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  • 1. Motivation Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
  • 2. Determinants of Job Performance Willingness to perform Job Capacity Performance Opportunityto perform to perform2 Wali Memon
  • 3. Determinants of Job Performance It is Risky to Assume that a Performance Problem is Always a Motivation Problem!3 Wali Memon
  • 4. Motivation Components Direction: What you Choose to Do, When Given Alternatives. Intensity: Strength of Response or Effort Exerted. Persistence: How Long You Will Continue to Exert Effort.4 Wali Memon
  • 5. Motivation All Employees are “Motivated” – But, the Direction, Intensity, and Persistence of that Motivation may Not Match the Behavior Desired!5 Wali Memon
  • 6. Motivation Starting Point: The Individual How does Diversity impact a manager’s attempts to Motivate employees?6 Wali Memon
  • 7. Motivation Starting Point: The Individual What are “needs” and how do they impact Motivation?7 Wali Memon
  • 8. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Maslow defined human needs as: Physiological Safety & Security Belongingness, Social, & Love Esteem Self-Actualization8 Wali Memon
  • 9. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Related to the Job How can each of these Need Levels be satisfied by Work ? Physiological Safety and Security Belongingness, Social, and Love Esteem9 Self-Actualization Wali Memon
  • 10. Maslow’s Theory: Key Points What are the keys points made in Maslow’s Theory of Motivation?10 Wali Memon
  • 11. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Alderfer’s hierarchy involves three sets of needs:1. Existence2. Relatedness3. Growth11 Wali Memon
  • 12. Allderfer’s ERG Theory: Key Point Compare Maslow’s concept of the satisfaction-progression process, to Alderfer’s concept of a frustration-regression process. ● Example of frustration-regression?12 Wali Memon
  • 13. Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Management Application If a subordinate’s higher-order needs (e.g., growth) are blocked, perhaps because of company policy or lack of resources, it is in the manager’s best interest to attempt to redirect the subordinate’s efforts toward relatedness or existence needs.13 Wali Memon
  • 14. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory ● What are the “Two Factors?” ● Examples of each in the Workplace?14 Wali Memon
  • 15. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Conditions: Extrinsic Conditions: Satisfiers Intrinsic Dissatisfiers or “Hygienes” or “Motivators” Salary Achievement Job Security Recognition Working Conditions Status Responsibility Company Procedures Advancement Quality of Supervision The Work itself Quality of Interpersonal Relations at work The Possibility of Growth15 Wali Memon
  • 16. Traditional versus Herzberg View of Job Satisfaction I. Traditional Job Satisfaction Theory High Job High Job Dissatisfaction Satisfaction II. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory No Job High Job Based on Motivators Satisfaction • Feeling of achievement • Meaningful work Satisfaction • Opportunities for growth • Increased responsibility • Opportunities for advancement • RecognitionNo Job High JobDissatisfaction Hygiene Factors Dissatisfaction • Pay • Status • Job security • Working conditions • Employee benefits • Policies and procedures • Interpersonal relations 16 Wali Memon
  • 17. Global OB (p. 128) Motivation & Hygiene Factors Across Cultures Are Herzberg’s concepts of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction supported?17 Wali Memon
  • 18. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Job Enrichment What is Job Enrichment? How can Job Enrichment increase an individual’s motivation?18 Wali Memon
  • 19. Organizational Encounter (p. 129) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) Types/Examples? Why do Employees engage in OCBs? How can we encourage OCBs?19 Wali Memon
  • 20. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Achievement (n Ach) Affiliation (n Aff) Power (n Pow)20 Wali Memon
  • 21. McClelland’s Theory: Key Point How does McClelland’s Theory differ from the concepts of Maslow and Alderfer?21 Wali Memon
  • 22. Comparison of the Content Theories Maslow Herzberg Alderfer McClelland (need hierarchy) (two-factor theory) Self-actualization The work itself Growth •Responsibility Need for Esteem •Advancement AchievementHigher Motivators •Growthorder Belongingness, Achievement Need forneeds social, and love Recognition Power Quality of inter- Relatedness Need for Safety and personal relations Affiliation security at work HygieneBasic conditions Job securityneeds Physiological Working conditions Existence 22 Wali Memon Salary
  • 23. Process Theories of Motivation Founders of the Theories Vroom – Expectancy theory of choices Adams – Equity theory based on comparisons that individuals make Locke – Goal-Setting theory (conscious goals and intentions are the determinants of behavior)23 Wali Memon
  • 24. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Motivation is a process governing choices among alternate forms of voluntary activity. Most behaviors are considered to be under the voluntary control of the person and consequently are motivated.24 Wali Memon
  • 25. Vroom’s Expectancy TheoryMotivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence M=ExIxV A multiplicative relationship!25 Wali Memon
  • 26. Expectancy: First-Level Outcomes First-level outcomes result from behavior and are associated with doing the job. First-level outcomes include : Productivity Quality of Production Absenteeism Turnover26 Wali Memon
  • 27. Expectancy: Second-Level Outcomes Events (rewards and punishments) that the first-level outcomes are likely to produce, such as: Merit Pay Increases Promotions Group Acceptance or Rejection27 Termination Wali Memon
  • 28. Expectancy Theory: Key Terms Instrumentality The perception by an individual that first-level outcomes (performance) are associated with second-level outcomes (rewards). Valence The individual’s Preferences for outcomes Applies to both 1st and 2nd Level outcomes28 Wali Memon
  • 29. Expectancy Theory: Key Terms Expectancy The individual’s belief regarding the likelihood (or subjective probability) that a particular behavior will be followed by a particular outcome (a probability statement).29 Wali Memon
  • 30. Expectancy Theory: Key Terms 2 Types of Expectancies Effort-Performance Expectancy (E→P) Performance-Outcome Expectancy (P→O)30 Wali Memon
  • 31. Expectancy Theory Second-level outcome First-level E P EXPECTANCY outcome Perceived Probability of successful Performance, Second-level given effort outcome First-level Second-levelEffort Performance outcome outcome Second-level outcome P O EXPECTANCY First-level Second-level Perceived Probability of receiving outcome outcome an Outcome (Reward/Punishment), given performance Second-level31 Wali Memon outcome
  • 32. Vroom’s Expectancy TheoryMotivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence M=ExIxV A multiplicative relationship!32 Wali Memon
  • 33. Equity Theory What does Equity Theory tell us about: Comparison Rewards Motivation33 Wali Memon
  • 34. Equity Theory: Key Terms Person – the Individual perceiving equity or inequity. – any group or person used Comparison Other by “Person” as a Referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes. – the individual characteristics brought by Inputs “Person” to the job.34 Outcomes – what “Person” received from the job. Wali Memon
  • 35. The Equity Theory of Motivation ComparesA Person (P) Person’s and OP ORPwith certain = Equity Input/Outcome Perceives IP IRPInputs (I) and Ratio to orreceiving reference OP < ORP Inequity IP IRPcertain person’s (RP) orOutcomes (O) inputs (I) and OP > ORP Inequity outcomes (O) IP IRP IP: Inputs of the person OP: Outcomes of the person IRP: Inputs of reference person 35 Wali Memon ORP: Outcomes of reference person
  • 36. Change Procedures to Restore Equity1. Change Inputs2. Change Outcomes3. Change Attitudes4. Change the Reference Person5. Change the Inputs or Outcomes of the Reference Person6. Leave the field (Quit!)36 Wali Memon
  • 37. Organizational Justice The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated at the workplace What is Distributive Justice? What is Procedural Justice?37 Wali Memon
  • 38. Procedural Justice: Positive Impact What Positive Impacts canProcedural Justice produce in the workplace?38 Wali Memon
  • 39. Organizational Justice The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated at the workplace What is Interpersonal Justice? What is Informational Justice?39 Wali Memon
  • 40. Goal Setting: Key ConceptsGoal Setting The process of establishing goals Goal Specific target attempting to accomplish Goal Degree of quantitative precision (Clarity)Specificity Goal Level of Performance required to Difficulty achieve the goal Goal Process of setting the goal or of Intensity determining how to reach it Goal Amount of effort used to achieve a goalCommitment
  • 41. Examples of Goal Setting at Work Landing 5 new customers or increasing sales to existing customers by 10% over the next 12 months. Decreasing waste in the manufacturing process by 20% over the next 3 years.41 Wali Memon
  • 42. Goal Setting at Work Specific, Challenging Goals (if Accepted) result in Higher Performance.42 Wali Memon
  • 43. Goal Setting Applied to OrganizationsGoal Characteristics: Rewards:• Clear Preferred by• Meaningful Individual or Team• Challenging Performance: Desired by Organization Moderators: • Ability • Commitment • Feedback43 Wali Memon
  • 44. You Be the Judge (p. 139) Is “Participative Management” an Ethical Imperative? Why or Why Not?44 Wali Memon
  • 45. Exchange Theory What is “exchanged” for what in this theory?45 Wali Memon
  • 46. Psychological Contract What is a “Psychological Contract” at work? What factors can the Exchanges involve? Why must the Manager be attuned to the needs and expectations of employees?46 Wali Memon
  • 47. Conclusions for Managers1. Managers can influence the motivation of employees! 2. To motivate employees, managers must be aware of differences in employees’ needs, abilities, & goals. Managers must also recognize differences in preferences (valences) for rewards.47 Wali Memon
  • 48. Conclusions for Managers 3. Monitoring the needs, abilities, goals, and preferences of employees is every manager’s responsibility --- not just human resource managers! 4. Managers should work to provide employees with jobs offering task challenge, diversity, and opportunities for need satisfaction.48 Wali Memon
  • 49. 49 Wali Memon
  • 50. Case 5.1 – Comparing Co-Workers 1. What is your opinion of “Forced Ranking” performance appraisals? ● Do they motivate employees? ● Explain your viewpoint.50 Wali Memon
  • 51. Case 5.1 – Comparing Co-Workers 2. How does Equity Theory explain negative reactions to Forced Rankings? ● Explain your reasoning.51 Wali Memon
  • 52. Case 5.1 – Comparing Co-Workers 3. Based on this chapter, how would you Motivate employees -- without using forced rankings?52 Wali Memon