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Normal and Abnormal Psychology
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Normal and Abnormal Psychology

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Normal and Not So Normal Psychology

Normal and Not So Normal Psychology

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Normal and Abnormal Psychology Normal and Abnormal Psychology Presentation Transcript

  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonAbnormal Psychology 1
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental Disorder1) Defining Mental Disorders2) Discussing Particular Abnormalities3) Therapy Regimens 2
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental DisorderTHREE CLASSIC SYMPTOMS of MENTAL DISORDER: – Hallucinations: false sensory experiences – Delusions: disorders of logical thinking – Affective Disturbances: inappropriately strong or absent emotional response 3 View slide
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental DisorderNo Mild Moderate SevereDisorder Disorder Disorder Disorder 4 View slide
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental Disorder• Distress• Maladaptiveness• Irrationality• Unpredictability• Unconventionality• Observer Discomfort 5
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental Disorder• Reasons for differences in rates of disorders and types of symptoms -- are there real cultural differences? • Personality / cognitive style • Definitions of mental illness • Acceptability of mental (as opposed to physical) distress • Usage of medical and psychological services • Views of the origins and treatment of illness 6
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonDefining Mental Disorder 7
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental DisorderHomosexuality was defined as a disorder inprevious DSM Manuals 8
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental DisorderIt is current practice in China to institutionalizemembers of the Falun Gong religion 9
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Defining Mental DisorderSarafem – another name for Prozac 10
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Types of Mental Disorders1) Personality Disorders2) Anxiety Disorders3) Mood Disorders4) Other Disorders 11
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Personality DisordersInflexible pattern of inner experience andoutward behavior which deviates markedlyfrom one’s culture.Paranoid, Schizoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Narcissistic, Histrionic, Avoidant, Dependent 12
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Antisocial PersonalityShows a pervasive pattern of disregard for, andviolation of other people’s rights.Up to 3.5% manifest an antisocial personalitydisorder (APA, 1994)Symptoms: Repeatedly deceitful, irresponsiblewith money, impulsive, tendency to startfights, egocentric, no regard for safety of self orothers. 13
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Antisocial PersonalityTend to be skillful at manipulating people.Are not distressed by the pain they cause, oftenperceived as lacking any moral conscience.“They glibly rationalize their actions bycharacterizing their victims as weak anddeserving of being conned or stolen from”(Comer, 1997) 14
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Borderline PersonalityCharacterized by mood shifts, unstable self-image, and impulsivity.2% of the U.S. population suffer fromBorderline personality disorder (APA, 1994).Symptoms: Intense, conflict filledrelationships, overstep relationshipboundaries, fear of desertion, suicidalthoughts, self-mutilation, emptiness, boredom, confusion 15
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Anxiety Disorders1) Generalized Anxiety Disorder2) Phobias3) Panic Disorder4) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder5) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 16
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Generalized Anxiety DisorderGeneral “free floating” anxiety about everything3.8% of the U.S. population exhibit symptoms (APA, 1994).Symptoms: Restlessness, Quick to Fatigue, Trouble Concentrating, Irritability, Muscle Tension, Sleep Problems. 17
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon PhobiaPersistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object10-11% of the U.S. population exhibit symptoms (Magee et al., 1996).Common Phobias: Heights, Death, Snakes, Interacting with others, Crowds, injections, doctors, spiders, flying. 18
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon PhobiaLuposlipaphobia: The fear of being pursued by timber wolves around a kitchen table while wearing socks on a newly waxed floor(Gary Larson, the far side) 19
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Panic DisordersPeriodic, discrete bouts of panic that occur abruptly and peak within 10 minutes2.3 % of the U.S. population suffer from Panic Disorder (Weissman et al., 1997)Symptoms: Palpitations of the heart, shortness of breath, chest pains, choking sensation, faintness, dizziness 20
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonObsessive Compulsive DisorderObsession – Persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that invade consciousnessCompulsion – Repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform to reduce distress2% of the U.S. population suffer from OCD (APA, 1994). 21
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon PTSDDistinct patterns of behavior that arise in reaction to a psychologically traumatic event.7.8% of U.S. population will experience at least one episode in their lifetimeSymptoms: Re-experiencing traumatic event, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, increased arousal (anxiety/guilt) 22
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Mood Disorders1) Unipolar depression2) Bipolar Depression 23
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Unipolar DepressionSevere, long lasting, and debilitating sadness.5-10% of the U.S. population experiences clinical depression in a given year (Kessler et al, 1994)Symptoms: Feelings of sadness, loss of sense of humor, lack of drive, suicidal thoughts, anxiety, staying in bed, easily distracted 24
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Bipolar DepressionDepressive episodes followed by manic episodes.Mania – dramatic and inappropriate elevations of mood.1.5% of the U.S. population suffers from bipolar depression (Kessler et al, 1994)Symptoms: hyperactivity, insomnia, arbitrary decision making, delusions. 25
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Other DisordersMemory disorders(Alzheimer’s, Amnesia, Korsakoff’s )Perceptual disorders(Agnosia, Prosopagnosia, Neglect, Balint’s)Language disorders (Broca’s Aphasia, Wernicke’sAphasia)Physical Disorders (Anorexia, Bulimia, Obesity)Misc. (Phantom Limb, ImposterEffect, Autism, Schizophrenia) 26
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Therapy Regimens1) Behavioral Therapy2) Cognitive Therapy3) Psychoanalytic Therapy4) Humanistic Therapy5) Family Therapy6) Biomedical Therapy 27
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonBehavioral Therapy Why would somebody beafraid of white furry objects? 28
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonBehavioral Therapy Systematic Desensitization 29
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonBehavioral Therapy Flooding 30
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Behavioral Therapy Aversion Therapy + =Ipecac + Alcohol = Sobriety 31
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Behavioral TherapyOther Behavioral Therapies Social Learning Therapy Operant Conditioning Therapy 32
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Cognitive TherapyConstant Repetitionof Negativethoughts leads toabnormality 33
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Cognitive TherapyNobody likes me  Even people who like me occasionally get mad at meI’m a moron  I’m smart, even if I do make mistakes now and thenI’m worthless  I’m a good personMy jokes are bad  It’s not my fault that the class has no sense of humor. 34
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonPsychoanalytic Therapy Freud and his famous couch 35
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Psychoanalytic TherapyFreud saw many things as having sexual overtones 36
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Psychoanalytic Therapy Collective Unconcious and ArchetypesCarl Jung The shadow archetype 37
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Humanistic TherapyThe patient best knows his or her own mind, thepsychologist’s job is to facilitate self-therapy Eliza the Online Therapist 38
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Humanistic Therapy The 3 necessary elements of Humanistic Therapy1) Unconditional Positive Regard2) Genuineness3) Non-Directive Guidance 39
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Family TherapyInterpersonal Dynamics lead to Abnormality •Switch Rolls •Switch Power structure (as in The Simpsons) •Group Discussion 40
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonBiomedical Therapy 41
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonBiomedical Therapy Psychosurgery 42
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali MemonBiomedical Therapy Electroconvulsive Therapy Induce small seizures to correct for chemical imbalances 43
  • walimemon.com 2008 Wali Memon Final WordsWatch “Girl Interrupted” 44