Key Message: Information Presentation Welcome by local person Explain why workshop is being hosted Recognize local dignitaries present Acknowledge workshop sponsor Introduce presenters Title of this Module: Complete Streets Training Overview Est. Presentation Time: 10 -15 min. Suggested Comments: Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this portion of the training, attendees will: Be able to explain what a complete street is. Be able to understand how to develop a complete street Be able to discuss implications of modal tradeoffs in developing a complete street Be able to focus on low-cost and easy to implement solutions. Be able to cite other success stories and will know where to go for additional information and resources. Instructional Method: Information Presentation – Presentation Given in Two Parts Part I - General presentation covering: Definition Policy Design Strategies Part II – Hands on Workshop Overview of 5 Real World Examples Group Breakout to Solve Real World Examples Group Presentations to Discuss Design Strategies Image(s): Modify the conference title, presenters, and funding source listed on the presentation to the correct information.
Key Message: The public supports improvements to the pedestrian and bicycling environment Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 min. Suggested Comments: Shows changing attitudes among Americans. Building more roads/highways used to be at the top of the list, now it is public transit and bike/ped. Numerous other surveys concur – people want more from our transportation system than a singular focus on moving cars and trucks. Source of Survey : 2000 FHWA Infrastructure Survey
Key Message: There are significant opportunities to convert short auto trips we make in the U.S. to bicycling and walking trips. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 min. Suggested Comments: A lot of opportunity to increase bicycle and pedestrian mode share. These are a few statistics that show the significant opportunities to reduce our reliance on automobile travel in the U.S. There have been a number of polls over the past five years. They consistently show that Americans want more options and are in favor of more walk-able, bike-able communities.
Key Message: There are significant opportunities to convert short auto trips we make in the U.S. to bicycling and walking trips. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 min. Suggested Comments: There are already a lot of people who walk everyday – over 50 million. Also, one in ten households don’t own a vehicle, and a third of the population are either too young to drive, are elderly and don’t drive anymore, or otherwise choose not to drive.
Key Message: Local (or state) policies support bicycling and walking accommodation as it relates to engineering, planning, rehabilitation, and construction activities. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 min. Suggested Comments: Quote the policy to educate the audience and to provide them with a reference where they can read the full policy. Modify the quoted policy in the presentation to accurately represent the local policy where the presentation is given, or use this as an example of a policy that might be adopted.
Key Message: Local policy or law supports bicycling and walking accommodation as it relates to engineering, planning, rehabilitation, and construction activities. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 min. Suggested Comments: Quote the policy to educate the audience and to provide them with a reference where they can read the full policy. Modify the quoted policy in the presentation to accurately represent the local policy where the presentation is given, or use this as an example of a policy that might be adopted.
Key Message: What these statistics show is we need to do a better job creating a safe transportation network for all user groups. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments: If you look at crash statistics and compare them to the number of people who bicycle and walk, you get a sobering picture of the problems that are created by not adequately accommodating pedestrians and bicyclists. Those modes account for 9-10% of all trips, and yet they are a disproportionate share of the crashes – approximately 13%. Source: Crash data is based on 2005 NHTSA Traffic Safety Fact Sheets, mode share is based on the 2001 National Household Transportation Survey. Modify the accident statistics in the presentation to include up-to-date stats in future years.
Key Message: The purpose of this course is to give you hands-on experience. Est. Presentation Time: 3-5 min. Suggested Comments: The purpose of this training is to review some successful methods of creating complete streets, and then quickly move into working on some real life design scenarios. Options for Hands-On Participation Ask each audience member to tell the audience: Their Name and Employer Job Responsibilities (i.e. engineer, planner, activist) Single Most Challenging Project/Responsibility They Struggle with to Create a Complete Street
Key Message: Is this a complete street? Wide roads and intersections are not pedestrian or bicycle friendly. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 min. Suggested Comments: This road has medians, sidewalks, signals, and crosswalks. Is this a complete street? High speed, busy, multilane roads are barriers to walking and bicycling. Highlight dedicated turn lanes, large number of lanes. Long crossing distances. Vehicle focused. Large arterials require extra design attention and additional right-of-way to develop a complete street. This intersection is devoted to accommodating high volumes of traffic at minimal delay. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Even communities with well-designed bicycling and walking facilities can have problems with access and linkage. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: This photo shows the ground level view for pedestrian. This is an intimidating crossing. Note this woman’s age – can she see the pedestrian signal 120 feet away? What is her design speed? Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Many communities have existing opportunities to reallocate roadway space to other modes. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: In many cases, roadways were designed for 20 year anticipated volume. The reason this is done is because it is cheaper in the long term to widen the road once, rather than twice. In the meantime, this represents a very inefficient use of space, and it discourages bicycling and walking. Also, traffic forecasting is based on many assumptions regarding land use and travel patters. Sometimes those assumptions turn out to be incorrect and the anticipated traffic volumes never materialize. This is an example of a roadway that was built for a larger motor vehicle capacity that never materialized. There are other problems with this as well. Wide lanes encourage higher motor vehicle speeds and create long pedestrian crossing distances. What are some short term solutions here? Travel lanes could be narrowed by installing bicycle lanes, or the road could be reconstructed with a planted median. Image: Alexandria, VA, Toole Design Group
Key Message: Complete Street – Urban Area Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: Solicit interaction: What makes this a complete street? This is an example of an urban roadway that has high volumes of traffic (with some delay), resulting in slower speeds, while accommodating bicycles and pedestrians. Not surprisingly, there are a lot of people who walk and bike here because they feel comfortable and safe doing so. Image(s): Cambridge, MA, Toole Design Group
Key Message: Suburban Complete Street – More vehicle accommodation at intersection with bicycle lanes on remainder. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: Here is another example of a suburban/urban roadway with bicycle lanes adjacent to parking, and wide sidewalks with landscaped buffers for pedestrians. In this case, the bike lane was eliminated at the intersection to allow for greater vehicular capacity. This is not an ideal solution, but it is better than having no bike lanes at all. There is no need for those additional lanes along the entire length of the roadway. Image: Arlington, VA, Toole Design Group
Key Message: Busy arterials should be designed to accommodate bicyclists and pedestrians. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: This is an example of a busy, multi-lane arterial striped with wide curbside bicycle lanes which accommodate bicyclists. Notice a sidewalk is provided as well. This may not be the most appealing walking/bicycling environment, but this is the reality in many of our urban and suburban corridors that carry high volumes of traffic. There are many situations where these types of roads provide the most direct connection to important destinations. Key design criteria – notice that the bike lane is a minimum of 5’ width (6’ is even better in locations like this with higher speeds and heavier volumes). Note that bike lanes wider than 6 feet start to look like travel lanes. Also notice that the adjacent motor vehicle lane is not narrow – it should be at least 12’ wide, again in locations with heavy, high speed (i.e. 45 mph or greater) traffic. One solution is to reallocate space from the other (non-curbside) lanes to the edges of the roadway, therefore creating more space for bike lanes and sidewalks. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Is this a complete street? – Rural Example Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: Low volume roadways and rural roadways provide unique design challenges to develop complete streets. Local residents may not want sidewalks because they don’t want to give up any of their front yard, or else they think a sidewalk will make their neighborhood look too “urban”. Factors such as traffic volumes and speeds need to be balanced against sight distance restrictions and community input to determine whether shoulders or sidewalks are needed in these types of settings. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Is this a complete street? Urbanizing Example. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments: Sometimes residents of these neighborhoods express extremely divergent viewpoints – a desire to maintain the suburban/rural feeling vs. a desire to protect their children from motor vehicles. Compromise and community outreach are vital. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Roads designed for slow speeds are comfortable for sharing between all modes. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments: Let’s take a look at a European solution to complete street design in a residential area. This is an example of a two way roadway designed for slow motor vehicle operation. Notice the parked cars intrude upon the travel lane on the right and vegetation encroaches on the left. This narrows the effective roadway width, encouraging vehicles to travel slower, making conditions safer for all modes. Image(s): Dan Burden
Key Message: Complete streets provide a generous walking space in a comfortable setting. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments: Sidewalks should be constructed to a 5 foot minimum width to allow two people to walk side by side. A buffer strip planted with trees is a critically important in order to create a feeling of safety and comfort for pedestrians walking along a roadway. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Some obvious differences between streets designed for just one mode versus complete streets. Est. Presentation Time: 3 min. Suggested Comments: Here are two examples of commercial areas that were developed before, and after the 1940’s. Both of these commercial areas have sidewalks – but which one is more walkable? The picture at the left was taken in a small town north of Lancaster, PA. The picture at right could be taken nearly anywhere in the U.S. Describe the differences you see in these two styles of development, in terms of walkability. Instructor - As an ancillary exercise, you can have the students discuss which style of development has become more profitable to businesses today, and why. Answer - the businesses in the photograph on the left are very profitable, and every storefront shop is filled with a tenant. Americans want to shop in places like this, and come here in droves on the weekend. They would rather walk along the street and visit multiple shops rather than have to get back in their car and drive to the next adjacent property. In fact, there are numerous examples of brand new developments that attempt to emulate this style of traditional small-town street. On the other hand, there are numerous examples of dying strip malls that can’t retain businesses. Accessing the businesses in the right-hand photograph is definitely not fun if you are a pedestrian, and isn’t pleasant for a person in an automobile either. Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: Explain that there are often constraints to providing a complete street. There are many more miles of road that fall into this category. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments: Introduce the concept that flexible approaches are necessary to produce a complete street. At times it may not be possible to provide the optimum solution for all modes; however, stress that it is important not to automatically default to shortchanging the bicycle or pedestrian mode when there are constraints. There will be places where it is better to decrease motor vehicle efficiency to accommodate transit/bike/ped. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Project limits should always be examined at the beginning of any new project to assess potential gaps or needs and the new projects should correct them. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: Encourage the staff to perform a site visit to identify these critical gaps before initiating new projects or issuing RFP’s. Sometimes by just extending the project limits slightly, it is possible to eliminate these gaps. Point out the sidewalk at the back of the picture with the resulting gap between. We need to remember who we are serving – the residents and road users are our customers. Image(s): Peter Lagerwey, Harvey Muller
Key Message: Guidance is not provided in one location. The designer needs to access multiple sources to develop a complete design. Suggested Comments: Check ADAAG online for updates and news. Contact Access Board for information and clarification. Utilize Green Book in conjunction with pedestrian and bicycle guidelines, local guides, and MUTCD to develop design. Most engineers and agencies only keep the Green Book and MUTCD close at hand. Other guidelines will be needed in order to design a complete street. The next edition of the MUTCD is due in 2008. It is expected that there will be many new additions relevant to pedestrians (i.e. walking speed reduction to 3.5 ft/sec from 4.0 ft/sec) and for bicyclists (i.e. bicycle route guide signing). The next edition of the AASHTO Bike Guide is not expected until 2008 at the earliest. Update the local design guide information on this slide.
Est. Presentation Time: 5 min. Key Message: Some additional examples of guidance that is available nationally that is specific to the pedestrian and bicycle modes.
Key Message: The problem is this: the concept of complete streets is often directly at odds with the historical way in which we design roadways. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: Through decades of practice, standard roadway design focused on achieving the goal of moving high volumes of vehicles quickly. Image: Sprinkle Consulting
Key Message: These are the basic desires of a pedestrian. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: The needs of pedestrians are in direct conflict with the strategy of moving large volumes of traffic at high speeds, because what makes a pedestrian most comfortable and safe are low volumes moving at slow speeds. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: This graphic relates vehicular speed to the percentage chance of death of a pedestrian. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: A complete street emphasizes lower speeds because of the likelihood of a fatality over 30 mph. Speed is a central component in the design of a complete street. Notice how the chance of death increases to almost 90% at a 40mph impact speed. Emphasize the importance of lower speeds for a safer pedestrian environment. Image: Killing Speed and Saving Lives , UK Department of Transportation
Key Message: It is better to design the street from the start to encourage slower speeds, however traffic calming can be used to retrofit residential streets. Est. Presentation Time: 2 min. Suggested Comments: Ask participants: what do you see here that makes this a complete street? Add parking, street trees, narrower lanes, horizontal and vertical curves. For retrofit, there are lots of ways to slow cars down. This application is adjacent to a park. This is an example of a road designed for higher speeds initially that was retrofitted to slow traffic. Curb extensions shorten crossing distances, and the crosswalks are raised crosswalks to act as speed tables to slow vehicles. Point out that there is no centerline. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Crossing islands simplify a crossing – speeds should be slower at these crossing points. These are focused crossings Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : By breaking the crossing into two segments, crossing islands allow pedestrians to focus on one car movement at a time. Image(s): Dan Burden
Key Message: Crossing islands should be designed to accommodate pedestrians who don’t make it all of the way across a wide intersection. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : What makes this a good crossing island? Note accessibility and the width of the island, and the fact that the nose of the island offers additional protection to waiting pedestrians. What is missing? Answer: Tactile warning strips at the edges of the ramp. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Three examples of crossing islands on two-lane roads. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : Upper right picture: example of skewed pathway through island. This angle forces pedestrians to look towards oncoming traffic. Lower right picture: example of low-cost pedestrian crossing island (uses paint, concrete curb and a sign) On the left: more permanent example of crossing island with overhead flashing lights that are activated by a pedestrian pushbutton. Image(s): (l.) and (t.r.) provided by Peter Lagerwey; (b.r) provided by Toole Design Group
Key Message: A road diet is a helpful tool to reduce speeds, improve the safety of pedestrian crossings, and reduce motor vehicle crashes. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : A road diet reduces the number of general purpose motor vehicle lanes. In this example, there is a four lane roadway that is difficult to cross. Pedestrians must cross four lanes of travel, there is no buffer between the roadway and the sidewalk, and there is no designated place for bicyclists. Additionally, it is difficult for motorists to make left turns into the parking lots of local homes and businesses – the two inner lanes operate as de-facto turn lanes during peak hours. Image: Dan Burden
Summary: A better roadway for all users Message: The roadway has now been reduced from four lanes to three lanes (one lane in each direction, plus a two-way center turn lane). There is now room to install bike lanes, and the bike lanes create a sidewalk buffer for pedestrians. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: A pedestrian connection along this roadway is now possible. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : The rechannelization of this roadway improves pedestrian crossings along the entire corridor (pedestrians only cross three lanes, versus four lanes, of travel). This roadway configuration also allows for the placement of crossing islands in some locations. In addition, this design has been shown to reduce rear-end motor vehicle crashes. Adjacent residents and businesses also benefit from this change because left turns into and out of their property are now easier. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: It has been a long standing practice to design sidewalks to a four foot width. This is not a comfortable design width as evidenced by this photo. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : Four-foot wide sidewalks do not provide enough space for most pedestrians – they are simply too narrow for anything except walking single file, which only lone pedestrians do. The result is that, in neighborhoods with 4’ wide sidewalks, one often sees people walking in the street. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is an example of people attempting to share a 4 foot walkway against a fence. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Notice the children shying away from the fence about 1 foot and the adult shying away about 2 feet. Notice the mother walking on the edge of the grass, with her arm and shoulder extending into the buffer to allow her child to have this shy space from the fence so they can walk side by side. This is not a comfortable walking environment. Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is an example of people sharing a 5 foot sidewalk. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Notice how they are able to walk side by side without having to walk on the edge of the grass strip. Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: The buffer does not always have to be planted to be helpful. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : This is an example of a location where there was concern about maintaining a narrow planted strip. This buffer serves to widen the affective width of the sidewalk to 7 feet and it provides a place for traffic control signs. Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: Intersection Design Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : Let’s talk about some strategies to better accommodate pedestrians and bicyclists at intersections. Image(s): Dan Burden
Key Message: Restricting right-turn on red is an alternative. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Restricting right-turn on red is one way of reducing conflicts between pedestrians and motorists at traffic signals. Motorists making a right-turn on a red light, are often looking left towards oncoming traffic and do not pay attention to pedestrians who may be approaching from the right. Another option is to restrict right-on-red when pedestrians are in the crosswalk (this sign is nice, but what if the pedestrians AREN’T school children?) Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Provide enough time to cross the street Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments: For pedestrians to cross the street safely, adequate time must be provided for them to make this crossing. Signal engineers can increase the amount of time provided if those using the signal typically walk slower than 4 feet per second. The countdown signals shown above help by giving pedestrians information about how much time remains. There is a good deal of confusion for some pedestrians in what the flashing “Don’t Walk” means. While it technically means “Don’t Start”, some pedestrians believe it means the light has changed. The countdown signal shows the number of seconds remaining to cross the street so that people can decide for themselves whether they have enough time to cross. Some studies have shown that countdown signals reduce the number of stragglers and help everyone get across the street more quickly, although some people still start late. Image(s): (l.) ITE Pedestrian and Bicycle Council, on PBIC web site, (r.) from web site: georgefrancisonline.homestead.com/ hitech.html
Key Message: Communities around the country are tackling the issue of how to get pedestrians safely across wide urban arterial roadways, particularly in locations where they are legally permitted to cross, but traffic does not typically yield to pedestrians. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : The pedestrian half-signal is a solution that can help to get pedestrians across a major arterial roadway at intersections with residential streets with light traffic, which are controlled with stop signs. These intersections qualify under the legal definition of a pedestrian crosswalk, however they are often difficult if not impossible for pedestrians to cross. Crossing distances are long, and because there is no signal, the arterial roadway traffic does not stop. Pedestrian half-signals operate the same way that midblock pedestrian signals operate – they rest on green until activated by a pedestrian. Motor vehicle traffic gets a standard yellow/red/green signal indication, and the pedestrians get the walk/don’t walk signal. The residential street remains stop-sign controlled – no signal is provided to vehicles entering the arterial. Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: The law that requires vehicles to yield to pedestrians in crosswalks is one of the least understood. Therefore a number of signs have been created to reinforce proper yielding behavior on the part of motorists. In-street signs are becoming very popular, but use careful consideration when deciding whether to use these. THEY SHOULD NOT BE PLACED AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS, per the MUTCD. Must comply with AASHTO’s breakaway requirements. Instructor – be sure to find out what the law is in the State in which you are presenting. Est. Presentation Time: 3-4 minutes Suggested Comments : In-street signs can be permanent or temporary. They are more effective on two-lane low speed streets than on multi-lane higher-speed streets, because they can be easily damaged. Placing in-street signs on medians may prevent this damage from occurring. Here are some additional guidelines: · They are typically installed in areas with significant pedestrian activity, such as a central business district or near a mall or transit station. · They should not be used on roadways that have a clear width less than 24 feet. · They should be removable for roadway maintenance. · They should not be placed on roadways with posted speeds over 35 mph, or in locations where they would be impacted by turning vehicles. Image(s): MUTCD, Photo by Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is an example of the damage that can result to in-street signs that are placed on high speed roadways. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : These in roadway warning signs should not be utilized on high speed roadways. Image(s): David Parisi
Key Message: This is an example of an alternative placement, the MUTCD does not require that the sign be installed in the center of the roadway. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : On roadways where the in street signs are being damaged, some jurisdictions use this sign as a supplemental plate below the pedestrian warning sign. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Some jurisdictions have experimented with other ways of warning motorists, such as this sign in Georgetown, Washington, DC. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Careful consideration should be given to sign placement and size. Notice how this sign is not competing with other signs, is set high off the ground to be seen over larger vehicles and the sign size itself is oversized to improve visibility. Since traffic is slow and congested, and motorists can’t see crosswalks, this advance warning is an experimental alternative to an in street yield to pedestrian or crosswalk warning sign. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Adequate space is critical in order for bicyclists and motorists to share the road. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : The situation shown in this photo is not safe for either the bicyclist or the motorist. Bicyclists feel more comfortable on roadways with low traffic volumes operating at low speeds. As speeds and/or volumes increase, it is preferable to provide more width to the travel lane or to provide a separate bicycle lane or shoulder for bicycle operation. Image: Sprinkle Consulting
Key Message: Adequate space is critical in order for bicyclists and motorists to share the road. The bicyclist doesn’t want to be here any more than the motorists do. Est. Presentation Time: 1 min. Suggested Comments : A travel lane should be at least 14 feet wide to allow a motorist to pass a bicycle within the travel lane (to share the lane). Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Common Roadway and Traffic Conditions that Affect Bicyclists Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : If you asked people throughout the United States what things affect them the most when they ride in the roadway environment, you’ll hear them say these things. Let’s for a minute look at some of these factors and how they have been used to construct a bicycle level of service model that measures a bicyclist’s sense of safety and comfort along a roadway.
Key Message: BLOS results are easy to understand. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Motorists – LOS based on delay Bicyclists – Getting home safe – comfort riding adjacent to and with vehicles.
Key Message: BLOS examples Est. Presentation Time: 3-4 minutes Suggested Comments : The following slides show various levels of bicycling conditions. In this slide, a wide paved shoulder and low traffic volumes combine for relatively good cycling conditions. Not rocket science – relatively intuitive without a model. Because there is a wide shoulder, the Bicycle LOS is an “A”. The road on the left in Delaware has low volumes and speeds. The road on the right in Cambridge, MA has high traffic volumes, but it operates at lower speeds. The bike lane provides the additional space that raises it’s score to an “A”. Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: BLOS examples Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : This, unfortunately, is a scene that is typical of U.S. metropolitan area suburban arterials. The lack of space combined with high speed, high traffic and truck volumes makes this a Bicycle LOS “E” or “F” condition. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Example of BLOS Calculation Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : LOS helps us to determine tradeoff scenarios necessary at times to make a complete street – Here is an example road diet.
Key Message: Example of BLOS Calculation Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Notice how the grade improves from D to B by implementing this road diet. The road width says the same, but now there is room for bike lanes. Should also note that there is a positive impact on the safety of motor vehicles in locations with frequent left turns, as there are often high numbers of rear-end crashes in those locations. Also, there is a positive impact on pedestrians, as the bike lane provides further separation between the sidewalk and motor vehicle lanes.
Key Message: Development of BLOS Model Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : There are several models available nationally (including the Bicycle Level of Service model and the Bicyclist Compatibility Index) that capture a bicyclist’s feeling of comfort using a statistically reliable model. More information on this can be found at bicyclinginfro.org. Also see the convenient online calculator that was created by the League of Illinois Bicyclists at this web address.
Key Message: Paved shoulders are a great way to accommodate bicyclists in rural areas, and in some suburban settings where intersections do not have multiple turning lanes. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Bicycle LOS can be used to determine how much shoulder width is needed , given current traffic volume and speeds. The AASHTO Bike Guide recommends a minimum of 4’ wide shoulders in order to accommodate bicycles, but adds this statement: “Any width is better than none at all”. It is very important not to put rumble strips on shoulders where bicycling is anticipated to occur. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Ask audience what works and doesn’t in this picture – sharing, vehicle speeds, debris. Est. Presentation Time: 3-4 minutes Suggested Comments : The AASHTO Guide p. 17 identifies that wide curb lanes should be provided where shoulders or delineated bike lanes are not possible. In general, 4.2m (14 feet) of usable lane width is the recommended width, wider if encroaching drainage grates are present. On steep stretches of roadway, wider pavement is suggested for more maneuvering space for the bicyclist. Wide curb lanes benefit motorists as well, by providing greater effective turning radii at driveways. However, wider curb lanes have an unintended detrimental effect on bicyclists, as motor vehicle speeds tend to increase with additional lane width. Also, wide shoulders do not make new riders feel comfortable, and unlike bike lanes, they have no arrows/bike lane markings that discourage wrong-way riding, or riding on the sidewalk. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Bike Lane Design Introduction Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Designated bike lanes are generally very effective in accommodating bicycle travel. They help to regulate and manage travel movements of bicyclists and motorists without restricting bicyclists’ movement or “getting them out of the way.” Let’s look at the basics of bike lane design. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Bicycle lanes must have a minimum width of 5 feet adjacent to parking or a curb, and 4 feet along an open section of road. Est. Presentation Time: 3-4 minutes Suggested Comments : It is preferable to provide 8 or 9 foot parking lanes adjacent to a bicycle lane when parking is provided to allow a space for doors to open that doesn’t fall within the bicycle lane. The striping of a 7 foot parking lane adjacent to a 5 foot bicycle lane is the minimum allowed by AASHTO, but is not advisable in locations with a high amount of parking turnover. Note that the diamond symbol in the foreground is NO LONGER USED in bike lanes. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: In the new edition of the MUTCD, the bike lane sign has been redesigned. Est. Presentation Time: 3-4 minutes Suggested Comments : The preferential lane symbol (diamond) is no longer used for bicycle lanes, because it caused confusion (the diamond symbol is also used for high-occupancy vehicle lanes). On the right is the new bike lane sign. The old signs (and pavement markings) can be replaced through the regular sign maintenance schedule. As a general rule in suburban areas, symbols can be placed every tenth of a mile, and signs every half mile. Frequency of sign and symbol placement depends on the speed of traffic and frequency of intersections. Images: MUTCD
Key Message: This is an example of the minimum lane widths allowed for designating a parking lane, bicycle lane, and travel lane. Est. Presentation Time: 3-4 minutes Suggested Comments : This is an example of an urban street that was re-striped to include a bike lane. In this case, the travel lane was narrowed to 10’ wide, and the parking lane was narrowed to 7’ wide (reiterate door zone issue and the need to conduct an analysis of parking turnover – locations with high parking turnover should not be designed with parking lanes that are less than 8’ wide adjacent to a 5’ wide bike lane). Image: Charlie Denney
Key Message: This is a real world example of how to reallocate roadway space while still providing the same level of access and movement for motor vehicles. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : There are ample lane widths on this roadway – often very common on reconstructed urban and suburban roads. This type of roadway feels wide to motorists and often encourages higher vehicular speeds.
Key Message: This is an example of a “lane diet”. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : This was accomplished by narrowing the travel lanes to 11 feet and by narrowing the center turn lane by 2 feet.
Key Message: Reconfiguring the striping improved the Bicycle LOS score from a C to B. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: Bike lanes help to educate bicyclists about the correct position when approaching an intersection with turn lanes. Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Assuming that this bicyclist is planning to go straight through this intersection, is she in the correct position? (Answer is no.) For our roadways to operate effectively, and for its users to be safe, predictable and repeatable behavior needs to be encouraged. This is a joint process between enforcement, engineering, and education. Bike lanes reinforce correct bicyclists position at stop lines and intersections on streets with right turn lanes. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Bike lanes help to educate bicyclists about the correct position when approaching an intersection with turn lanes. Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : This is a diagram from the MUTCD that shows the correct position of a bike lane in a situation with right turn lanes. At signalized or stop-controlled intersections with storage lanes for right-turning motor vehicles, the bike lane’s solid striping to the approach should be replaced with a broken line with 2-foot (0.6-m) dots and 6-foot (1.8-m) spaces (AASHTO p. 25). Image: MUTCD
Key Message: Bike lanes help to educate bicyclists about the correct position when approaching an intersection with turn lanes. Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Here is a photograph showing this treatment. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: This type of design should be avoided. It does not clearly and definitively separate right turning vehicles from through-moving bicyclists. Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Striping pattern recommended by AASHTO for right-turn only and combined right-turn and through lane – drop the bike lane altogether, in advance of the intersection. Discuss the operational problems associated with this geometry with the class. Uncertainty of whether vehicles in middle lane will turn right Bicyclist not given any guidance as to where to position themselves AVOID USING THIS DESIGN Image: MUTCD
Key Message: This is an example of a left turning lane striped for bicyclist. This lane is positioned to the right of in the marked left turn lane. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : This left turn lane for bicycles is in Madison, Wisconsin. The intersecting roadway is University Avenue, which carries a high volume of bicyclists to and from campus. This particular location has a high number of left-turning bicyclists. Note that the lane is has detector loops to detect a waiting bicyclist. One observation that was recently made by the Bicycle Coordinator in Madison, who has been in his job for many years, is that they have found that more bicyclists follow the rules of the road when the system works for them. Other cities with well developed bicycle networks have found the same to be true. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is an example of an advanced stop line, or “bicycle box.” It is designed to create a space for bicyclists at the stop bar to enable them to clear the intersection before motor vehicle traffic, usually for situations with congested lanes where there are a fair number of cyclists turning left. Est. Presentation Time: 2 minutes Suggested Comments : This treatment is only for signalized intersections. These bicyclists are turning left to get onto the Galloping Goose Trail in Victoria, BC. There are large volumes of traffic, with limited time and space for bicyclists to move over. This treatment may also be useful for areas where bicyclists are frequently blocking pedestrians utilizing crosswalks. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is an example of a design developed for an advanced bicycle box. It is recommended that the bicycle box be of sufficient size to allow bicyclists to wait within the box without intruding upon the crosswalk. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : It is recommended that the minimum length of the box be at least eight feet to allow a bicycle to be fully contained within the box. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Interchanges between arterial roadways and freeways are among the most difficult conditions that bicyclists must navigate in urban areas. Bicyclists are particularly at risk in areas like this one - they must weave across high-speed traffic to stay on the arterial roadway. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is one solution some communities have used: bicyclists have a choice of getting off the road and onto this separate pathway in advance of the free-flowing merge lanes, and then are able to cross the ramps at right angles, rather than merge with high speed traffic. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : What are some of the problems with this design? (Answers: Wavy path, should be straight; sight distance may not be good at crosswalk; insufficient space to share the road; etc.) A BETTER SOLUTION IS TO LIMIT USE OF MERGE LANES AND FREE-FLOWING RIGHT TURN LANES – USE STANDARD INTERSECTIONS INSTEAD. Image: Dan Burden – Taken somewhere in Florida.
Key Message: Colored bike lanes are another solution to increase the visibility of bicyclists at free-flowing merge lanes. Portland, Oregon did a study on the use of blue bike lanes to mark areas where bicyclists and motorists merge. The study found that although bicyclists in the blue lane tended to scan less for merging traffic, there was an overall safety benefit to the blue bike lanes because motorists were much more careful to yield to bicyclists. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : The results of the study are available on Portland’s webpage: http://www.trans.ci.portland.or.us/bicycles/default.htm. This treatment is supplemented with traffic signs as well. The current thinking, however, is that blue will not be approved for this use because it is reserved for marking handicapped parking lanes. Green has been experimented with, as well. Image: Andy Clarke
Key Message: A view of Philadelphia’s blue bike lanes. This is an entrance to a major highway. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Outside the box. Under FHWA experimentation – in VT, OR. Image: Philadelphia Department of Streets
Key Message: This is green bike lane that is undergoing an FHWA evaluation in Burlington, Vermont. This is across a bridge overpass to the interstate that has entrance and exit ramps on all sides of the bridge. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Image: Vermont Agency of Transportation
Key Message: This is the sign that was used in Portland in conjunction with the blue bike lanes. Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Image: Andy Clarke
Key Message: There are a few things that are important to understand about bicyclists’ needs when you are designing signalized intersections. The following discussion gives you some initial things to think about, however this is a relatively complex topic. Est. Presentation Time: 2 minutes Suggested Comments : If there is time, the instructor can point out that at this Seattle intersection, they dropped the bike lane in advance of the signal, because there wasn’t enough room for two turn lanes and a through lane. It is important to try to accommodate the bike lane at the stop bar. In this case, left- and right-turning volumes were high and the turn lanes couldn’t be eliminated. Question: Since the bike lane is eliminated in advance of the signal, does the signal need any special consideration of bicycles? Answer: YES! Question: What types of things does the engineer need to think about in designing the signal controls at this intersection? Let the group give you a few answers, then say: There are three main things to think about in signal design: If the signal is actuated (that is, is designed to be responsive to the presence of a vehicle), you need to make sure that it is designed to detect the presence of bicycles You need to make sure that the clearance interval (yellow phase) is long enough for a bicyclist to clear the intersection (especially important for wide intersections) You need to make sure that the minimum green time for the signal (for periods of light traffic) is long enough for a bicyclist to clear the intersection. Image: Toole Design Group, Seattle WA.
Key Message: The good news in signal design is that there are some very good tools to ensure that bicycles can be detected at actuated signals. There are several configurations for the detection wires that are used in signal design that are sensitive to the presence of bicycles. They can be found in FHWA’s Traffic Detector Handbook. One is the Quadrupole loop. Also, signs and pavement markings can be used (these were added in the 2003 edition in the MUTCD) to mark the location that the bicyclist should stand in order to trip the signal. This photograph shows an example of the pavement marking, and the sign on the right can be used in conjunction with the marking. Note: use of these new loop designs may be new for your department, however they are critical on bicycle routes, bike lanes, and other routes where bicyclists often travel. If a bicyclist cannot trip the signal, then the very design of the facility will require them to make an illegal movement. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: When an intersection approach receives a green signal, the bicyclist needs enough time to react, accelerate and cross the intersection. The time is calculated with this equation (in U.S. customary units). Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : The details of the variables for this equation can be found in the AASHTO Guide on p. 64.
Key Message: This is the equation that applies to the minimum length of the clearance (yellow) phase in order to accommodate bicycles. Signals should be designed to provide an adequate clearance interval for bicyclists who enter the intersection at the end of the green phase. This is particularly an issue at wide intersections. It applies to both actuated and non-actuated signals. Wrap up: So signal design is something that is integral to the safety and functionality of a bicycle network. Your job may not include signal design – however it will be your responsibility to coordinate with the signal designers to ensure that they realize that the signal must accommodate bicycles, and what types of modifications may be needed. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : The details of the variables for this equation can be found in the AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities on p. 64. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Angled parking can be desirable to narrow streets and to provide additional parking. Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Front in angle parking is the most common style in use today. It is easy for motorists to pull into a spot but it is often difficult for them to pull out of it because their sight distance is restricted by adjacent parked vehicles. This creates an unsafe situation for bicylists, and for that reason, bike lanes are not recommended adjacent to front-in angled parking. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Reverse or back in angled parking can solve this problem Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Bike lanes can be compatible with reverse-in angled parking because the sight distance problems are solved. This solution also improves conditions for pedestrians. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is the bicyclist’s view of on a road with back in angled parking Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Image: Victoria Transportation Policy Institute
Key Message: This is the motorist’s view from a car exiting a parking space Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Again, this illustrates the improved sight distance. Image: Victoria Transportation Policy Institute
Key Message: Back in angled parking also makes it easier to load cars and opened doors direct children towards the sidewalk instead of towards the roadway. Est. Presentation Time: 1 minute Suggested Comments : Image: Victoria Transportation Policy Institute
Key Message: Pathways alongside roads are often referred to as sidepaths. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : This type of bicycle facility comes with some unique constraints. There are some examples of sidepaths that are good facilities, and others that actually put bicyclists at a higher risk of a crash with a motor vehicle. This is an example of a good sidepath -- no driveways, no interruptions. Only work where there are limited intersections and driveways – Example: Rockville, MD along a high volume, high speed arterial. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Like people operating motor vehicles, people riding bikes have a time budget too - travel time matters to them and they want direct routes to and from their trip origins and destinations. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Notice the bicyclists riding in the roadway, the street and highway system often leads directly to bicyclists’ destinations. Sidepaths and trails can be designed to be attractive visually while simultaneously providing direct routes for its users. Paths should not meander to create interest as these types of paths create safety problems and they can detract from a users experience. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Here is the issue: intersections are where bicyclists are at the highest risk. Sidepaths with frequent intersections and driveway cuts are a problem. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Intersections should be carefully designed during the trail design process and they must adhere to traffic engineering principals. Stop signs are not sufficient to protect the trail user from harm.
Key Message: Sidepaths enable and encourage bicyclists to travel in the “wrong” direction on the sidewalk. Notice the high percentage of crashes involving bicyclists traveling against the normal flow of traffic. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Motorists do not expect a bicyclists to approach from their right. Right-turning motorists typically just scan to the left to view on-coming traffic. Image: FHWA
Key Message: Similar experience for driveways where motorists are not seeing or looking for the bicyclists approaching from the right. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Image: FHWA
Key Message: This (dated) photograph shows this relationship. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Question: Do you think this motorist is aware that the bicyclist is three? As he approached the intersection to turn, this bicyclist may have been quite a distance away – bicyclists can travel very fast. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Another problem is confusion over who has the right of way. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Research has proven that bicyclists are more at risk on sidepaths than in the roadway when there are multiple driveways and intersections. Image: Dan Burden
Key Message: Communities are experimenting with signs to attempt to warn motorists to look both ways at intersections with sidepaths. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : These are examples of signs that have been utilized (not in MUTCD) to try to encourage motorists to look both ways, and to be aware that a two way bicycle facility is crossing at the intersection. Image: PBIC Website
Key Message: Many bicyclists prefer to move at a faster rate than is possible on paths with high volumes of pedestrians. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : It is best to provide accommodation in the street in addition to sidepaths. This is an example of a very popular sidepath in Tucson, AZ. Notice that there is also a bike lane on the road. Imagine for a moment that you are riding your bicycle home from work. Where would you rather be? Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Path/roadway transitions require special design consideration. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : This is an example of an alternative path to roadway transition in Victoria, BC. Notice the protective median for roadway crossings and the generous space provided at the trail entrances. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : The roadway was designed with striping to allow bicyclists to merge across traffic to the center painted island, where they can face oncoming traffic and determine a time for a suitable gap to enter onto the trail at the lower right. This is an easier turn for bicyclists to make and it keeps a portion of the bicycling traffic out of the crosswalk and refuge area. In what ways could this design be improved? (Answer: dashed line for bike lane should begin further back.) Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: This is the trailhead Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Notice that several paths / sidewalks come together here, and they have attempted to provide additional space for this to occur. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Brief discussion of bridge design issues. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : These days, hardly any bridge is built in the U.S. without some level of accommodation for pedestrians and bicyclists. Image: Peter Lagerwey
Key Message: Many bridges are being retrofitted as well. This is an example of a bridge that was retrofitted to carry the W&OD Trail in Virginia. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : The AASHTO Guide recommends that shared use paths be 10’ wide. Is this bridge sufficiently wide? (Answer: no, because AASHTO also recommends 2’ clear width to vertical obstructions.) Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: It is important to consider the shy space required for bicyclists riding, especially when they need to pass one another. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : The shy distance is understood to be between 1 and 2 feet depending on the comfort and skill of the rider. Notice how this reduces the effective width of the bridge to 6 feet. Image(s): Toole Design Group
Key Message: This bridge provides a more generous space of 14 feet. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : This leaves the effective operating space at a comfortable 10 feet and allows for the occasional stops to observe the surroundings. This bridge was also retrofitted – it is in Pittsburgh, PA. Image: Toole Design Group
Key Message: Shared Lane Pavement Marking – a solution when there’s not enough space for a bike lane. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Shared Lane Markings are currently being experimented with or utilized in over 20 cities in the United States. This is the only design that has undergone a human factors analysis and it is the design that is most likely to be adopted in the MUTCD. This is a useful marking for roadways where there is insufficient space to stripe a bicycle lane. The optimum use of this treatment is on streets with lower speeds. It is not an adequate solution for high speed suburban arterial roadways. Image: Andy Clarke
Key Message: Skewed railroad crossings of roadways are a hazard to bicyclists. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : Bicycle wheels can get caught in the gap between the rail and the road causing a crash. Bicyclists need to cross railroad tracks at a right angle Image: Michael Ronkin
Key Message: This is an example of a method to warn bicyclists of this hazard, and to provide a space for them to cross the tracks at a safe angle. Est. Presentation Time: 1-2 minutes Suggested Comments : The width of the widening will depend upon the skew of the railroad tracks. Image: Michael Ronkin
Key Message: This is an example of a design in Madison, Wisconsin Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Image(s): Michael Ronkin
Key Message: Road maintenance is critical to ensuring that pedestrian and bicycle facilities are safe for users. Just as we maintain roads for the safety of motorists, we also have a responsibility to maintain them for other intended users. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Road maintenance is an issue that needs to be considered from the beginning of any project. These are just a few of the issues that need to be considered. (Optional time for discussion about who is responsible for maintenance in this locality.)
Key Message: Road maintenance is critical to ensuring that pedestrian and bicycle facilities are safe for users. Just as we maintain roads for the safety of motorists, we also have a responsibility to maintain them for other intended users. Est. Presentation Time: 2-3 minutes Suggested Comments : Road maintenance is an issue that needs to be considered from the beginning of any project. These are just a few of the issues that need to be considered. (Optional time for discussion about who is responsible for maintenance in this locality.)
• Half of all trips are shorter than 3 miles - a 15 minute bike ride• 40% of U.S. adults say they would commute by bike if safe facilities are available• Gallup poll – 2002: Half of U.S. adults in favor of providing bicycle and pedestrian facilities even if it means less space for automobiles References: 2001 National Household Transportation Survey, Press Release Wali Memon 3 walimemon.com
• There are 56 million walking trips in the U. S. everyday• One in ten households do not own an automobile• 1/3 of the population do not drive an automobile• About one in ten trips are made by foot or bicycle already References: 2001 National Household Transportation Survey, Press Release Wali Memon 4 walimemon.com
• NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that . . . bicycling and walking accommodations should be a routine part of the department’s planning, design, construction and operating activities, and will be included in the everyday operations of our transportation system; and Wali Memon 5 walimemon.com
• THEREFORE, BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the South Carolina Department of Transportation Commission requires South Carolina counties and municipalities to make bicycling and pedestrian improvements an integral part of their transportation planning and programming where State or Federal Highway funding is utilized. Wali Memon 6 walimemon.com
• Percent of all trips made on foot or by bicycle? 8.5%• Percent of all traffic fatalities that are pedestrians and bicyclists? 13% References: 2005 NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts, 2001 National Household Transportation Survey Wali Memon 7 walimemon.com
• Review some successful treatments.• Work on “real life” scenarios relevant to your work.• Help you determine the right balance of modes within the right-of-way. Wali Memon 8 walimemon.com
National Manual On Uniform Traffic Control (MUTCD 2003) AASHTO Green Book (2004) AASHTO Bicycle Design Guide (1999) AASHTO Pedestrian Design Guide (2004) ADAAGState SCDOT Bicycle Facility Design Guidance Wali Memon 23 walimemon.com
Existing GuidelinesGuidance Specific to Bicyclists and Pedestrians Wali Memon 24 walimemon.com
Focus on moving high volumes of motor vehicle trafficas quickly and efficiently as possible. Wali Memon 25 walimemon.com
Lower volumes of motor vehicle traffic movingat slow speeds, sidewalks, separation fromtraffic. Wali Memon 26 walimemon.com
Fatalities based on speed of vehicleA pedestrian’s chance of death if hit by a motor vehicle 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 20 mph 30 mph 40 mph Wali Memon Killing Speed and Saving Lives, UK Department of Transportation27 walimemon.com
Common Roadway and Traffic Conditions that Affect Bicyclists• Effective travel width for bicyclists• On-street parking encroachments• Volume of motor vehicles• Speed of traffic• Proportion of heavy vehicles• Pavement surface condition Wali Memon 49 walimemon.com
Bicycle Level of Service Categories Level-of-Service BLOS Score > A 1.5 > B > 1.5 and 2.5 > C > 2.5 and 3.5 > D > 3.5 and 4.5 > E > 4.5 and 5.5 F Wali Memon > 5.5 50 walimemon.com
Bicycle LOS E - FPhoto by SCI Wali Memon 52 walimemon.com
Bicycle LOS - Before Four-lane Road Average Daily Traffic Volume = 13,500 vpd Pavement Condition = Good Lane Widths = 12 feet wide Speed = 30 mph12 12 12 12 BLOS Evaluation: LOS score Category 48 Wali Memon 3.58 D 53 walimemon.com
Bicycle LOS - After Two-lane Road with Center Turn Lane Average Daily Traffic Volume = 13,500 vpd Pavement Condition = Good Lane Widths = 12 feet, plus 5 foot bike lanes Speed = 30 mph5 12 14 12 5 BLOS Evaluation: LOS score Category 48 2.07 B Wali Memon 54 walimemon.com
Bicycle Level of Service ModelBicycle LOS = a1ln(Vol15/L) + a2SPt(1+10.38HV)2 + a3(1/PC5)2 - a4(We)2 + C Vol15 = volume of directional traffic in 15 minutes time period L = total number of through lanes SPt = effective speed limit (see below) SPt = 1.12ln(SPP -20) + 0.81 SPP = Posted speed limit HV = percentage of heavy vehicles PC5 = FHWA’s five point surface condition rating We = Average effective width of outside through lane For more info on suitability models, visit bicyclinginfo.org Online Calculator:Memon Wali http://www.bikelib.org/roads/blos/losform.htm 55 walimemon.com
Paved ShouldersMinimum width: 4’“any additional shoulderis better than none at all” Wali Memon 56 walimemon.com
5’Bike lanes: Min. 5’ wide adjacent to a curb or parking Min. 4’ wide on an open section Wali Memon 59 walimemon.com
OLD R3-17’sThe BIKE LANE (R3-17) signshall be used only inconjunction with marked bicyclelanes as described in Chapter9C, and shall be placed atperiodic intervals. NEW R3-17 (2003 MUTCD) Wali Memon 60 walimemon.com
Restriping to Create Bike Lanes 7’ parking lane 5’ bike lane 10’ travel lane Wali Memon 61 walimemon.com
Center Turn14 12 16 12 14 Total Width 68 Wali Memon 62 walimemon.com
Center Turn5 11 11 14 11 11 5 Total Width 68 Wali Memon 63 walimemon.com
Bicycle Level of Service Comparison Wali Memon 64 walimemon.com
Signal Minimum Green Time g + y + r clear > t cross = tr + v + w+l 2a vProvides abicyclist withadequate time toreact, accelerateand cross theintersection, foractuated signalswhen the greentime is short (i.e.during periods oflow traffic flow). Wali Memon 80 walimemon.com
Signal Total Clearance Interval y + r clear > tr + v + w+l 2b v Wali Memon 81 walimemon.com
• Surface sweeping and repair• Utility cuts • Keep sidewalks, shoulder and bike lanes free from ridges• Pavement overlays - opportunity to restripe with bike lanes• Concrete sidewalks – root control Wali Memon 107 walimemon.com