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Project And Change Managment

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  • 1. Project and Change Management1 Wali Memon Wali Memon
  • 2. Project constraintsScope - The deliverables that the project team mustcreate and the activities required to create them.Scope also includes the quality of the work ordeliverables that need to be created.Cost - The budget or cost to deliver the project.Schedule - The deadline by which the project mustbe delivered.2 Wali Memon
  • 3. Often represented by a triangle3 Wali Memon
  • 4. Trade off triangle Other way of looking at it Fast, cheap, good Choose two Know which of these are fixed or variable for every project Time and cost deviations tend to be overruns whereas product or performance will be a shortfall4 Wali Memon
  • 5. Managing trade-off Any process for managing time cost and performance trade-off should emphasis the systems approach Recognise and understand the basis for project conflicts Review the project objectives Analyse the project environment and status Identify the alternative courses of action Analyse and select the best alternative Revise the project plan5 Wali Memon
  • 6. Defining project success Within the allocated time period Within the budgeted cost At the performance or specification level With acceptance by the customer/user With minimum or mutually agreed upon scope changes With out disturbing the main work flow of the organisation Without changing the corporate culture6 Wali Memon
  • 7. Critical success factors in project management Critical success factors identify what is necessary to meet the desired deliverables of the customer Can divide critical success factors into primary and secondary categories Primary category defines success as seen through the eyes of the customer Secondary category is used for internal purposes7 Wali Memon
  • 8. Primary critical success factors Within time Within cost Within quality limits Accepted by the customer8 Wali Memon
  • 9. Project success ambiguityExample of Sydney Opera HouseThe original cost estimate in 1957 was $7 million and thecompletion date set by the government was January 26, 1963.The final cost was $102 million and it was opened by QueenElizabeth II on October 20, 1973 – $95 million over budget andalmost 11 years lateBy all conventional measures, this project was a miserablefailureYet, the Sydney Opera House is the busiest performing artscentre in the world – presenting theatre, musicals, opera,contemporary dance, ballet, every form of music fromsymphony concerts to jazz as well as exhibitions and films –averaging around 3,000 events each year with audiences 9totalling up to two million. Wali Memon
  • 10. Secondary Critical Success Factors Follow-on work from the customer Using the customer’s name as a reference on your literature Commercialization of a product Within minimum or mutually agreed upon scope changes Without disturbing the main flow of work Without changing the corporate culture Without violating safety requirements Providing efficiency and effectiveness of operations Satisfying OSHA/EPA requirements Maintaining ethical conduct Maintaining corporate regulation Maintaining regulatory agency relations10 Wali Memon
  • 11. Key factors for a successful project Project scope and objectives aligned with corporate goal Features time and cost are prioritised Input and buyoff from all participants Solid project schedule and plan Roles and responsibilities are clearly defined Changes are managed Risks are managed11 Wali Memon
  • 12. Key factors for a successful project continued Communications are planned and managed Effective leadership Expectations are set and managed Lessons learned are documented along the way Overarching framework that guides and integrates project management methods, processes, tools, templates and techniques Meet or exceed the expectations of stakeholders12 Wali Memon
  • 13. JIANG’S LIST OF PROJECT SUCCESS FACTORS Clearly defined goals (including the general project philosophy or general mission of the project, as well as commitment to those goals on the part of the team members). Competent project manager. The importance of initial selection of skilled (interpersonally, technically, and administratively) project leader. Top Management Support. Top or divisional management support for the project that has been conveyed to all concerned parties. Competent project team members. The importance of selecting and, if necessary, triaging project team members. Sufficient resource allocation. These are Resources in the form of money, personnel, logistics, etc. Adequate communication channels. Sufficient13 information is available on the project objectives, status, changes, organizational coordination, clients’ needs, etc. Wali Memon
  • 14. JIANG’S LIST OF PROJECT SUCCESS FACTORS CONTINUED Control Mechanisms. (Including planning, schedules, etc.). Programs are in place to deal with initial plans and schedules. Feedback capabilities. All parties concerned with the project area able to review project status, make suggestions, and corrections through formal feedback channels or review meetings. Responsiveness to client. All potential users of the project are consulted with and kept up to date on project status. Further, clients receive assistance after the project has been successfully implemented. Client consultation. The project team members share solicited input from all potential clients of the project. The project team members understand the needs of those who will use the systems. Technical tasks. The technology that is being implemented works well. Experts, consultants, or other experienced project managers outside the project team have reviewed and critiqued the basic approach. Client Acceptance. Potential clients have been contacted about the usefulness of the project. Adequate advanced preparation has been done to best determine how to sell the project to the clients. Trouble-shooting. Project team members spend a part of each day looking for problems that14 surfaced or are about to surface. Project team members are encouraged to take quick have Wali Memon action on problems on their own initiative.
  • 15. 1994 CHAOS report For the Standish Group not only published failure and success rates, but also pointed to indicators for success and failure. The Standish Group studied 365 companies with a total of 8,380 Information System applications under development. The resultant report divides projects into three distinct outcomes –which they called Resolutions.15 Wali Memon
  • 16. CHAOS report- Project Resolution Types Resolution Type 1 is a “Project Success” – it completed on time and budget, with all features and functions as specified. Only 16.2% of projects fell in this category. Resolution Type 2 is “Project Challenged.” These were completed, but were over cost, over time, and/or lacking all of the features and functions that were originally specified. 52.7% of all studied projects fell into this Resolution Type 2 (Challenged) category. Resolution Type 3 is termed “Project Impaired/Failed.” These projects were abandoned or cancelled at some point and thus became total losses. A disturbing 31.1% of all studied projects fell into this category.16 Wali Memon
  • 17. The top 5 factors found in successful projects are: 1. User Involvement 2. Executive Management Support 3. Clear Statement of Requirements 4. Proper Planning 5. Realistic Expectations17 Wali Memon
  • 18. The top 5 indicators found in “Challenged” projects are: 1. Lack of User Input 2. Incomplete Requirements & Specifications 3. Changing Requirements & Specifications 4. Lack of Executive Support 5. Technical Incompetence18 Wali Memon
  • 19. A list of all the top factors found in“Failed” projects 1. Incomplete Requirements 2. Lack of user involvement 3. Lack of Resources 4. Unrealistic Expectations 5. Lace of Executive Support 6. Changing Requirements & Specifications 7. Lack of Planning 8. Didn’t Need it Any Longer 9. Lack of IT management 10. Technical Illiteracy19 Wali Memon
  • 20. Software projects becoming more successful According to the Standish group 34% of IT projects were deemed successful in 2003 Study over 40,000 IT projects More than a 100% increase since 1994 Project failures declined to 15% of all projects down from 31 % failure rate in 1994 Increased awareness of project management a factor according to Standish20 Wali Memon
  • 21. According to Standish group report projects succeed because of: Executive support User involvement Experience project manager Clear business objectives Minimized scope Standard software infrastructure Firm basic requirements Formal methodology Reliable estimates21 Wali Memon
  • 22. Causes of IT project failure Lack of clear link between the project and the organization’s key strategic priorities, including agreed measures of success. Lack of clear senior management and Ministerial ownership and leadership. Lack of effective engagement with stakeholders. Lack of skills and proven approach to project management and risk management. Too little attention to breaking development and implementation into manageable steps. Evaluation of proposals driven by initial price rather than long-term value for money (especially securing delivery of business benefits). Lack of understanding of and contact with the supply industry at senior levels in the organization. Lack of effective project team integration between clients, the supplier team and the supply chain22 Wali Memon
  • 23. Causes of failure continuedThe problem is not properly defined: They could have developed the right solution tothe wrong problem. This can be addressed by attempting to understand the reassonfor doing the job.Insufficient dataPlanning is performed by a planning group: The people who must do a job shouldparticipate in planning it.No one is in charge : The role of the Project Manager is not clearly defined.Project estimates are best guesses, made without consulting historical data.Resource planning is inadequate.There is no team coordinationPeople are often pulled off the project or reassigned without regard for impact.The project plan lacks detail.The project is not tracked against plan.People lose track of the original goal.23Senior Wali Memon refuse to accept reality managerBallpark estimates become official targets
  • 24. Software Failure Modes Hitting the wall before release 90% done Endless QA Version 2.0 (See document titled software project failure)24 Wali Memon
  • 25. Software Failure traps Prototype trap. 4GL trap. Scripting trap. Integrated Development Environment (IDE) trap. Reengineering trap. (See document titled software project failure)25 Wali Memon
  • 26. Failure case study Maine Medicaid The project was undertaken to switch from their legacy systems to a new web-based system to process Medicaid claims and facilitate HIPAA compliance System problems led to many claims ending up in limbo, leading to hundreds of calls from health care practitioners, nearly 300,000 patients being turned away, several dentists and therapists going out of business, and destroying Maine’s finances and credit rating.26 Wali Memon
  • 27. Case Study continued - mistakes that were madeDeciding to develop an entire system from scratch using unproven technology, whileother states built a front-end onto their legacy systemsCaving to pressure from management to meet tight deadlines with inadequateresources instead of pushing for a realistic plan to begin withFailing to notice why other bidders either didn’t bid or came in way higher (a sign thatthe schedule was unrealistic)Hiring a vendor with no experience in developing Medicaid claims systems becausethey were the lowest bidderNot having a Medicaid expert on the team, leading to errors in judgmentUnderestimating the time needed to meet with subject matter expertsCompeting with another major initiative (a department merger) for executives’attention and resourcesSkipping project management basics (including piloting, adequate end-to-end testing,staff and user training, etc.) due to looming deadline pressuresFailingWali Memon regroup, and analyze the risks 27 to stop,Taking a “big bang” approach to cutover with no contingency or backup shouldsomething go wrong
  • 28. 36 Classic Mistakes Types People-Related Process-Related Product-Related Technology-Related28 Wali Memon
  • 29. People-Related Mistakes Part 1 Undermined motivation Weak personnel Weak vs. Junior Uncontrolled problem employees Heroics Adding people to a late project29 Wali Memon
  • 30. People-Related Mistakes Part 2 Noisy, crowded offices Customer-Developer friction Unrealistic expectations Politics over substance Wishful thinking30 Wali Memon
  • 31. People-Related Mistakes Part 3 Lack of effective project sponsorship Lack of stakeholder buy-in Lack of user input31 Wali Memon
  • 32. Process-Related Mistakes Part 1 Optimistic schedules Insufficient risk management Contractor failure Insufficient planning Abandonment of plan under pressure32 Wali Memon
  • 33. Process-Related Mistakes Part 2 Wasted time during fuzzy front end Shortchanged upstream activities Inadequate design Shortchanged quality assurance33 Wali Memon
  • 34. Process-Related Mistakes Part 3 Insufficient management controls Frequent convergence Omitting necessary tasks from estimates Planning to catch-up later Code-like-hell programming34 Wali Memon
  • 35. Product-Related Mistakes Requirements gold-plating Gilding the lily Feature creep Developer gold-plating Beware the pet project Push-me, pull-me negotiation Research-oriented development35 Wali Memon
  • 36. Technology-Related Mistakes Silver-bullet syndrome Overestimated savings from new tools and methods Fad warning Switching tools in mid-project Lack of automated source-code control36 Wali Memon
  • 37. Project Stakeholders Individuals who are actively involved in the project Those whose interests may be affected by the project completion Those who may have influence over the project or its results37 Wali Memon
  • 38. Key stakeholders include Project Manager – the individual responsible for handling the project Customer – the individual or organisation who will use the project’s product Performing Organisation – the enterprise whose employee’s are most directly involved in doing the work of the project Project Team Members - the group that is performing the work of the project Project Sponsor- the individual or group that provides the resources for the project Regulatory or government agencies Sellers and contractors38 Individual citizens or groups of citizens Wali Memon
  • 39. Will concentrate on four stakeholders Project Manager Project sponsors Project team members Functional managers39 Wali Memon
  • 40. Sponsor’s responsibilities Provides resources (Budget, people, equipment) Helps define project requirements, success criteria Reviews and approves project plans, budgets, scope changes Ideally executive champion for the project Visible on-going support “Bodyguard” for project manager, project charter40 Keeps team interfaces in balance by resolving Wali Memon escalating cross-functional policy issues
  • 41. Sponsor’s responsibilities Primary responsibility maintaining executive client contact Ensures there is no filtering of information from the client to the customer Customer’s money is being wisely spent Usually informs the customer of cost and deliverable information41 Wali Memon
  • 42. 15 PM Job Functions Define scope of project Evaluate project requirements Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and Identify and evaluate risks Prepare contingency plan escalation procedures Identify interdependencies Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures) Identify and track critical milestones Estimate time requirements Participate in project phase Develop initial project review management flow chart Secure needed resources Identify required resources Manage the change control and budget process Report project status42 Wali Memon
  • 43. Team members responsibilities Provide realistic task/deliverable estimates Inform project manager of task deliverable status on a regular [agreed basis] Bring risks, issues, impacts, potential solutions to project manager for resolution Be prepared to make commitments to others Clearly define the commitment they undertake Make every reasonable effort to deliver against those commitments Communicate honestly, immediately if they realise that a commitment may be at risk43 Wali Memon
  • 44. Team Members Need from the Project Manager Success criteria and measures Internal and external Roles and Responsibilities Methods for: Where and when to attend team meetings How to raise and track issues and risks How, when to submit a Scope/Change request How to resolve disagreements How to report status on assigned tasks How to report budget data44 Wali Memon
  • 45. Functional Manager’s Role in the Project The functional manager has the responsibility to define how the task will be done and where it will be done ( technical criteria) The functional role has the responsibility for providing sufficient resources to accomplish the objective within the project’s constraints The functional manager has the responsibility for the deliverable45 Wali Memon
  • 46. Project Manager Functional Manger Interface Resources are controlled by functional managers Project managers must negotiate with functional managers for all resources Successful project management strongly relies on a good working relationship between the project manager and functional managers who assign resources to the project46 Wali Memon