the potential impact size priority escalate to sponsor/board for decision Process it action reject defer document138 Wali Memon
  • 139. Scale of change Size Fundamental Priority – the agreed end date may have to shift, the budget will increaseessential Tolerable subject of the project – can be incorporated within the will be no good without current parameters, maybe by this change consuming contingency, or byuseful cutting out something else. this change will improve Trivial the end-product or – no significant replanning is service, but it is not required. essentialcosmetic 139 Wali Memon
  • 140. Prince Request for Change Form Description ofTo request a Proposed Change:modification to Impact of Change:a product or anacceptance Priority Assessment:criterion as Decision:currentlyspecified. Allocation Details (if applicable):Date: Date Allocated:Issue Log No: Date Completed:Class:140 Wali MemonStatus:
  • 141. Why your team lie to you optimistic - we think we can get it done in the time ignorant - we’re not even sure what we have to complete and by when members of go-for-it culture - we want to give it our best shot and not let anybody down afraid of the boss - we daren’t tell you unschooled in project management - we feel that we might be running a bit late, but we won’t bother the project manager with our problems141 Wali Memon
  • 142. Maintaining momentum Project Bible Weekly project updates Achieve something everyday Make friends with your team members and suppliers Recruit supporters142 Wali Memon
  • 143. Closure Conception & Planning Definition time? costs? why needed? methods? alternatives? contingency? objectives? Final appraisal? Closure Launch & Execution Handover? team management? evaluation? Leadership? recognition? Monitor & control? follow-up?143 Wali Memon
  • 144. Closing a projectReporting on fulfilment of theProject’s objectivesConfirming that the customer issatisfied and ready to take theproduct over into its operationallifeRecommending any follow upactions Reporting144 Wali Memon on lessons learned
  • 145. Implementation Review TemplateIntroductionBackground Original objectives & deliverablesBenefits Expected tangible and intangible benefitsResults Achievement of objectives, deliverables & benefitsProject Team Review Positive views: Management, Process, Planning & People Areas for improvement: Resourcing, Planning, Process, People145 Wali MemonFollow up actions
  • 146. Bringing it home Final checks Handover Post implementation audit Team dispersement146 Wali Memon
  • 147. Final checks
  • 148. Lessons Learned ReportPurpose of Document Abnormal Events Causing The purpose of the Deviations Lessons Learned Report is to pass on any Assessment of Technical lessons which can be Methods & Tools usefully applied to other projects. Project IssuesManagement – AnalysisProcesses – Results Went Well? Project Management Method Went Badly? – Recommendations for Lacking? Enhancement /ModificationQuality Reviews Went Well? Went Badly?148 Wali Memon Lacking?
  • 149. Handover We the undersigned agree that: the system named above has been thoroughly tested and test sign-offs have been reviewed the system named above is compliant and compatible with existing systems the licensing agreements necessary to implement the system named above have been received all technical documentation necessary to support the system named above has been received all user documentation necessary to support the system named above has been received the system named above satisfies the user requirements as stated in the PID149 Wali Memon
  • 150. Team dispersement celebration individual recognition reassignment psychological factors Post project depression?150 Wali Memon
  • 151. Core project management principlesClearly specify what is to be teams and externallydone Coordinate effortIdentify all stakeholders and Define, enforce and manageestablish their requirements scopeIdentify project critical success •Implement ongoing control,factors formally manage changes toPlan – resources, milestones and scopebudget •ocus on deliveryEstablish a ‘client’ / informal Attain explicit approval via‘contractual’ arrangement with physical signaturestakeholders 151 Wali Memon Monitor and report progress,Communicate internally, across risks and deadline