Learning Social Psychology

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Learning Social Psychology

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Learning Social Psychology

  1. 1. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SOME FUNDAMENTALS Wali MemonOctober 02, 2010 Wali Memon 1
  2. 2. OVERVIEW Social cognition Attitude Social influence Social actionOctober 02, 2010 Wali Memon 2
  3. 3. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY The scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one individual are influenced by the real, imagined, or inferred behavior or characteristics of other people.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 3
  4. 4. SOCIAL COGNITION Knowledge and understanding concerning the social world and the people in it ( including oneself ).October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 4
  5. 5. SCHEMA A set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 5
  6. 6. PRIMACY EFFECTS The fact that early information about someone weighs more heavily than later information in influencing one’s impression of that person.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 6
  7. 7. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY The process in which a person’s expectation about another elicits behavior from the second person that confirms the expectation.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 7
  8. 8. STEREOTYPE A set of characteristics presumed to be shared by all members of a social category.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 8
  9. 9. ATTRIBUTION THEORY The theory that addresses the question of how people make judgements about the causes of behavior.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 9
  10. 10. FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR The tendency of people to overemphasize personal causes for other people’s behavior and to underemphasize personal causes for their own behavior.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 10
  11. 11. DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION The tendency to attribute our successes to our own efforts or qualities and our failures to external factors.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 11
  12. 12. JUST-WORLD HYPOTHESIS Attribution error is based on the assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people .October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 12
  13. 13. INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION Proximity: How close two people live to each other. Exchange: the concept that relationships are based on trading rewards among partners. Equity: fairness of exchange achieved when each partner in the relationship receives the same proportion of outcomes to investments.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 13
  14. 14. ATTITUDES Relatively stable organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies directed toward something or someone.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 14
  15. 15. SELF-MONITORING The tendency for an individual to observe the situation for cues about how to react.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 15
  16. 16. PREJUDICE An unfairm, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group of people .October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 16
  17. 17. DISCRIMINATION An unfair act or series of acts taken toward an entire group of people or individual members of that group.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 17
  18. 18. FRUSTRATION- AGGRESSION THEORY The theory that, under certain circumstances, people who are frustrated in their goals turn their anger away from the proper, powerful target and toward another, less powerful target that is safer to attack.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 18
  19. 19. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Perceived inconsistency between two cognitions.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 19
  20. 20. SOCIAL INFLUENCE The process by which others individually or collectively affect one’s perceptions, attitudes, and actions.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 20
  21. 21. CULTRURAL TRUISM The belief that most members of a society accept as self-evidently true.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 21
  22. 22. NORM A shared idea or expectation about how to behave.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 22
  23. 23. CONFORMITY Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one’s preferences.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 23
  24. 24. COMPLIANCE Change of behavior in response to an explicit request from another person or group.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 24
  25. 25. OBEDIENCE Change of behavior in response to a command from another person, typically an authority figure.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 25
  26. 26. DEINDIVIDUATION A loss of personal sense of responsibity in a group.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 26
  27. 27. ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR Helping behavior that is not linked to personal gain.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 27
  28. 28. BYSTANDER EFFECT The tendency for an individual’s helpfulness in an emergency to decrease as the number of passive bystanders increases.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 28
  29. 29. RISKY SHIFT Greater willingness of a group than an individual to take substantial risks.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 29
  30. 30. POLARIZATION Shift in attitudes by members of a group toward more extreme positions than the ones held before discussion.October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 30
  31. 31. QUESTIONS!October 02, 2010 Wali Memon 31

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