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Biodiversity
 

Biodiversity

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    Biodiversity Biodiversity Presentation Transcript

    • Biodiversity1 Wali Memon Wali Memon
    • North American Gray Wolf Reduced to a few hundred Keystone species Restoration proposal angered ranchers, hunters, loggers 1995, reintroduced in Yellowstone, 136 by 2007 Positive ripple effect after reintroduction2 Wali Memon
    • The Gray Wolf3 Wali Memon
    • How Are We Affecting the Earth’s Biodiversity andWhy Should We Protect It? We are degrading and destroying biodiversity in many parts of the world and these threats are increasing. We should protect biodiversity because it exists and because of its usefulness to us and other species. 4 Wali Memon
    • Loss of Biodiversity Earth’s biodiversity depleted and degraded 83% land surface disturbed Degradation of aquatic biodiversity Ecological fishprint unsustainable5 Wali Memon
    • Why Protect Biodiversity Intrinsic value Instrumental value Nonuse values Existence Aesthetic Bequest6 Wali Memon
    • Endangered Orangutans7 Wali Memon
    • How Should We Manage and Sustain Forests? We can sustain forests by recognizing the economic value of their ecological services, protecting old-growth forests, harvesting trees no faster than they are replenished, and making most paper from fast- growing plants and agricultural residues instead of trees.8 Wali Memon
    • Forest Services Forests 30% of earth’s land surface Economic services Ecological services9 Wali Memon
    • Types of Forests Old-growth forests Second-growth forests Tree plantation10 Wali Memon
    • Natural Capital: Forests11 Wali Memon
    • Old-growth Forest12 Wali Memon
    • Short Rotation Cycle Forestry13 Wali Memon
    • Loss of Original Forests 46% in 8,000 years, most since 1950 Most in tropical areas, developing countries Estimated loss of 40% intact forests within next 20 years14 Wali Memon
    • Natural Capital Degradation: Deforestation15 Wali Memon
    • Science Focus: Putting a Price Tag on Nature’s Ecological Services Estimated value of earth’s ecological services $33.2 trillion per year $4.7 trillion per year for forests Need to start factoring values into land use16 Wali Memon
    • Roads and Forests17 Wali Memon
    • Good News on Forests 2000–2005 net total forested area stabilized or increased Most of the increase due to tree plantations Net loss of terrestrial biodiversity18 Wali Memon
    • Return of Forests in the United States U.S. forests Cover ~30% of land Contain ~80% of wildlife species Supply ~67% of nation’s surface water Forest cover greater now than in 1920 Secondary succession19 Wali Memon
    • Return of Forests in the United States Second- and third-growth forests fairly diverse More wood grown than cut 40% of forests in National Forest System Forests transformed into tree plantations20 Wali Memon
    • Harvest Methods Step one – build roads Erosion Invasive species Open up for human invasion Step two – logging operations Selective cutting Strip cutting Clear cutting21 Wali Memon
    • Forest Harvesting Methods22 Wali Memon
    • Clear-cut Logging23 Wali Memon
    • Trade-offs: Clear-cutting Forests24 Wali Memon
    • Forests and Fires Surface fires Burn undergrowth only Cool fire Ecological benefits Crown fires Burn the entire tree Hot fire Occur in forests with lack of surface fires25 Wali Memon
    • Management of Forest Fires Fire suppression in all types of forests Some forests naturally fire adapted Restoration of fire’s natural role26 Wali Memon
    • Forest Fires27 Wali Memon
    • Certifying Sustainably Grown Timber Forest Steward Council (FSC) certification of forest operations Environmentally sound practices Sustainable yield harvest Minimal erosion from operations Retention of dead wood for wildlife habitat However, the FSC has been under fire for certifying areas that are not sustainable- see http://www.fsc-watch.org28 Wali Memon
    • Solutions: Sustainable Forestry29 Wali Memon
    • Trees and Paper Many trees are cut for paper production Alternatives Pulp from rice straw and agricultural residues (China) Kenaf (U.S.)30 Wali Memon
    • Solutions: Kenaf In California, Texas and Louisiana, 3,200 acres of kenaf were grown in 1992, most of which was used for animal bedding and feed Kenaf grows quickly, rising to heights of 12-14 feet in as little as 4 to 5 months. U.S. Department of Agriculture studies show that kenaf yields of 6 to 10 tons of dry fiber per acre per year are generally 3 to 5 times greater than the yield for Southern pine trees, which can take from 7 to 40 years to reach harvestable size.31 Wali Memon
    • How Serious Is Tropical Deforestation and How Can It Be Reduced? We can reduce tropical deforestation by protecting large forest areas teaching settlers about sustainable agriculture and forestry using government subsidies that encourage sustainable forest use reducing poverty slowing population growth32 Wali Memon
    • 33 Wali Memon http://nksandeep.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/deforestation-in-the-amazon.jpg
    • Tropical Forests Cover 6% of earth’s land area Habitat for 50% of terrestrial plants and animals Vulnerable to extinction – specialized niches Rapid loss of 50,000–170,000 km2 per year34 Wali Memon
    • Burning of a Tropical Forest35 Wali Memon
    • Destruction of Tropical Forests36 Wali Memon
    • Causes of Tropical Forest Deforestation and Degradation Population growth and poverty Government subsidies International lending agencies encourage development37 Wali Memon
    • Gold Mining southern Venezuelan lowland tropical rainforest, the Caura basin has impressive levels of biodiversity -- 2,600 vascular plant species, 168 mammal species, 475 bird species, 34 amphibian species, 53 reptile species, and 441 species of fish to date -- and stores some 700 million metric tons of carbon, or about the amount released by 162 million cars in a year. Area home to indigenous groups -- Yekwana, Sanema and Hoti -- who rely heavily upon local rivers for drinking water, food, and transportation. isolated parts Amazonia, these Indians live in mostly traditional ways. 38 Wali Memonhttp://news.mongabay.com/2006/1109-atbc.html
    • Miners rely heavily on hydraulic mining techniques, blasting away at river banks with high- powered water cannons and clearing forests to expose potential gold- yielding gravel deposits. Gold is usually extracted from this gravel using a sluice box to separate heavier sediment and mercury used to amalgamate the precious metal. “Mercury sales are poorly regulated and its use is widespread…bioaccumulation of mercury in fish poses health threats to people living downstream. Fish account for the major share of protein in the diet of local residents, …Venezuelas Minister of Environment,39 Wali Memon said that it will take 300 years to re-plant destroyed forest in the area and 70 years to decontaminate areas polluted by the miners.” http://news.mongabay.com/2006/1109-atbc.html
    • Effects of Tropical Deforestation Fragmentation of remaining patches Remaining forests get drier and may burn Degrades biodiversity CO2 to the atmosphere Accelerates climate change40 Wali Memon
    • How to Protect Tropical Forests Teach settlers to practice small-scale sustainable agriculture Harvest renewable resources from the forests Debt-for-nature swaps Conservation concessions Better logging methods41 Wali Memon
    • Solutions: Sustaining Tropical Forests42 Wali Memon
    • Individuals Matter:Wangari Maathai and Kenya’s Green BeltMovement Backyard small tree nursery Organized poor women Women paid for each surviving seedling planted Breaks cycle of poverty Reduces environmental degradation People walk less distance to get fuel wood Sparked projects in +30 African countries 43 Wali Memon 2004 Nobel Peace Price
    • Wangari Maathai on Climate Change and Copenhagen 2009 “The world hopes that in Copenhagen, governments will be guided by the realities of available scientific evidence, and act accordingly. I welcome the development of new incentive mechanisms, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), which should also address degradation of agricultural land. REDD would compensate developing countries for environmental services provided by indigenous forests left standing.” “Other mechanisms have been proposed and should be considered, including an “emergency fund” by the Prince of Wales’ Rainforest Project, which would provide payments from public and private sources to countries that protect their rainforests. “ 44 Wali Memonhttp://greenbeltmovement.org/w.php?id=98
    • How Should We Manage and Sustain Parks and Nature Reserves? Sustaining biodiversity will require protecting much more of the earth’s remaining undisturbed land area, starting with the most endangered biodiversity hot spots.45 Wali Memon
    • National Parks >1,100 national parks in 120 countries Only 1% of parks in developing countries are protected Local people invade parks to survive46 Wali Memon
    • Problems Protecting National Parks Illegal logging Illegal mining Wildlife poaching Most parks too small to protect large animals Invasion of nonnative species47 Wali Memon
    • Illegal Killing and Trading of Wildlife Poaching endangers many larger animals, rare plants Over two-thirds die in transit Illegal trade $6–$10 billion per year Wild species depleted by pet trade Exotic plants often illegally gathered48 Wali Memon
    • White Rhinoceros Poached for Its Horn49 Wali Memon
    • The Value of Wild Rare Species Declining populations increase black market values Rare species valuable in the wild – eco-tourism Some ex-poachers turn to eco-tourism50 Wali Memon
    • Rising Demand for Bush Meat Traditional use of bush meat Demand increasing with population growth Increased road access Loggers, miners, ranchers add to pressure Local and biological extinctions51 Wali Memon
    • Bush Meat on the Rise52 Wali Memon
    • Stresses on U.S. National Parks Biggest problem popularity Damage from nonnative species Threatened islands of biodiversity53 Wali Memon
    • Species Introductions Most beneficial – food crops, livestock, pest control 500,000 alien invader species globally 50,000 nonnative species in the U.S. The economic toll from damage by invasive species—and the costs of trying to control them—is enormous: U.S. $137 billion a year, according to a 1999 Cornell University study.54 Wali Memon
    • Deliberately Introduced Species55 Wali Memon
    • Accidentally Introduced Species56 Wali Memon
    • Case Study: The Kudzu Vine Kudzu introduced to control erosion Prolific growth Uses Asians use powdered starch in beverages Source of tree-free paper Japanese kudzu farm in Alabama57 Wali Memon
    • Invasive Kudzu Vine58 Wali Memon
    • Disruptions from Accidentally Introduced Species Downside of global trade 13-foot (4-meter) Burmese python in Argentina fire ant Floridas Everglades National Park, the Burmese python headless python was found in October 2005 after it apparently tried to digest a 6-foot-long (2-meter-long) American alligator 59 Wali Memonhttp://news.nationalgeographic.com/
    • Argentina Fire Ant60 Wali Memon
    • Prevention of Nonnative Species (1) Identify characteristics of successful invaders Detect and monitor invasions Inspect imported goods Identify harmful invasive species and ban transfer61 Wali Memon
    • Prevention of Nonnative Species (2) ships discharge ballast waters at sea introduce natural control organisms of invaders62 Wali Memon
    • Characteristics of Successful Invaders63 Wali Memon Fig. 9-12, p. 187
    • What Can You Do?64 Wali Memon Fig. 9-13, p. 188
    • Natural Capital Degradation: Off-road Vehicles65 Wali Memon
    • Nature Reserves Occupy a Fraction of Earth 12% of earth’s land protected Only 5% fully protected – 95% reserved for human use Need for conservation Minimum 20% of land in biodiversity reserves Protection for all biomes66 Wali Memon
    • Solutions for Protection Requires action – bottom-up political pressure Nature Conservancy – world’s largest private system of reserves Buffer zones around protected areas Locals to manage reserves and buffer zones67 Wali Memon
    • Solutions: National Parks68 Wali Memon
    • Case Study: Costa Rica Superpower of biodiversity Conserved 25% of its land, 8 megareserves Government eliminated deforestation subsidies Paid landowners to maintain and restore tree coverage Goal to make sustainable forestry profitable69 Wali Memon
    • Model Biosphere Reserve70 Wali Memon
    • Costa Rica’s Megareserve Network71 Wali Memon
    • Protecting Wilderness Protects Biodiversity Wilderness Minimum size >4,000 km2 Preserves natural capital Centers for evolution72 Wali Memon
    • Case Study: Controversy over Wilderness Protection in the U.S. 1964 Wilderness Act Roadless Rule protects 400,000 sq. miles Pressure from oil, gas, mining, and logging73 Wali Memon
    • Protecting Global Biodiversity Hotspots 17 megadiversity countries in tropics and subtropics Two-thirds of biodiversity Developing countries economically poor and biodiversity rich Protect biodiversity hotspots74 Wali Memon
    • 34 Global Hotspots75 Wali Memon
    • Biodiversity Hotspots in the U.S.76 Wali Memon
    • 8-6 What Is the Importance of Restoration Ecology? Concept 8-6 Sustaining biodiversity will require a global effort to rehabilitate and restore damaged ecosystems.77 Wali Memon
    • Ecological Restoration Ecological Restoration Restoration Rehabilitation Replacement Creating artificial ecosystems78 Wali Memon
    • Science-based Principles for Restoration Identify cause of degradation Stop abuse by reducing factors Reintroduce species if necessary Protect area from further degradation79 Wali Memon
    • Case Study: Ecological Restoration of Tropical Dry Forest in Costa Rica One of world’s largest ecological restoration projects Restore a degraded tropical dry forest and reconnect it to adjacent forests Involve 40,000 people in the surrounding area – biocultural restoration Ecotourism80 Wali Memon
    • Will Restoration Encourage Further Degradation Some worry environmental restoration suggests any harm can be undone Scientists disagree Restoration badly needed Altered restored site better than no restoration81 Wali Memon
    • What Can You Do?82 Wali Memon Fig. 8-24, p. 171
    • 8-7 How Can We Help Sustain Aquatic Biodiversity? Concept 8-7 We can sustain aquatic biodiversity by establishing protected sanctuaries, managing coastal development, reducing water pollution, and preventing overfishing.83 Wali Memon
    • Three Patterns of Aquatic Biodiversity Greatest biodiversity in coral reefs, estuaries, and deep-ocean floor Higher near the coast than in open sea Higher in the bottom region of ocean than in surface layer84 Wali Memon
    • Human Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems Destroyed or degraded by human activities Ocean floor degradation 150 times larger than area clear-cut annually 75% of most valuable fish species overfished Likely extinction 34% marine fish species 71% freshwater species85 Wali Memon
    • Effects of Bottom Trawling86 Wali Memon Fig. 8-25, p. 172
    • Why Is Protection of Marine Biodiversity So Difficult? Human aquatic ecological footprint expanding Not visible to most people Viewed as an inexhaustible resource Most ocean areas outside jurisdiction of a country87 Wali Memon
    • Solutions for Marine Ecosystems Protect endangered and threatened species Establish protected marine sanctuaries Marine reserves – work well and quickly Integrated coastal management Protect existing coastal wetlands88 Wali Memon
    • Solutions: Managing Fisheries89 Wali Memon Fig. 8-26, p. 173
    • 8-8 What Should Be Our Priorities for Protecting Biodiversity? Concept 8-8 Sustaining the world’s biodiversity requires mapping terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity, protecting terrestrial and aquatic hotspots and old-growth forests, initiating ecological restoration projects worldwide, and making conservation profitable.90 Wali Memon
    • Priorities for Protecting Biodiversity Map terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity Immediately preserve biodiversity hotspots Keep old-growth forests intact Protect and restore lakes and rivers Initiate ecological restoration Make conservation profitable91 Wali Memon