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Power and Politics
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Power and Politics

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Power and Politics Power and Politics Presentation Transcript

  • Power and Politics1 Wali Memon
  • Suggested topics Describe a time when you had to deal with “organizational politics”. Describe a situation where you saw evidence of power or influence being used in an organization Describe a time when someone influenced you to act a particular way or do a particular thing that you would not of otherwise done.2 Wali Memon
  • Power Empowerment How to get it How to use it …without abusing it3 Wali Memon
  • Definition A “four letter word”? Influence? Control over others? Being able to get things done? ??????4 Wali Memon
  • A shifting definition… Reflects the new “reality” of organizations A new definition of “employee”5 Wali Memon
  • The Meaning of Power Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others. The potential to influence others People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person Southland Times, New Zealand Wali Memon 6
  • Why does having power matter?With power you can… Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget Get items on and off agendas Get fast access to decision makers Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts7 Wali Memon
  • The goal? Overcome feelings of powerlessness Convert power effectively into interpersonal influences in ways that avoid the abuse of power8 Wali Memon
  • To empower yourselfTo facilitate the empowermentof others 9 Wali Memon
  • Relationship Among Social Influence, Power, and Politics Capacity to Successful exert influenceOrganizational Power Social influence politics Use of power for personal interests Unsuccessful10 Wali Memon
  • Power and Dependence Person B’s counterpowe Person r over Person A A Person Person B B’s Goals Person A’s power over Person B11 Wali Memon
  • Types of Individual Power: A Summary Individual Power Position Power Personal Power • Referent power • Legitimate power • Expert power • Reward power • Coercive power12 Wali Memon
  • Model of Power in Organizations Sources Of Power PowerLegitimate over Others Reward Coercive Contingencies Expert Of Power Referent Wali Memon 13
  • Legitimate Power One’s structural position The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization14 Wali Memon
  • The Limits of Legitimate PowerThe Caine Mutiny illustratesthe limits of legitimatepower in organizations.Captain Queeg (HumphreyBogart, seated left) askedhis crew to do more thanthey were willing to follow, Archive Photosso they staged a mutiny. Wali Memon 15
  • Reward and Coercive Power Power that achieves compliance based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable Coercive Power: the opposite of reward power: the power that is based on fear of negative results.16 Wali Memon
  • Sources of Power Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Expert Power Archive Photos Referent Power17 Wali Memon
  • Expert Power Influence is based on special skills or knowledge18 Wali Memon
  • Referent Power Influence is based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits The desire to please…19 Wali Memon
  • Information and Power Control over information flow Based on legitimate power Relates to formal communication network Common in centralized structures (wheel pattern) Coping with uncertainty Those who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain power Prevention Forecasting Absorption20 Wali Memon
  • Contingencies of Power Sources Power Of Power over others Contingencies Of Power Substitutability Centrality Discretion Visibility Wali Memon 21
  • Increasing Nonsubstitutability Controlling Differentiation Tasks Increasing Nonsubstitutability Controlling Controlling Labour Knowledge22 Wali Memon
  • Consequences of Power Sources Consequences of Power of Power Expert Power Commitment Referent Power Legitimate Power Compliance Reward Power Coercive Resistance Power23 Wali Memon
  • Sexual Harassment and Power Harasser stereotypes the victim as subservient and powerless Harasser threatens job security or safety through coercive or legitimate power Hostile work environment harassment continues when the victim lacks power to stop the behaviour24 Wali Memon
  • Office Romance and Power Co-workers believe that employees in relationships abuse their power to favour each other. Higher risk of sexual harassment when relationship breaks off.25 Wali Memon
  • Organizational Politics Attempts to influence others using discretionary behaviours to promote personal objectives Discretionary behaviours — neither explicitly prescribed nor prohibited Politics may be good or bad for the organization26 Wali Memon
  • Organizational Politics: More Likely at the TopExtent to Which Political Activity is Likely (range 0-3) 1.3 Political activity (1.22) 1.2 is perceived to increase at higher (1.07) 1.1 organizational levels 1.0 .9 .8 (.73) .7 .6 (.54) (.50) .5 .4 .3 (.18) .2 .1 27 Production and Clerical and Technical and Wali Memon Lower Middle Upper blue collar white collar professional management management management Organizational Level
  • Types of Organizational Politics Managing Attacking and impressions blaming Creating Types of Controlling obligations Organizational information Politics Cultivating Forming networks coalitions28 Wali Memon
  • Impression managementConformity: agreeing with another’s opinion to get their approvalExcuses: Explanations of a predicament-creating event aimed atminimizing the apparent severity of the predicamentApologies: Admitting responsibility for an undesirable event andsimultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the actionAcclamations: Explanation of favourable events to maximize thedesirable implications for oneself.Flattery: Complimenting others on their virtues in an effort tomake oneself appear perceptive and likeableFavours: Doing something nice for someone to gain that person’sapprovalAssociation: Enhancing or protecting one’s image by managinginformation about people and things with which one is associated.29 Wali Memon
  • It was John’s You fault scratch my back… Attacking and blaming I thought you knew… Creating Types of Controlling obligations Organizational information Politics Cultivating Forming networks coalitions30 Look who Wali Memon We agreed I know… that…
  • Conditions for Organizational Politics Personal Scarce Characteristics Resources Conditions Supporting Organizational Politics Complex and Tolerance of Ambiguous Politics Decisions31 Wali Memon
  • Conditions for Organizational Politics Internal locus of Perceived control alternatives? Personal Scarce Characteristics Resources Conditions Deceit is Zero-sum appropriate Supporting rewards Organizational Politics Complex and Tolerance of Ambiguous Politics Decisions Democratic 32 Wali Memon It works here decision making
  • Political Antics Top the “Most Unethical List”: Survey Results Potentially Situation political Gender discrimination behaviours in recruitment or hiring (22.6) Arrangements with vendors leading to personal gain (23.1) Nonperformance factors used in appraisals (23.5) Gender discrimination in compensation (25.8) Not maintaining confidentiality (26.4) Using discipline inconsistently (26.9) Gender discrimination in promotion (26.9) Sexual harassment (28.4) Allowing differences in pay due to friendships (30.7)Hiring, training, or promoting (30.7) based on favouritism 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 33 Wali Memon Percentage Responding with a 4 or 5 on a five-Point Scale Measuring Degree of Seriousness (where 5=“very great”)
  • Controlling Political Behaviour Provide Remove Sufficient Political Norms Resources Hire Introduce Low-Politics Clear Rules Employees Increase Free Flowing Opportunities Information for Dialogue Manage Change Peer Pressure Effectively Against Politics34 Wali Memon