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Intelligences!

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  • Hi Everyone

    I would like to share with everyone my website.. I would like input from people around the world. I believe the current 'mainstream' view of emotional intelligence is too 'American' and narrow. By that I mean it is too focused on making money. In my opinion, making more money won't stop the wars in the world, it won't stop the lack of empathy and compassion, it won't create more caring and understanding or even mutual respect. I am very critical of Daniel Goleman's model of and beliefs about emotional intelligence. If you value my ideas about emotional intelligence and humanity, I hope to hear from you.

    By the way here is one comparison table I made between what I call the corporate definition of EI and a more socially responsible one.

    www.eqi.org/comp_tab.htm

    Also, I have worked with many young people who are depressed and even suicidal. Often their parents are making a lot of money and are very 'successful' as the Americans define success. So money and 'success' are no guarantee your children will be happy.

    Pllease take my words to heart because I speak from many years of experience. I was born and raised in America by the way, so I know the culture well. I have an MBA degree, with honors. I worked in 2 Fortune 500 companies. Then I was divorced twice. I later realized all the money I made did not make me happy.

    Thank you for reading this, please share this message.

    Steve Hein
    www.eqi.org
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EQ Versus IQ Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Intelligences! EQ vs. IQ Wali Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
  • 2. Definition of Intelligence• The ability to learn or understand or to dealwith new or trying situations : the skilled useof reason• The cognitive abilities of an individual tolearn from experience, to reason well, and tocope effectively with the demands of dailyliving. 2 Wali Memon
  • 3. What is Intelligence?"Intelligence, as a hypotheticalconstruct, is the aggregate or globalcapacity of the individual to actpurposefully, to think rationally, and todeal effectively with his environment”- Wechsler3 Wali Memon
  • 4. What is Intelligence?Although experts differ on an exactdefinition of intelligence most agree thatintelligent behavior has at least twocomponents:1. The ability to learn from experience.2. The ability to adapt to the surroundingenvironment. 4 Wali Memon
  • 5. Factors of General Intelligence Tests1. Verbal Comprehension - vocabulary, verbalanalogies2. Number -- mathematical operations3. Space - visual-spatial and mental transformation4. Associative Memory -- rote memory5. Perceptual Speed -- quickness in noticingsimilarities and differences6. Reasoning - skill in inductive, deductive, andmath problems 5 Wali Memon
  • 6. What Do We Know About IQ?Predicts school grades relatively wellDoes not predict success in lifePredicts 6% of job successPeaks in late teensCulture-bound, Gender Bias, SESRacial controversiesGets you in the door Professional schools (medicine, dentistry, law) Can help you get hired (Harvard MBA)Static 6 Wali Memon
  • 7. What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?Non-Ability Factors’ Role:"…individuals with identical IQs may differ verymarkedly in regard to their effective ability to cope withtheir environment…It is not possible to account for morethan 50% to 70% of the intertest correlational varianceafter all recognizable intellectual factors are eliminated.This leaves any where from 30% to 50% of the totalfactorial variance unaccounted for. It is suggested thatthis residual variance is largely contributed by suchfactors as drive, energy, impulsiveness, etc."- Wechsler 7 Wali Memon
  • 8. Where Did the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Come From?In 1983, Gardner first published his theory, derived fromextensive brain research, on Multiple Intelligence includingintrapersonal (self awareness/self management) andinterpersonal (relationship awareness/management)Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context ofpersonality theory, specifically a model of well-beingPeter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory ofemotional intelligence (EI) in 1990 and defined itGoleman (1995-2003) has popularized the concept ofemotional intelligence and formulated EI in terms of a theoryof8 job and work performance Wali Memon
  • 9. Gardner’s Seven IntelligencesIntelligence Core Components End-StatesLogical- Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical Scientistmathematical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long Mathematician chains of reasoning. Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, andLinguistic meanings of words; sensitivity to the Poet different functions of language. JournalistMusical Abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm, Violinist pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms Composer of musical expressiveness.Spatial Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial Sculptor world accurately and to perform Navigator transformations on ones initial perceptions.
  • 10. Gardner’s Seven IntelligencesIntelligence Core Components End-StatesBodily- Abilities to control ones body DancerKinesthetic movements and to handle objects Athlete skillfully.Interpersonal Capacities to discern and respond Therapist appropriately to the moods, Salesman temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people.Intrapersonal Access to ones own feelings and the Person with ability to discriminate among them and detailed draw upon them to guide behavior; accurate self- knowledge of one’s own strengths, knowledge weaknesses, desires, and intelligences.
  • 11. Is There Multiple Intelligence?Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfullyEmotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions 11 Wali Memon
  • 12. What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?Intelligence Does Not = Behaviour“I look upon intelligence as an effect ratherthan a cause, that is, as a resultant ofinteracting abilities - nonintellective included.The problem confronting psychologists todayis how these abilities interact to give theresultant effect we call intelligence." 12- Wechsler Wali Memon
  • 13. What Is Emotional Intelligence?Mayer-Salovey ModelMSCEITPerformance or ability measureBar-On ModelEQ-ISelf-report measureGoleman ModelECI - Self Report Measure 13 Wali Memon360 measure
  • 14. What Is Emotional Intelligence?Emotional intelligence involves the “abilitiesto perceive, appraise, and express emotion; toaccess and/or generate feelings when theyfacilitate thought; to understand emotion andemotional knowledge; and to regulateemotions to promote emotional andintellectual growth”- Mayer & Salovey (1997) 14 Wali Memon
  • 15. Mayer - Salovey Model• Social communications requires accurateperception of content, as well as tone and non-verbal signals such as posture and facial expression• Emotions are complex, and people can experiencea combination of different emotions•Many theorists agree that basic emotions haveuniversal meaning - universal across cultures andeven across certain species. 15 Wali Memon
  • 16. Testing Emotional Intelligence • How should you measure an intelligence? • With an ability test –Ask person to solve problems –Gauge their ability to do so accurately and/or quickly16 Wali Memon
  • 17. Recommendation for Ability Testing Components [of emotional intelligence]…are best tested by sampling a person’s actual ability at the task – for example, by having them read a person’s feelings from a video of their facial expressions.” (Goleman, 1995).17 Wali Memon
  • 18. What Is Emotional Intelligence? Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)• MSCEIT is an ability based measure designed to assessEmotional Intelligence.• It is a performance based scale, meaning it measures howwell an individual performs tasks and solves emotionalproblems - instead of simply just asking individuals for theirsubjective assessment of their emotional skills. 18• It was developed from an intelligence testing perspective. Wali Memon
  • 19. What Is Emotional Intelligence? Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)ScalesIdentifying Emotions: identify emotions in facesUsing Emotions to Facilitate Thought: use emotionsto solve problemsUnderstanding Emotions: figure out what makespeople “tick” 19 Wali MemonManaging Emotions: make optimal decisions
  • 20. Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test EXPERIENTIAL STRATEGIC IDENTIFY FACILITATE UNDERSTAND MANAGE FACES SENSATIONS CHANGES EMOT. MAN.20 Wali Memon PICTURES FACILITATE BLENDS EMOT. RELAT.
  • 21. MSCEIT StructureIdentify Emotions - Faces: 3 faces (4 5-part Q’s) - Pictures: 6 designs (6 5-part Q’s)Facilitating Thought (Use Emotions) - Sensations: 5 situations (5 3-part Q’s) - Facilitation: 5 problems (5 3-part Q’s)Understand Emotions - Changes: 20 item (20 Q’s) - Blends: 12 items (12 Q’s)Manage Emotions - Emotion Management: 5 situations (5 4-part) - Emotional Relationships: 3 situations (3 3-part) 21 Wali Memon
  • 22. Identify EmotionsAbility• Accurately identify emotions in people andobjectsQuestion Types• Identify emotions in faces, landscapes, anddesigns.How the Ability May Be Used• "Read" peoples moods for feedback. 22 Wali Memon
  • 23. What Is Emotional Intelligence?MSCEITHow much is each feeling below expressed by this face? Extreme 1. No Happiness 1 2 3 4 5 Happiness 23 Wali Memon Extreme 2. No Fear 1 2 3 4 5 Fear
  • 24. INSTRUCTIONS: How much is each feeling expressed by this picture? 1 2 3 4 5 1. Happiness 2. Sadness Ability24 Wali Memon Accurately identify emotions in people and objects How the Ability May Be Used "Read" peoples moods for feedback.
  • 25. Facilitate ThoughtAbility• Generate an emotion and solve problems withthat emotionQuestion Types• How moods impact thinking; relating feelingsto thoughtsHow the Ability May Be Used• Creating the right feeling to assist in problemsolving, communicating a vision, leadingpeople. 25 Wali Memon
  • 26. 1. What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a. tension 1 2 3 4 5 b. surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c. joy 1 2 3 4 5Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion How the Ability May Be Used 26 Wali Memon Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.
  • 27. Understand EmotionsAbility• Understand the causes of emotionsQuestion Types• Multiple choice emotion vocabulary questions.How the Ability May Be Used• Being able to predict how people willemotionally react. 27 Wali Memon
  • 28. 1. Tom felt anxious, and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project, he felt_______________. a. overwhelmed b. depressed c. ashamed d. self-conscious e. jitteryAbility Understand the causes of emotions 28 Wali Memon How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.
  • 29. Manage Emotions Ability • Stay open to emotions and blend with thinking. Question Types • Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to problems. How the Ability May Be Used • Integrate emotion and thought to make effective decisions. 29 Wali Memon
  • 30. ) 1. Debbie just came back from vacation. She was feeling peaceful and content. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do. Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she go on her next vacation. Action 3: She decided it was best ignore the feeling since it wouldn’t last anyway. 30 a) Very ineffective Wali Memon b) Somewhat Ineffective c) Neutral d) Somewhat Ineffective e) Very Ineffective
  • 31. Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence• An intelligence implies that there are better and worse answers or responses.• Problem with the ability approach: –Is there a right way to feel?• Indeed, there are emotional issues that cannot be measured this way! –What’s the “right” response to someone shouting? 31Wali Memon
  • 32. Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence32 Wali Memon
  • 33. Scoring The MSCEITConsensus scoring is used based onthe full standardization sampleExpert scoring is used based on asample of 21 members of theInternational Society for Research inEmotions 33 Wali Memon
  • 34. Consensus Scoring• Consensus scoring has been used withgreat success.•It is based upon the agreement of a largenumber of people.• For example, if 70 percent of people feltthat a photo was of a very happy person,then the best answer for the photo would 34be “happiness”. Wali Memon
  • 35. Expert Scoring•Based on Wechsler intelligence tests • Responses to intelligence test questions are categorized • Experts (psychologists) rate quality of responses •Compare test-taker’s response to35 experts’ ratings Wali Memon
  • 36. Consensus and Expert Scoring Converge• Consensus and expert choices for the right answers are in general agreement! The MSCEIT r for agreement ranges from .90 upward• So, there are better and worse answers in general. When there are enough experts, both general and expert participants now mostly agree. 36 Wali Memon
  • 37. How Was the MSCEIT Standardized?Standardized on 5000Participants Across over 50English-speaking data sites in: Australia Canada Ages 17 to 79 Reports matched to United India States Census Data on age, gender, ethnicity and South Africa education United Kingdom United States37 Wali Memon
  • 38. MSCEIT Reliability MSCEIT .93 EXPERIENCE .90 STRATEGIC .88IDENTIFY .91 FACIL/USE .79 UNDERSTAND .80 MANAGE .83 Faces .80 Synesthesia .64 Blends .66 Emtn Mangmt .69Pictures .88 Facilitation .65 Changes .70 Emtn Rltns .6738 Wali Memon
  • 39. Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985) Overall EIQ r = .93 Experiential Reasoning Area Area r = .90 r = .88Perceiving Using Understanding Managing Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion r = .91 r = .79 r = .80 r = .83Source: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), Emotion
  • 40. In Two Large-Sample Studies (N > 1700), Confirmatory Factor Analyses Show Good Fits for the 1, 2, and 4 Factor Models Overall EIQ Experiential Reasoning Area AreaPerceiving Using Understanding Managing Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion40 Wali Memon
  • 41. T MSCEIT is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (N’s > 100): Intelligence Tests r = .00 to .40 Big Five Personality Scales r = .00 to .35 Self-report Scales of EQ, r = .00 to .35 optimism, empathy Sources: Bracket & Mayer, in press; Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputo, 2000; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Roberts, Zeidner, & Mathews, forthcoming; Salovey, Mayer, Caruso,& Lopez, in press.41 Wali Memon
  • 42. Low Scores on the MSCEIT Predicted these Negative Aspects of Relationships: More fights, drug use r = .21 to .40, p < .05 More alcohol and tobacco use r = .15 to 24, p < .05 Higher ratings of aggression by peers r = .20 to .46, p < .001 at school Sources: Brackett & Mayer, in press; Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, under review; Formica, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2001; Rubin, 2000; N = 48.42 Wali Memon
  • 43. MSCEIT’S Criterion ValidityCriterion:• Behavior –Self-Improvement -.16** 503 –Rational Control -.39** 208 –Life Enthusiasm .22** 208 Relatedness .30** 208 –Destructive Behavior -.33** 208 43 Wali Memon
  • 44. What Is Emotional Intelligence?Emotional intelligence is “an array ofnoncognitive capabilities, competencies, andskills that influence one’s ability to succeed incoping with environmental demands andpressures”- Bar-On (1997) 44 Wali Memon
  • 45. Why Was the BarOn EQ-i Developed?To help answer a basic question: Why do some people with high IQ fail in life, while others with moderate IQ succeed? 45 Wali Memon
  • 46. Dr. BarOn and Emotional IntelligenceDr. Reuven Bar-On began in 1980factors that were related to success in lifewhy some people with moderate IQ dowell in life while others with high IQ failDistinct from IQ (cognitive intelligence)components resemble personality factors,but can change and can be altered 46 Wali Memon
  • 47. Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i®Identified key determinants of successClustered determinants of success into factorsOperationally defined the factorsConstructed the EQ-i®Examined the factor structure, reliability, &validityValidated the EQ-i® across culturesExtensively normed (>10,000)Continued validation 47 Wali Memon
  • 48. How Does the EQ-i Work?133 brief items answered on a 5-point scale from “NotTrue of Me” to “True of Me”30 minutes to completeStandard scores based on “100” as the average,Standard Deviation of 15Includes the following scales: Total EQ 5 EQ Composite Scales 15 EQ Content Scales 4 Validity Scales 48 Wali Memon
  • 49. 49 Wali Memon
  • 50. ® BarOn/EQ-i FactorsIntra-Personal Adaptability Emotional Self-Awareness Problem Solving Assertiveness Flexibility Self-Regard Reality Testing Self-Actualization Stress Management Independence Stress ToleranceInter-Personal Impulse Control Interpersonal Relationship General Mood Empathy Optimism Social Responsibility Happiness50 Wali Memon
  • 51. BarOn/EQ-i Sample Test Items: I have good relations with others I’m fun to be with I like helping people Rating Scale: 1 = Very Seldom or Not True of me51 5 = Very Often True of Me or True of Me Wali Memon
  • 52. Emotional Self-Awareness Subscale Item 7. Its fairly easy for me to express feelings. 9. Im in touch with my emotions. 23. Its hard for me to share my deep feelings with others 35. Its hard for me to understand the way I feel. 52. Its hard to express my intimate feelings. 63. Im aware of the way I feel. 88. Even when upset, I’m aware of whats happening to me.116. Its hard for me to describe my feelings.52 Wali Memon
  • 53. EQ-I Scoring Standard Score Guideline 130+ Markedly High Atypically well developed emotional capacity 120-129 Very High Extremely well developed emotional capacity 110-119 High Well developed emotional capacity 90-109 Average Adequate emotional capacity 80-89 Low Under-developed emotional capacity 70-79 Very Low Extremely under-developed emotional capacity Under 70 Markedly Low Atypically impaired emotional capacity53 Wali Memon
  • 54. Sample Sizes - Over 10,000 used during R&D - 3,831 used for the norms Age Males FemalesLess than 30 678 814 30 to 39 432 404 40 to 49 452 420 50 or over 214 22954 Wali Memon
  • 55. Subgroup Representation Subgroup % of Sample Caucasian 77% Hispanic 3% Asian 8% Black 7%55 Other 5% Wali Memon
  • 56. Reliability and ValidityGood reliability test-retest (>.6 @ 4mths) Cronbach’s alpha (.75 to .89)Good validity construct (with other psych. tests) varying relationships (weak to strong) correlation with coping, IQ, and occupational success 56 Wali Memon
  • 57. EQi and Gender n = 4500 M n = 3200 F104102100 98 96 Female 94 Male 92 90 88 SR IR SocRe EM ST
  • 58. EQ-I and Age Differences EQ and Age (n=3831)58 Wali Memon
  • 59. Some of the Applications of the EQ-i®Recruiting highperformers Risk managementRetaining highperformers Self developmentTeambuilding Change managementManaging diversity Merger integration & re-shaping cultureLeadershipdevelopment Restructuring & realignmentCoaching Stress managementPerformancemanagement Career planning59 Wali Memon
  • 60. EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing ModelsEQ-i - Bar-On’s test NEO PI-R - Costa & McCraeIntrapersonal ExtraversionEmotional self-awareness, Warmth, gregariousness, optimism,assertiveness, self-regard, self- assertiveness, high-energyactualization, independenceInterpersonalEmpathy, interpersonal Neuroticismrelationship, social responsibility Stress tolerance, impulse control, anger, depression, anxietyStress ManagementProblem solving, reality testing,flexibilityAdaptabilityStress tolerance, impulse controlGeneral Mood 60 Wali Memonhappiness, optimism
  • 61. EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Personality Models• EQ-i and some personality test correlations very high –Self-Regard x Borderline features r = -.74 –Happiness x Depression Scale r = -.77 61 Wali Memon
  • 62. What Is Emotional Intelligence?If these are measuring the same thing, thereshould be a significant, positive correlationamongst the measures. Predicted r = + .50 or more EQ-i62 Wali Memon MSCEIT
  • 63. What Is Emotional Intelligence?However, the measures are not highly related. Actual r = .00 to .15 EQ-i MSCEIT63 Wali Memon
  • 64. What Is Emotional Intelligence?What Does This Mean?EQ-I and the MSCEIT measure relativelydifferent things.How can they both be predicting emotionalintelligence?How do we use the EQ-I and the MSCEIT? 64 Wali Memon
  • 65. What Is Emotional Intelligence?The answers lie in the intelligence / IQmodels of Wechsler:- Bar-On influenced by Wechsler’ssearch for non-intellective factors.- Mayer & Salovey working in anintelligence ability framework. 65 Wali Memon
  • 66. What Is Emotional Intelligence?MSCEIT measures fundamental abilitiesof emotional intelligence as measured inan objective manner.EQ-I measures the non-intellectivefactors that impact emotionally-intelligent behavior as reported by theperson. 66 Wali Memon
  • 67. Research on the Effects of Intelligence (EI) on Career Success LOW “EI” “IQ” “EI” CAREER ADVANCEMENT CAREER DERAILMENT 67 Wali Memon
  • 68. EQ & Work Success (n = 100) Source: A scientific study of 100 university-educated employees using the Bar-On EQ-i® conducted by68 bankMemon Wali Joseph Hee-Woo Jae, Ateneo Manila University, Philippines.
  • 69. What Emotional Intelligence Is NotCognitive Intelligence (IQ) IQ is necessary but EQ allows the stars to rise to the top EQ and IQ are not highly correlated (about r = .1) estimated that 1% of the variance accounting for occupational success can be attributed to IQ EQ is estimated to account for 3 to 27% of occupational success 69 Wali Memon
  • 70. Questions70 Wali Memon