Money And The Banking System


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Money And The Banking System

  1. 1. Wali Memon
  2. 2. What Is Money? Wali Memon 2
  3. 3. What is Money? “Money is whatever is generally accepted in exchange for goods and services — accepted not as an object to be consumed but as an object that represents a temporary abode of purchasing power to be used for buying still other goods and services.” — Milton Friedman (1992) Wali Memon 3
  4. 4. What is Money? • A medium of exchange: an asset used to buy and sell goods and services • A store of value: an asset that allows people to transfer purchasing power from one period to another • A unit of account: a unit of measurement used by people to post prices and keep track of revenues and costs Wali Memon 4
  5. 5. How the Supply ofMoney Affects Its Value Wali Memon 5
  6. 6. Why is Money Valuable? • The main thing that makes money valuable is the same thing that generates value for other commodities: • the demand (for money) relative to its supply. • People demand money because it reduces the cost of exchange. • If the purchasing power of money is to remain stable over time, its supply must be limited. When the supply of money grows rapidly relative to goods and services, its purchasing power will fall. Wali Memon 6
  7. 7. How Is the MoneySupply Measured? Wali Memon 7
  8. 8. How the Money Supply is Measured • Two basic measurements of the money supply are M1 and M2. • The components of M1 are: • currency, • checking deposits, and, (including demand deposits and interest-earning checking deposits) • travelers checks. • M2 (a broader measure of money) includes: • M1, • savings, • time deposits, and, • money market mutual funds. Wali Memon 8
  9. 9. The Composition of Money in the U.S. The M1 and M2 Money Supply of the U.S –––––––––– (as of May 2009) –––––––––– Money Supply, M1 (in billions) Currency (in circulation) $850 Demand deposits 407 Other checkable deposits 334 $1,596 Traveler’s checks 5 Total M1 $1,596 Money Supply, M2 (in billions) M1 $1,596 Savings deposits a 4,445 Small time deposits 1,308 $8,328 Money market mutual funds 979 Total M2 $8,328a Including money market deposit accounts. Source: • The size and composition of the two most widely used measures of U.S. money supply (M1 & M2) are shown above. Wali Memon 9
  10. 10. Credit Cards versus Money • Money is an asset. • The use of a credit card is merely a convenient way to arrange for a loan. • Credit card balances are a liability. • Thus, credit card purchases are not money. Wali Memon 10
  11. 11. The Business of Banking Wali Memon 11
  12. 12. The Business of Banking • The banking industry includes: • commercial banks, • savings and loans, and, • credit unions. • Banks are profit-seeking institutions: • Banks accept deposits and use part of them to extend loans and make investments. Income from these activities is their major source of revenue. • Banks play a central role in the capital market (loanable funds market): • They help to bring together people who want to save for the future with those who want to borrow for current Memon Wali investment projects. 12
  13. 13. The Functions ofCommercial Banking Institutions Consolidated Balance Sheet of Commercial Banking Institutions April 2009 (billions of $) Assets Liabilities Vault cash $ 40 Checking deposits $ 600 Reserves at the Fed 672 Savings and time deposits 6,851 Loans outstanding 7,051 Borrowings 2,400 U.S. government securities 1,265 Other liabilities 928 Other securities 1,412 Net worth 1,291 Other assets 1,630 Total $ 12,070 $ 12,070• Banks provide services and pay interest to attract checking, savings, and time deposits (liabilities).• Most of these deposits are invested and loaned out, providing interest income for the bank.• Banks hold a portion of their assets as reserves (either as cash or deposits with the Fed) to meet their daily obligations toward their depositors. Wali Memon 13
  14. 14. Fractional Reserve Banking • The U.S. banking system is a fractional reserve system; banks are required to maintain only a fraction of their assets as reserves against the deposits of their customers (required reserves). • Vault cash and deposits held with the Federal Reserve count as reserves. • Excess reserves (actual reserves in excess of the legal requirement) can be used to extend new loans and make new investments. • Under a fractional reserve system, an increase in deposits will provide the bank with excess reserves and place it in a position to extend additional loans, and thereby expand the money supply. Wali Memon 14
  15. 15. How Banks Create Moneyby Extending Loans Wali Memon 15
  16. 16. Creating Money from New Reserves New cash Potential demand deposits: New deposits created byBank Actual Reserves Required Reserves extending new loansInitial deposit (bank A) $1,000.00 $200.00 $800.00Second stage (bank B) 800.00 160.00 640.00Third stage (bank C) 640.00 128.00 512.00Fourth stage (bank D) 512.00 102.40 409.60Fifth stage (bank E) 409.60 81.92 327.68Sixth stage (bank F) 327.68 65.54 262.14Seventh stage (bank G) 262.14 52.43 209.71All others (other banks) 1,048.58 209.71 838.87 Total $5,000.00 $1,000.00 $4,000.00 • When banks are required to maintain 20% reserves against demand deposits, the creation of $1,000 of new reserves will potentially increase the supply of money by $5,000. Wali Memon 16
  17. 17. How Banks Create Moneyby Extending Loans• The lower the percentage of the reserve requirement, the greater the potential expansion in the money supply resulting from the creation of new reserves.• The fractional reserve requirement places a ceiling on potential money creation from new reserves.• The actual deposit multiplier will be less than the potential because: • some persons will hold currency rather than bank deposits, and, • some banks may not use all their excess reserves to extend loans. Wali Memon 17
  18. 18. The Federal Reserve System Wali Memon 18
  19. 19. The Federal Reserve • The Federal Reserve (the Fed), created in 1913, is the central bank for the United States. • The Federal Reserve is responsible for the creation of a stable monetary climate for the entire U.S. economy. • It controls the money supply of the U.S., • serves as a “banker’s bank” or “bank of last resort” for U.S. banks, and, • regulates the banking sector. • In short, the Federal Reserve is responsible for the conduct of U.S. monetary policy. Wali Memon 19
  20. 20. The Federal Reserve System• The Board of Governors Federal Reserve Board of Governors is at the center of Federal 7 members appointed by the president, Reserve operations. with the consent of the U.S. Senate • The board sets all the rates and regulations for the depository institutions. Open Market 12 Federal Reserve• The seven members of the Committee District Banks Board of Governors also Board of Governors & (25 branches) serve on the Federal Open 5 Federal Reserve Bank Market Committee (FOMC). Presidents (alternating Commercial Banks • The FOMC is a 12-member terms, New York Bank Savings & Loans board that establishes Fed always represented). Credit Unions policy regarding the buying Mutual Savings Banks and selling of government securities. The Public: Households & businesses Wali Memon 20
  21. 21. The Federal Reserve Districts Kansas City Minneapolis Chicago 9 Cleveland 1 Boston New York 2 7 3 Philadelphia 12 4 Washington, D.C.SanFrancisco 10 (Board of Governors) 8 5 Richmond 6 Atlanta 11 Dallas St. Louis • The map indicates the 12 Federal Reserve districts and the cities in which the district banks are located. • Each district bank monitors the commercial banks in their region and assists them with the clearing of checks. • The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is located in Washington D.C.Memon Wali 21
  22. 22. The Independence of the Fed • The independence of the Federal Reserve system is designed to strengthen the ability of the Fed to pursue monetary policy in a stabilizing manner. • Fed independence stems from: • the lengthy terms of the members of the Board of Governors (14 years), and, • the fact that the Fed’s revenues are derived from interest on the bonds that it holds rather than allocations from Congress. Wali Memon 22
  23. 23. The Four Tools the Fed Usesto Control the Money Supply • The Fed has four major tools that it can use to control the money supply: • Reserve requirements • setting the fraction of assets that banks must hold as reserves (vault cash or deposits with the Fed), against their checking deposits • Open market operations • the buying and selling of U.S. government securities and other assets in the open market • Extension of Loans • control of the volume of loans to banks and other financial institutions • Interest paid on bank reserves • setting the interest rate paid banks on reserves held at the fed Wali Memon 23
  24. 24. Controlling the Money Supply:Setting Reserve Requirements • Reserve requirements: a fraction of checking deposits banks must hold as reserves (vault cash and deposits with the Fed) against these liabilities • When the Fed lowers the required reserve ratio, it creates excess reserves for commercial banks allowing them to extend additional loans, expanding the money supply. • Raising the reserve requirements has the opposite effect. Wali Memon 24
  25. 25. Controlling the Money Supply:Open Market Operations • Open Market Operations: the buying and selling of U.S. Treasury bonds and other financial assets by the Fed • This is the primary tool used by the Federal Reserve to control the money supply. • Note: the U.S. Treasury bonds held by the Fed are part of the national debt. Wali Memon 25
  26. 26. Controlling the Money Supply:Open Market Operations • Open Market Operations: the buying and selling of U.S. Treasury bonds and other financial assets by the Fed • When the Fed buys bonds … the money supply expands because: • bond sellers acquire money • bank reserves increase, placing banks in a position to expand the money supply through the extension of additional loans • When the Fed sells bonds … the money supply contracts because: • bond buyers exchange money for bonds • bank reserves decline, causing them to extend fewerWali Memon loans 26
  27. 27. Controlling the Money Supply:Extension of Loans by the Fed • Historically, member banks have borrowed from the Fed primarily to meet temporary shortages of reserves. • The discount rate is the interest rate the Fed charges banks for short-term loans needed to meet reserve requirements. • Other things constant, an increase in the discount rate will reduce borrowing from the Fed and thereby exert a restrictive impact on the money supply. Conversely, a lower discount rate will make it cheaper for banks to borrow from the Fed and exert an expansionary impact on the supply of money. Wali Memon 27
  28. 28. Controlling the Money Supply:Extension of Loans by the Fed • Discount Rate and Federal Funds Rate • The discount rate is closely related to the interest rate in the federal funds market, a private loanable funds market where banks with excess reserves extend short- term loans to other banks trying to meet their reserve requirements. • The interest rate in this market is called the federal funds rate. Wali Memon 28
  29. 29. Controlling the Federal Funds Rate• Announcements after the regular meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee often focus on the Fed’s target for the fed funds rate.• The Fed controls the federal funds rate through open market operations. • The Fed can reduce the fed funds rate by buying bonds, which will inject additional reserves into the banking system. • The Fed can increase the fed funds rate by selling bonds, which drains reserves from the banking system.• While the media often focuses on the Fed’s target fed funds rate, open market operations are used to control this interest rate. Wali Memon 29
  30. 30. Prior to 2008, the Fed extended only short-termdiscount rate loans, and they were extended only tomember banks.In 2008, the Fed established several new proceduresfor the extension of credit and began extendinglonger-term loans, including some to non-bankinginstitutions.The most important of these was the Term AuctionFacility (TAF) which created an auction procedurethrough which depository institutions bid for creditprovided by the Fed for an 84 day period. Wali Memon 30
  31. 31. In 2008, the Fed also began making loans to non-bankfinancial institutions such as insurance companies andbrokerage firms and these loans have often been forlengthy time periods (5-10 years).Like the discount rate loans, these new types of loansinject additional reserves into the banking system andthereby exert an expansionary impact on the moneysupply. Wali Memon 31
  32. 32. Controlling the Money Supply:Interest Rate Fed Pays on Reserves • The Fed began paying banks interest on their reserves in October 2008. • As of year-end 2009, the Fed was paying member banks an interest rate equal to the target federal funds rate on both required and excess reserves. • The payment of interest on reserves provides the Fed with another tool it can use to control the money supply. Wali Memon 32
  33. 33. Controlling the Money Supply:Interest Rate Fed Pays on Reserves • If the Fed wants banks to extend more loans and thereby expand the money supply, it will set the interest rate it pays on excess reserves very low, possibly even zero. • In contrast, if the Fed wants to reduce the money supply, it will increase the interest rate paid banks on excess reserves. This will provide them with an incentive to hold more reserves, which will reduce the money supply. Wali Memon 33
  34. 34. Federal Reserve Expansionary Monetary Policy Restrictive Monetary Policy Policy1. Reserve Reduce reserve requirements Raise reserve requirements Requirements because this will create additional because this will reduce the excess reserves and induce banks excess reserves of banks and to extend more loans, which will induce them to make fewer loans, expand the money supply. which will contract the money supply.2. Open Market Purchase additional U.S. Securities Sell U.S. securities and other Operations and other assets, which will assets, which will decrease the increase the money supply and money supply and also contract also expand the reserves available the reserves available to banks. to banks.3. Extension of Extend more loans because this Extend fewer loans because thisLoans will increase bank reserves, will decrease bank reserves, encouraging banks to make more discourage bank loans, and loans and expand the money reduce the money supply. supply.4. Interest Paid on Reduce the interest paid on excess Increase the interest paid on Excess Bank reserves because this will induce excess reserves because this will Reserves banks to hold less reserves and induce banks to hold more extend more loans, which will reserves and extend fewer loans, Wali Memon expand the money supply. which will contract the money34 supply.
  35. 35. Prior to the financial crisis of 2008, the Fed controlledthe money supply almost exclusively through openmarket operations – the buying and selling of TreasurySecurities.During 2008, the Fed reduced its holding of TreasurySecurities (see table below, line 1), but vastly expandedits purchase of corporate bonds, mortgage backedsecurities, and commercial paper issued by privatebusinesses (see table below, line 2). Wali Memon 35
  36. 36. Moreover, there was a huge increase in Fed loans tonon-banking institutions such as brokerage firms andinsurance companies (see table below, line 5 on “Loansto Other Institutions”).As the table below shows, Fed assets ballooned from$940 billion in July 2008 to $2,299 billion in December2008.This vast increase in the purchase of assets andextension of loans by the Fed led to a sharp increase inbank reserves and the monetary base. Wali Memon 36
  37. 37. (in billions of dollars) Decemb December July Decembe June Asset er 2006 2007 2008 r 2008 2009U.S. Treasury $779 $754 $479 $476 $629BondsOther Securities $33 $40 $110 $433 $652Total Security $812 $794 $589 $909 $1,281HoldingsLoans to Banks $0 $25 $167 $537 $372Loans to Other $0 $0 $30 $508 $289InstitutionsTotal Outstanding $0 $25 $197 $1,045 $661LoansTotal Other Assets $92 $108 $154 $345 $150Total Assets $904 Wali Memon $926 $940 $2,299 37 $2,092
  38. 38. The monetary base is equal to the currency incirculation plus the reserves of commercial banks(vault cash and reserves held at the Fed).The monetary base is important because it providesthe foundation for the money supply.The currency in circulation contributes directly tothe money supply, while the bank reserves providethe underpinnings for checking deposits.The expansion in Fed purchases and extension ofloans caused the monetary base to approximatelydouble during the 9 months following August 2008. Wali Memon 38
  39. 39. M1 Monetary Base Required Reserves Plus CurrencyPrior to mid-year 2008, the monetary base grew graduallyyear-after-year and excess reserves were negligible.Under these conditions, the monetary base and M1 moneysupply moved together. Wali Memon 39
  40. 40. M1 Monetary Base Required Reserves Plus CurrencyIn the second half of 2008, the Fed injected a massiveamount of reserves into the banking system and boththe monetary base and excess reserves soared. Wali Memon 40
  41. 41. Because of the weak economy, the demand for loansthat are highly likely to be repaid is weak.The Fed has pushed the interest rate on Treasury billsand other short-term loans to near zero.There is considerable uncertainty about the future andtherefore banks are reluctant to make long-termcommitments. Wali Memon 41
  42. 42. The Functionsof the Fed and Treasury • The U.S. Treasury: • is concerned with the finance of the federal expenditures • issues bonds to the general public to finance the budget deficits of the federal government • does not determine the money supply • The Federal Reserve: • is concerned with the monetary climate of the economy • does not issue bonds • is responsible for the control of the money supply and the conduct of monetary policy Wali Memon 42
  43. 43. Ambiguities in theMeaning and Measurementof the Money Supply Wali Memon 43
  44. 44. The Changing Nature of Money • In the past, economists have often used the growth rate of the money supply to gauge the direction of monetary policy. • Rapid growth was indicative of expansionary monetary policy, while, • slow growth (or a contraction in the money supply) was indicative of restrictive policy. • Recent financial innovations and structural changes have changed the nature of money and reduced the reliability of money growth figures as an indicator of monetary policy. Wali Memon 44
  45. 45. The Changing Nature of Money • The introduction of interest earning checking accounts in the early 1980s reduced the opportunity cost of holding checking deposits and thereby changed the nature of the M1 money supply. • In the 1990s, many depositors shifted funds from interest earning checking accounts to money market mutual funds. Because money market mutual funds are not included in M1 this also reduced the comparability of the M1 figures across time periods. Wali Memon 45
  46. 46. The Changing Nature of M1Billions of $ M1 Total900 $1,596750600450 Currency Demand $855 deposits $407300150 Interest-earning $334 checkable deposits 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010• In the 1980s, deregulation lead to a rapid growth of interest- earning checking deposits (that now make up approximately one quarter of the M1 money supply).• As the opportunity cost of holding these checkable deposits is less than for other forms of money, today’s money supply figures are not exactly comparable with the pre-1980 figures. Wali Memon 46
  47. 47. Three Factors that haveChanged the Nature of Money • In addition, three other factors are altering the nature of money and reducing the value of the money growth figures as an indicator of monetary policy: • Widespread use of the dollar abroad: At least one-half and perhaps as much as two-thirds of U.S. dollar currency is held abroad, and these holdings appear to be increasing. These dollars are included in the M1 money supply even though they are not circulating in the U.S.. Wali Memon 47
  48. 48. Three Factors that haveChanged the Nature of Money (cont.) • Increasing availability of low-fee stock and bond mutual funds: Because stock and bond mutual funds are not included in any of the money aggregates, movement of funds from various M1 and M2 components into these mutual funds distorts both the M1 and M2 figures. • Debit cards and electronic money: Increased use of debit cards and various forms of electronic money will reduce the demand for currency. Like other changes in the nature of money, these innovations will reduce the reliability of the money supply figures as an indicator of monetary policy. 48 Wali Memon
  49. 49. Innovations and dynamic changes have altered thenature of money. Economists now place less emphasison the growth rate of the money supply figures as amonetary policy indicator.Most economists now rely on a combination of factorsto evaluate the direction and appropriateness ofmonetary policy.We will follow this procedure as we consider theimpact of monetary policy in subsequent chapters. Wali Memon 49