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Evolutionary Perspectives in Psychology
 

Evolutionary Perspectives in Psychology

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    Evolutionary Perspectives in Psychology Evolutionary Perspectives in Psychology Presentation Transcript

    • Evolutionary Perspectives in Psychology Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
    • On evolution A chicken is just an eggs way of making more eggs.2 Wali Memon
    • Charles DarwinPremise 1: Struggle for survivalPremise 2: VariabilityPremise 3: HeritabilityPremise 4: FitnessCONCLUSION : NATURAL SELECTION •He observed breeders and different naturally evolving species •Charles Babbage: God = programmer of laws 3 Wali Memon
    • Charles DarwinPremise 1: Struggle for survivalPremise 2: VariabilityPremise 3: HeritabilityPremise 4: FitnessCONCLUSION : NATURAL SELECTION(Artificial selection = eugenics – later!) 4 Wali Memon
    • On the origin of species, 1859Premise 1: Struggle for survival Species have great fertility. They have more offspring than ever grow to adulthood. Populations remain roughly the same size, with small changes. (Food resources ) An implicit struggle for survival ensues.5 Wali Memon
    • Premise 2: Variability On the origin of species, 1859 In sexually reproducing species, generally no two individuals are identical. Some of these variations directly affect the ability of an individual to survive in a given environment.6 Wali Memon
    • On the origin of species, 1859Premise 3 Inheritability Much of this variation is inheritable. Mind you: Mendel’s work – though existant at the time – was not known by Darwin from the outset! Inheritance mechanism was imagined entirely differently7 Wali Memon
    • On the origin of species, 1859Premise 4 Fitness Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce, while individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce.8 Wali Memon
    • On the origin of species, 1859CONCLUSION : NATURALSELECTIONThe individuals that survive aremost likely to leave theirinheritable traits to futuregenerations.A continuous naturalembetterment of the world?9 Wali Memon
    • Underlying assumptions Premise 1: Struggle for survival Malthusian idea – technological improvement Premise 2: Variability Much uniformity Premise 3: Heritability Debates even today – syphilis, doctoritis running in families Premise 4: Fitness – well-adapted to the environment Not at all a clear concept Sickle cell anaemia what it means for a non-natural selection philosophy10 Wali Memon
    • The puzzling survivor The Naked Ape – homo sapiens No claws No sharp teeth Not too fast – slower than most predators at any rate Why is this parody of evolutionary perfection still around and moreover everywhere? 11 Wali Memon
    • Solution by Evolutionary Psychology The adapted mind The complexity seen in nature by Darwin is compared to the complexity in human behaviour and it is explained as such Evolutionary psychology as an approach12 Wali Memon
    • Evolutionary psychology The Human Animal (Sociobiology) Adaptationism Originally applied to biological organs – the most well-known is the eye Extensions: the brain is a biological organ Supposition: the brain produces behaviour and consciousness Therefore: behaviour and consciousness is formed by evolution just as the biological body is Eye’s complexity – in the centre of debates13 Wali Memon
    • Richard Dawkins An ardent proponent of adaptations - earning him the title of Darwin’s Rottweiler (and equally ardent opponent to creationism ) The Blind Watchmaker – focuses on how evolution could create marvellous structures – like the eye William Paley – a watch presupposes intelligent design because of its complexity Wali Memon 14
    • The Weasel problem Shakespeare’s Hamlet Hamlet: Do you see yonder cloud thats almost in shape of a camel? Polonius: By the mass, and tis like a camel, indeed. Hamlet: Methinks it is like a weasel. Based on the infinite monkey theorem A monkey bashing away at random on a typewriter – given enough time he would type the entire works of Shakespeare how long would it take him to produce the sentence ‘Methinks it is like a weasel.’? Wali Memon 15
    • The Weasel problem Methinks it is like a weasel This is 28 characters Using 26 letters – only capitals and a space bar Probability? 2728 = 1040 = infinity, or at least much longer than milliseconds from the existence of the universe (13,73 billion = 13,73 * 109 years = 7,22 * 1018 milliseconds) Wali Memon 16
    • Sir Frederick Hoyle „approximately the same order of magnitude as the probability that a hurricane could sweep through a junkyard and randomly assemble a Boeing 747.” solar system full of blind men solving Rubiks Cube simultaneously. The simplest bacterium needs 1040,000 permutations, while the number of the atoms in the universe is „only” 1080, the chance is the same as throwing 50000 sixes in a row with a die Wali Memon 17
    • Sir Frederick Hoyle Astronomer and sci-fi writer He opposed the Big Bang theory – because it needs a cause Steady State theory He also opposed natural abiogenesis! Intelligent design - Evolution from Space Wali Memon 18
    • Hoyle’s fallacy You don’t need 28 letters. You start with say 3. They calculate the probability of the formation of a "modern" protein, or even a complete bacterium with all "modern" proteins, by random events. This is not the abiogenesis theory at all – it starts with VERY SIMPLE organisms They assume that there is a fixed number of proteins, with fixed sequences for each protein, that are required for life. They calculate the probability of sequential trials, rather than simultaneous trials. Changing one at a time – mutations are rare but do not exclude each other They seriously underestimate the number of functional19 enzymes/ribozymes present in a group of random Wali Memon sequences – only one good solution fallacy
    • The Weasel problem Cumulative selections instead of a single step selection Two differences in his model: Copying mechanism – it retains previous states There is an inherent goal – any change that occurs towards methinks it is a weasel is kept, others are discarded Generation 1: WDLMNLT DTJBKWIRZREZLMQCO P Generation 2: WDLTMNLT DTJBSWIRZREZLMQCO P Generation 10: MDLDMNLS ITJISWHRZREZ MECS P Generation 20: MELDINLS IT ISWPRKE Z WECSEL Generation 30: METHINGS IT ISWLIKE B WECSEL Generation 40: METHINKS IT IS LIKE I WEASEL Generation 43: METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL Wali Memon 20
    • Adaptive landscapes Fitness or adaptive landscapes – genetic variation is pushed to the direction of the arrows Waddington – epigenetic landscape – curiously posits a rolling, not a climbing ball Saddle points in mathematics as non- optimal solutions Wali Memon 21
    • Cosmides & Tooby Flexibility – a basis never questioned Instinct vs reason distinction Please make a mental note as this is to be relevant to the discussion on implicit/explicit! What is instinct blindness according to Williams James? Make the „natural seem strange” program „’of course’ is no longer a good answer” – does evolutionary psychology manage to get round the problem? „cognitive psychologists spend more time studying how we solve problems we are bad at” – the concept of „difficult” is being redefined22 Wali Memon
    • The Blank Slate The Standard Social Science Model (SSSM) learning Induction Intelligence Imitation Rationality the capacity for culture Culture A proposed problem with domain generality: if there is no inborn mechanism at all (only perception), what learns how to learn?23 Wali Memon
    • SSSM What is this „roughly” supposed to mean exactly? Hypotheses and problems: – is it The problem of innateness presence at birth? Babies are born with the same capacities (roughly) all over the world YET they come to be very learning adults finally, Are domain-general different withmechanisms good enough to deal with different customs and habits The difference information load? lie in their the must therefore experience of the world system +Consider the visual This experience is mediated through general- purpose-learning mechanisms different? Are cultures all that How much universality lies under the Culture must be the explanation societies? cultural differeces of human – it has an overarching and all-pervasive effect24 Wali Memon
    • Arguments against Many things are not present at birth that are rarely doubted to be innate Do we learn to grow beards and menstruate? The nature/nurture dichotomy is not only arbitrary – it is false again connected to innateness In some cases domain-general learning mechanisms are just not enough Most prominent example is language – poverty of stimulus argument Moreover: striking differences - species-specific learning mechanisms (also consider phobias)25 Wali Memon
    • Asking the wrong questions genes vs environment ~ engine or gasoline? ~ the ingredients of bread Presence at birth is not required – points at the problematics of „innate”26 Wali Memon
    • Innateness What do we mean by innate? Cognitive science Non-acquisition UG – vacuous, as in a sense everything is acquired at some point – a blastula has no UG Presence at birth – inborn Neither necessary (pubic hair), nor sufficient (prenatal learning is possible) Internally caused as opposed to environmentally induced Jeffrey Ellman: rethinking Innateness „the product of interactions internal to the organism…” Impossible: without maternal blood, no organ could possibly develop at all Triggering is often evoked – yet unsure in meaning27 Wali Memon
    • Innateness What do we mean by innate? Biology Genetically determined? Genetically caused Genetically represented – mapped in DNA Both accounts fail because of interactionist explanations difficulty of observation Invariance accounts – stable across „normal” environments Attractive as it explains stability and universality in a species YET: the concept that water is wet would be innate28 Wali Memon
    • Innateness What do we mean by innate? Innateness as high heritability Heritability=overall phenotypic variation that is due to genetic variation (Vg/Vp) However: only works if there is phenotypic variation – if there is none, it is useless Opposable thumb in humans – drug taaken by mother disrupting its development -> low heritability Not learned Learning is nearly as slippery as innateness is…Yet.. Psychologically primitive Can not be explained by general psychological mechanisms –29 have to retreat to biological explanations Wali Memon Bootstrapping-type learning – learning that is faster that would be expected based on a domain-general view
    • Adaptive minds Problem-specificity: The brain is a naturally constructed computational system whose function is to solve adaptive information-processing problems Modularity of mind – the Swiss army knife model face recognition, threat interpretation, language acquisition, or navigation Domain specificity (environment specifity) – domain generality (modus ponens works in all environmental conditions) adaptive problems Permanent to be solved in the life of a species Enhance reproductive success What about survival? The side-effect trick (exaptation) Walking and skateboarding30 Wali Memon
    • MMA hypothesis Massive modularity Modern-day phrenology? Wali Memon 31
    • Jerry Fodor: Modularity Differentiation of modules and central processing systems Modules are: Domain-specific Rapid Informationally encapsulated Automatic – obligatory firing Shallow output Inaccessible to consciousness Characteristic pattern of breakdown - lesions „The moon looks bigger when it’s on the horizon; but I know perfectly well it’s not. My visual perception module gets fooled, but I don’t. The question is: who is this I?[…] If, in short, there is a community of computers living in my head, there had also better be somebody who is in charge; and, by God, it had better be me. ” Jerry Fodor on Pinker and Plotkin32 Wali Memon Jerry Fodor: The trouble with psychologicalDarwinism. London Review of Books
    • Reasoning circuits – rational instincts 1. Structured around an adaptive problem 2. Universally present in homo sapiens 3. Develop without conscious effort (speech vs writing) 4. Applied without conscious effort 5. Distinct from more general abilities33 Wali Memon
    • Stone age minds EEA - environment of evolutionary adaptedness „For this reason, evolutionary psychology is relentlessly past- oriented…” What is problematic about this argument? Proximal and distal explanations in psychology Universalism the universal, species-typical architecture reliably develops across the (ancestrally) normal range psychic unity of humankind – as opposed to marvellous cultural diversity (Donald Brown – the universal human) Margaret Mead – coming of age in the Samoa – Derek Freeman34 Wali Memon
    • Donald Brown The Universal People The total list comprises about 150 items Abstraction (in speech and in thought) Meals & meal times Language! Marriage baby talk Antonyms Daily routines Nouns Melody numerals Metaphors Belief in supernatural/religion – Music magic (wicca) Repetition&variation Beliefs about death, disease, fortune & misfortune Dance Binary cognitive distinctions – Crying (emotions?) antonyms Childhood fear of strangers/loud Personal names noises Planning Coalitions Prode Collective identities Promise Cooperation & competition Morals Recognition of individuals by face Murder prohibited Rhythm Rape prohibited Rites of passage & rituals 35 Myths & Memon Wali narratives Oedipus complex – defense mechanisms self-image
    • The importance of universalism In theory, evolution could explain diversity – supposing a varying environment would entail varying organisms Why is universalism so highly emphasized then? Sociobiology and social Darwinism36 Wali Memon
    • Edward O. Wilson1971. Insect societies1975: Sociobiology: The New Synthesis1978: On human nature In a Darwinian sense the organism does not live for itself. Its primary function is not even to reproduce other organisms; it reproduces genes, and it serves as their temporary carrier... Samuel Butlers famous aphorism, that the chicken is only an eggs way of making another egg, has been modernized: The organism is only DNAs way of making more DNA Wali Memon 37
    • Edward O. Wilson People are animals, their behavior has evolved just like that of the animals, and our culture has a biological component altruism : self-destructive behavior performed for the benefit of others – what other explanation than culture? Wali Memon 38
    • Edward O. Wilson Culture is the slave of biology – it can only survive as long as it supports biological needs Gathering of resources (territorial fights) cooperation – helping relatives Securing the continuity of the population Resonates to Nazi „Sozialbiologie”, genetic determinism, eugenics 39 Wali Memon
    • Richard Lewontin Not in Our Genes Population geneticist – locus studies The concept of niche and interaction – the environment does not form passive creatures according to its own accord Deterministic perspective is false : biological creatures are actively forming their environment Sould it be different the homo sapiens would not be alive by now Legitimation and ideology – first God and now science is the weapon – universities Wali Memon the factories that produce them40
    • The danger in evolutionary belief Sociobiology The mere idea of struggle and survival is inherent in nature and it is inevitable gives moral justification towards the „unfit” Mary Midgley: Evolution as a Religion „Facts will never appear to us as brute and meaningless; they will always organize themselves into some sort of story, some drama” Buss: the moral/naturalistic fallacy (Dawkins examines it as well) Does studying heart attack cause heart attacks?41 Wali Memon
    • Eugenics Eu – good, well (euphoria) Genics – (genes) born (genetics) any human action whose goal is to improve the gene pool Renaissance idea: improvement of the world through science: why not better humankind? Wali Memon 42
    • Second International Eugenics Conference, 192143 Wali Memon
    • Popularity of eugenics Originally a field of science! 1859 1900 1920 1940 1950 1992 Wali Memon 44
    • Multifaceted Eugenics Means: Trait Dissemination of information and free choice Intelligence Vocational counselling Mental diseases Genetic counselling Detrimental mental traits - Marriage restriction criminality Segregation Physical diseases (tubercolosis) Compulsory sterilization Compulsory abortion Race Forced pregnancy Genocide45 Wali Memon
    • Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)Charles Darwin’s half-cousin and a child prodigyStatistician CorrelationMedical studies 1960 – Oxford Evolution Debate 46 Wali Memon
    • Hereditary Genius Count the number of the relatives of various degrees of eminent men Proposed: adoption studies trans-racial adoption studies Twin studies adopted and non-adopted Later: dyzigotic and monozygotic Aware of the nature-nurture debate 1883: invented the word eugenics (Inquiries into human faculty and its development) Dysgenic behaviour of eminent people Introducing monetary incentives 47 Wali Memon
    • The Galton Institute (Former Eugenics Society)48 Wali Memon
    • The Bell Curve, 1994Intelligence predicts: Financial income Job performance CrimeIntelligence is inherited 40-80% Perils of a custodial State 49 Wali Memon
    • The Bell Curve, 1994 Intelligence is normally distributed - g sum of many small random variations in genetic and environmental factors Racial claims – differences between blacks and whites Controversial – APA Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns At present, no one knows what causes this differential.Validity problem Wali Memon 50 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth
    • California, 1900-1940s Eugenics flourishing Influential group of intellects endorsed and financed eugenic projects Haynes – physician in Los Angeles (bronchitis!) Goethe – businessmen of Sacramento Cold Spring Harbor Station – research facility Aggravated by the Great Depression „act of civilizing” & Manifest Destiny Sinophobia and discrimination, scientific racism51 Wali Memon
    • California, 1900-1940s Eugenics flourishing Active involvement of governmental organizations Large-scale administration of IQ tests Authorization of scientific research and sterilization Expulsion of foreigners and undesirables en masse Fomented racial segregation IQ testing – two-tracked school system52 Wali Memon
    • California, 1900-1940s - Eugenics Victims: Racial groups Immigrants Mexicans Asian Americans African Americans Young girls classified as Immoral Delinquent 3 stages : liberal – state – liberal53 Wali Memon
    • Liberal starting point 1910 Terman’s Binet-Simon test Whites Mexicans Negroes Intelligence tied to Nordic blood… Segregation Vocational counselling54 Wali Memon
    • Sterilizations per annum 1909- Haynes in Los Angeles1936 Society organized for well- being Regulate and streaamline 900 800 Gosney and Popenoe sterilizations per annum 700 600 Sterilization for Human 500 Betterment 400 300 1935 HOGUE’s bill – to 200 extend sterilization did not 100 pass 0 1909 1920 1929 1936 1942 1952 Competent decision boards: Directors, wardens and superintendents Major themes: Drop in 1952 Delinquency Administrative measures Mental retardedness 1953 – many categories55 Wali Memon dropped – idiots, fools, sexual perversion - decline
    • PROTECTION - NOT PENALTY emphasis shifts from heredity to capacity and responsability of parenthood and social skills Change in methods towards liberal measures in 1940 Popenoe Counselling – career planning, marriage, family planning Information dissemination on eugenical measures Holmes (1920) monetary incentives56 Wali Memon
    • The motives shifted Early years – genes deflate the germ plasm (1880) Initially against: criminality, imbecility, poverty… White supremacy, racial segregation, stereotypes Mexican boys – mentally incompetent – forced manual workers Mexican women – hyperbreeders dependent on welfare Defectives depleting resources – fiscal justifications57 Wali Memon
    • Herbert Spencer Social darwinism Taking „survival of the fittest” a step too far Darwin himself thought it impractical – he would rather have spread the knowledge and let people decide for themselves 2 basic mistakes Naturalistic fallacy He conflates development with change Probably a side effect of the ancient idea of the scala naturae58 Wali Memon
    • Internal struggles Evolution by selection is the only known causal process capable of creating such complex organic mechanisms. (David Buss) Jerry Fodor The motiv is inaccessible even to the agent A way of restoring our innocence Psychological Darwinism is a kind of conspiracy theory; that is, it explains behaviour by imputing an interest (viz in the proliferation of the genome) that the agent of the behaviour does not acknowledge. Popular for the same reason Freud was popular: a slip of tongue is just a libidinous impulse59 Wali Memon
    • Objections : Jerry Fodor Is it ONLY adaptationism that is able to explain such complexity? The complexity of behaviour itself is irrelevant evolution does not and can not act on it only on brains What matters is how much you would have to change an ape’s brain in order to produce that much complexity in behaviour „ And about this, exactly nothing is known. ” It is not like the giraffe’s neck – longer is evident In fact the difference between brains is not that big (J.F.) in terms of genes it is even smaller „what matters with regard to the question whether the mind is an adaptation is not how complex our behaviour is, but how much change you would have to make in an ape’s brain to60produceMemoncognitive structure of a human mind. And about this, exactly nothing is known. Wali the That’s because nothing is known about how the structure of our minds depends on the structure of our brains.”
    • Objections : Jerry Fodor Methodological flaw: „reverse engineering” inferring how a device must work from a prior appreciation of its function Ever tried using telnet? you don’t have to know how hands (or hearts, or eyes, or livers) evolved to make a pretty shrewd guess about what they are for. Maybe you also don’t have to know how the mind evolved to make a pretty shrewd guess at what it’s for; for example, that it’s to think with. (Fodor, J.)61 Wali Memon
    • Concerns with evolutionary psychology Level of selection Individual Gene Group Question of fitness & adaptation Small designs that lead to a higher reproduction of a trait CIRCULARITY Fitness (reasoning circuits) has a definition Yet how do you recognize it in retrospect? Which one is the result of an adaptation? Xenophobia colour of bones form of earlobes62 Wali Memon
    • The circular argumentation problem Inherent goal – often evokes attacks of circular argumentation – the reverse engineering problem The effects strive towards the goal The goal preexists (who invented the goal?) Answer – evolutionary forces How do you know this was the goal? Because it is reached!63 Wali Memon
    • Just-so stories (Rudyard Kipling)64 Wali Memon
    • Problems with blind adaptationism 1. The Panglossian Paradox 2. Graduality does not always work – saltational models (one day you wake up speaking a language?) George Jackson Mivart - what do you do with 5% of a wing? Gould: exaptations 3. Physical constraints – Gould: spandrels in the cathedral65 Wali Memon
    • The Panglossian Paradox Candide, ou lOptimisme by Voltaire Critique of the Leibnizian mantra of Pangloss, "all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds" "Tout est pour le mieux dans le meilleur des mondes" theodicy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz God is a benevolent deity –> the world is perfect Dr. Pangloss, professor of "métaphysico-théologo- cosmolonigologie" and self-proclaimed optimist66 Wali Memon
    • The Panglossian Paradox Lisbons harbor episode, where honest James dies Candide, who beheld all that passed and saw his benefactor one moment rising above water, and the next swallowed up by the merciless waves, was preparing to jump after him, but was prevented by the philosopher Pangloss, who demonstrated to him that the roadstead of Lisbon had been made on purpose for the Anabaptist to be drowned there. Pangloss on his own syphilis it was a thing unavoidable, a necessary ingredient in the best of worlds; for if Columbus had not caught in an island in America this disease, which contaminates the source of generation, and frequently impedes propagation itself, and is evidently opposed to the great end of nature, we should have had neither chocolate nor cochineal.67 Wali Memon
    • The best of all possible worlds It is demonstrable that things cannot be otherwise than as they are; for as all things have been created for some end, they must necessarily be created for the best end. Observe, for instance, the nose is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles. Have we replaced God by evolution? - Is the world the best of all possible worlds? On the function of our noses: Is its inherent purpose to hold spectacles? to warm and moisturize air? How are you to tell in retrospect?68 Wali Memon
    • Exaptation, cooption, preadaptation NOT everything is an adaptation Human vestigiality has long been observed Tailbone Vermiform appendix Muscles in the ear Shifts in the function of a trait during evolution Cooption had a slight confusion with non-adaptive traits less used Darwin already outlined the basis in the „Origin of Species” bird feathers – originally thermo-regulatory function – adapted to flight Mivart: the paradox of 5% of a wing! Jury-rigged design – apparent non-functional traits might be telling about the original function69 Wali Memon
    • Exaptation, cooption, preadaptation Recently – Stephen J. Gould: The thumb of the Panda (uses the word exaptation) The tinkertoy approach Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution--paths that a sensible God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce. Other examples: Mammals – lactatory glands Flat feet – squat eating – bipedalism Bones – calcium deposits primarily70 Wali Memon
    • Physical constraintsStephen J. Venice: and Gould St Mark’s CathedralRichard Lewontin"The Spandrels ofSan Marco andthe Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of theAdaptationistProgramme" (1979) 71 Wali Memon
    • Are the spandrels there, so that nice paintings could be painted on them, specially designed for that purpose?More likely to be inherent in the Bauplan –constraint on adaptive evolutionCauses of historical origin must always be separated from current 72 Wali Memonutilities; their conflation has seriously hampered the evolutionaryanalysis of form in the history of life.
    • Physical constraints Does the tyrannosaur’s hands are especially useful in titillating females – is this a good explanation for its adaptive value? Blind adaptationism does not differentiate between original function and current potentialities Just-so-stories Physical constraints – like spandrels – do not need an73evolutionary explanation Wali Memon
    • In the age of Reason What is the argument that Tooby and Cosmides make about reasoning? Think of the WASON task! General problem solving Specialized problem-solving modules Mathematics – a basic concept or a high art? An argument can be made for both How to make life difficult74 Wali Memon
    • Deduction and Induction If it rains I’ll take an umbrella with me It is raining. Modus ponens I take an umbrella with me. I take an umbrella with me It is either raining or not It is not raining I either take an umbrella with me or not I do not take an umbrella with me Modus tollens It is not raining John studied accountancy at university. John works at an accountant’s office. Therefore John is an accountant.75 Wali Memon
    • The Wason task – deduction task There are 4 cards on the table E K 2 7 Each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other RULE: If the card has a wovel on it, the other side must have an even number on it76 Which one(s) do you have to turn to know if they conform to the Wali Memon rule or not?
    • The Wason task There are 4 cards on the table beer Coke 22 17 All cards have a drink on one side and the age on the other RULE: If one drinks alcohol, they need to be over age77 Which one(s) do you have to turn to know if they Wali Memon conform to the rule or not?
    • Why the difference? Social rules Evolutionary psychology – cheater detectors? What is the counter-argument to that?78 Wali Memon
    • Some provocative questions Does natural selection still work in our highly artificial society? What will the homo sapiens be like in another 200.000 years? Why are there mental illnesses, if adaptationism is so powerful in evolutionary psychology?79 Wali Memon