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Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
Drinking Water
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Drinking Water

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  • 1. Global Need for Drinking Water1 Wali Memon
  • 2. Winter’s Warm Temps This winters preliminary figures show temperatures averaging 3.9 C above normal. That makes it not just the warmest winter but the most overheated season – winter, spring, summer or fall – on record. The weather has been even more unseasonable in some places than in others. 2005 was the warmest year on record (globally)2 Wali Memon
  • 3. 3 Temperature departures from the norm in Canada, winter, 2005/2006 Wali Memon
  • 4. 4 Wali Memon
  • 5. From International News… Sea ice in the Arctic has failed to re-form for the second consecutive winter, raising fears that global warming may have tipped the polar regions in to irreversible climate change far sooner than predicted. The greatest fear is that an environmental "positive feedback" has kicked in, where global warming melts ice which in itself causes the seas to warm still further as more sunlight is absorbed by a dark ocean rather than being reflected by white ice.5 Wali Memon
  • 6. Water and Global Change Water scarcity Water quality and health Case Study on Water and Geopolitics: The Middle East6 Wali Memon
  • 7. 7 Wali Memon
  • 8. Freshwater Availability, selected countries 1000 3 Canada - 98,000 m /person; 900 3 Australia - 34,000 m /person 800cubic meters/person 700 2000 600 UN 2025 UN 2050 500 400 300 200 100 0 Jordan Israel Egypt Syria 8 Wali Memon
  • 9. Four Types of Water Scarcity Type A: Absolute Scarcity too little rainfall in comparison with evaporative demand. Type B: Erratic Rainfall dry spells and droughts Type C: Soil Disturbance reduced permeability of soils Type D: Population Growth combination of hydro-climate limitations and pop. growth9 Wali Memon
  • 10. Water quantity10 Wali Memon
  • 11. Population in Developing Countries Lacking Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation Services 5000 4500 Total 4000 Populationpopulation (millions) 3500 3000 Sanitation 2500 2000 1500 1000 Drinking Water 500 0 11 1980 1990 2000 Wali Memon
  • 12. 12 Wali Memon
  • 13. Global Water Withdrawals, by sector, 1900 - 2000 13 Wali Memon
  • 14. Supply Side Demand Side Domestic use Surface water Natural Consumptive Agriculture Resources Use Ground water Industry Integrated Water Management Navigation Brackish water Hydropower Non- Non- generation Waste conventional consumptive water resources use Aquatic environmentOther water14 Wali Memon Recreation
  • 15. Key Issues: The Reform Agenda 1. Adopt Integrated Water Resource Management Link sector needs with water policy, resource allocation and mgmt Central policy-making and local management Problems in pricing, fragmentation of decision making; health concerns15 Wali Memon
  • 16. 2. Use water more efficiently and reduce pollution Promote efficient use through technical instruments and economic incentives. Resource pricing, water banking and modernization of conveyance and distribution systems Prices range from US $0.04 per cu. m. to $1.11 per cu. m. in Middle East and N Africa (marginal cost approx. $0.35; desalination cost $0.60 – $0/95?) 16 Wali Memon
  • 17. Pricing is problematic… O & M costs covered? Capital costs? Marginal cost? Some countries moving ahead (Tunisia; Jordan) Increase irrigation efficiency (through both pricing and technology) Bananas… yield of $0.44/cu.m. Wheat… yield of $0.20/cu.m. Flowers… yield of $1.00/cu.m. (Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia)17 Wali Memon
  • 18. Reuse wastewater (cost of $0.10 - $0.50 per cu.m.)… Health risks? Improve water quality; establish or improve water quality standards (and enforcement) Reduce groundwater extraction (monitor and control of groundwater extraction)18 Wali Memon
  • 19. Water Supply Options Cost (US $/cu m)Demand Mgmt/Repair leaks $0.10 – 0.70Desalination of brackish $0.20 – 0.40waterWastewater reuse $0.10 – 0.50Long distance transfer $0.30 - $1.00Desalination $0.60 – 0.95 Wali Memon 19
  • 20. Pure water! Cool, clear water. Hey! Step up schmuck, let’s getsome dealin’ done. H2O, that’s my go. Hey! Don’tyou understand? This is water! You can’t live without it! Mad Max III20 Wali Memon
  • 21. Movies The Constant Gardener Lawrence of Arabia Chinatown Sahara Dune21 Wali Memon
  • 22. Reform Agenda (con’t) 1. Adopt IWRM (integrate demand and supply) 2. Improve efficiency and reduce pollution 1. Pricing 2. Water re-use 3. Pollution abatement22 Wali Memon
  • 23. 3. Improve partnerships among NGOs, government and the private sector Decentralized and participatory approaches Private sector participation (services, mgmt)4. Enhance supply Desalination Imports (tanker, pipeline) Virtual water23 Wali Memon
  • 24. Water Intensity of Various Foods (Fehring, 2004) (Virtual Water) Product Litres of WaterLettuce (1 cup) 14White Bread (1 slice) 50Broccoli (80g) 50White Rice (30g) 114Past (60g) 164Plain Yoghurt (1 cup) 400Chicken (230g) 1500Hamburger (115g) 2800Steak (230g) 5600 24 Wali Memon
  • 25. 5. Promote partnerships – regional and international Better technical and financial cooperation on water issues World Bank Regional Water Initiative IDRC (CIDA) Demand Management Forum 25 Wali Memon
  • 26. Water quality a prime indicator of health and well-being; crucial indetermining the cause and transmission of disease;~10 million people die each year from water-related diseases Water Quality and Health26 Wali Memon
  • 27. Deaths from Infectious Diseases, Worldwide (2000) 4 3.5 Over age 5 3Millions of People 2.5 Under age 5 2 1.5 1 0.5 027 Wali Memon ARI AIDS Diarrhoea TB Malaria Measles
  • 28. Water Supply, Distribution of Unserved (2002) Europe 2% Lat Am 6% Africa 27% Asia 65% Total Population Unserved: 1.1 billion28 Wali Memon
  • 29. Sanitation, Distribution of Unserved (2002) Europe 2% Lat Am 5% Africa 13% Asia 80%29 Total Population Unserved: 2.4 billion Wali Memon
  • 30. Percent of Population Unserved (water andsanitation - 2000 Country Water SanitationAfrica 36 40Asia 19 53L.Am/C 13 22Total 21 48 Wali Memon 30
  • 31. 31 Wali Memon
  • 32. 32 Wali Memon
  • 33. 33 Wali Memon
  • 34. Water-Related Diseases Water quality long regarded as the prime indicator of health and well-being. Plays a crucial role in determining the cause and transmission of disease.34 Wali Memon
  • 35. Water is a significant route for disease transmission: typhoid, cholera, dysentery, enteritis (bacteria), infectious hepatitis (viruses), amoebic dysentery, giardiasis (protozoa), and schistosomiasis (worms) are all transmitted via water.35 Wali Memon
  • 36. Types of Water-Related Diseases Waterborne Diseases (infections spread through water supplies; cholera) Water-washed Diseases (infections spread through lack of water for personal hygiene; E.coli or salmonella) Water-vectored Diseases (infections spread by insects that depend on water; malaria) Water-based Diseases(infections spread through an aquatic invertebrate host water; guinea worm disease)36 Wali Memon
  • 37. Waterborne Diseases Cholera (bathing or drinking water or contaminated food)… associated with heavy rainfall (climate change?); also linked to sea- surface temperatures Cryptosporidiosis (zoonosis; associated with untreated surface waters in swimming or wading pools)37 Wali Memon
  • 38. Water-washed Diseases Salmonella; E.coli; pseudomonas - transmitted through contaminated water Prevalent in developing countries Close proximity of drinking, bathing, sewage, washing etc.38 Wali Memon
  • 39. Water-vectored Diseases Malaria… vector-borne disease, responsible for more cases of morbidity and mortality than any other tropical disease Caused by Anopheles mosquito bite Water crucial in transmission - high humidity and standing water 2 billion people exposed; accounts for ~25% of childhood deaths39 Wali Memon
  • 40. Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) transmitted by tsetse flies (Sub-saharan Africa; some in L. America)40 Wali Memon
  • 41. Water-based DiseasesDracunculiasis or guinea worm disease. Caused bycontaminated drinking water (mostly confined toSub-Saharan Africa); water contains a crustaceanwith guinea worms… filtered water key.Schistosomiasis (affects 200 million people): parasitespread by snails. Irrigation projects; large dams (5-10% - 70-90% after dam construction in Egypt,Russia)41 Wali Memon
  • 42. Water-Related Diseases Many go undiagnosed; water may be only one factor of many…42 Wali Memon

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