Wales Migration Partnership - going the extra mile

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More on the contribution of migrants to volunteering in Wales.

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Wales Migration Partnership - going the extra mile

  1. 1. International Migrants, Asylum Seekers & Refugees in Wales, an overview All statistics are from Migration Briefings produced by Professor Heaven Crawley, Centre for Migration Policy Research (CMPR), Swansea University for the Wales Migration Partnership (WMP) to be published Winter 2013, or from the Wales Migration Portal (see end slide). Published July 2013 www.wmp.org.uk T 029 2090 9550 F 029 2090 9510 E anne.hubbard@wmp.org.uk
  2. 2. Key points • Although Immigration is non- devolved, the Welsh Government has responsibility towards international migrants and asylum seekers and refugees living in Wales under its housing, health, education, social services and through its community cohesion agenda.
  3. 3. Asylum seekers Asylum Seeker • An asylum seeker is someone who has lodged an application for protection on the basis of the Refugee Convention or Article 3 of the ECHR • Swansea, Wrexham, Newport and Cardiff are agreed asylum dispersal areas in Wales. • Wales receives 8% of the UK total population of asylum seekers
  4. 4. Asylum seekers in Wales • Wales accommodates approximately 1500 dispersed asylum seekers (as at May 2012). Of these 825 are dependants of the main applicant. • The top 5 nationalities of asylum seekers in Wales are: Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, People's Republic of China and Nigeria. • The most common age group of asylum seekers is 30- 34 years (including single people and heads of families). • Of the 684 males overall in Wales, 36% are single and 18% are in families. Of the 634 Females overall, 9% are single and 37% are in families.
  5. 5. Refugees in Wales A refugee is a person who ‘owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country…’ (1951 Refugee Convention) • Numbers of asylum seekers have decreased in recent years, reflecting lower national trends, • Some asylum seekers from previous years will have been granted a form of leave to remain/refugee status and will be living in Wales as refugees or they may have become British citizens; there is no way of knowing how many remain in Wales.
  6. 6. Definition-International Migrant • Someone who has or intends to change his or her country of usual residence for a period of at least a year (Welsh Government 2013) • In Wales and the rest of the UK the term ‘international migrant’ is often used to refer specifically to Eastern European citizens due to the significant in increase in the number of people from these countries - particularly Poland and Slovakia – who have come to Wales to live and work since 2004.
  7. 7. ‘A8’ Migrants • A8 migrants are members of the eight central and eastern European countries - Poland, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia – that joined the European Union in 2004 and whose citizens acquired the right to work in the UK. • Croatia joined the EU in July 2012
  8. 8. Croatia • Croatia officially joined the EU on 1 July 2013, becoming the 28th member state ratified. From that date Croatian nationals are able to move and live freely in any Member State of the EU.
  9. 9. ‘A2’ Migrants; Bulgaria & Romania • Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU in January 2007 • Citizens of Bulgaria and Romania are currently subject to restrictions and cannot work for an employer without a work permit (although they can be self-employed). • From 31st December 2013 they will also acquire the right to work in the UK.
  10. 10. Key Points On average (in recent years) there has been a net inflow of international migrants of around 2,400 per year ; this figure significantly increased in May 2004 when eight central and eastern European (A8) countries - Poland, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia - joined the EU and acquired the right to work.
  11. 11. Migrant workers in Wales • Around 22,300 A8 migrants joined the Welsh labour market between May 2004 and March 2008. Over half of all migrant workers from central and eastern Europe in Wales are living in Carmarthenshire (Llanelli), Cardiff, Newport and Wrexham.
  12. 12. Largest Cohorts born outside UK The largest cohort of people born outside the UK living in Wales are from Poland, but there are also significant numbers who were born in India, Germany, Ireland and the Philippines.
  13. 13. Downturn • The economic downturn since 2008 has been associated with significant changes in patterns of international migration to Wales. From 2008 onwards the number of international migrants in Wales decreased. • In 2011 there was a net outflow of international migrants for the first time since 1993 (Welsh Government 2013).
  14. 14. Key points • Research and economic analysis shows that, overall, A8 migrants coming the UK after 2004 have made a net fiscal contribution to the UK with no negative impact on the UK welfare system. Overall there have been no negative effects on the Welsh labour market.
  15. 15. Key points • International students have become increasingly important to the Welsh economy. 8% of undergraduate students and 39% of postgraduate students at Welsh Universities are from outside the EU (Wales Migration Portal)
  16. 16. International students • In 2009-10, there were 19,050 foreign students, from more than 70 countries studying in Wales • They paid £110m in tuition fees, spent £130m on living costs, triggered a £23m injection from family and friends. In total estimates that international students in Wales add £237m to the nation’s gross domestic product and more than 9,000 jobs in Wales. Oxford Economics (2011)
  17. 17. Key points • There is considerable political and policy debate about the number of migrants expected from the A2 countries – Romania and Bulgaria – who will be entitled to work in the UK from 31st December 2013. The scale and impact of migration from Bulgaria and Romania is difficult to accurately predict. (IPPR, 2006, AAPG, 2013)
  18. 18. Key Points • There are many different factors which may influence immigration from A2 to the UK – including the economic situation in Bulgaria & Romania and the UK • There are other EU destinations – who are lifting restrictions – including France, Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Belgium
  19. 19. Key Points • Spain & Italy have the highest numbers of Romanian migrants in the EU • Bulgaria and Romania have ageing and shrinking populations and the lowest fertility rates in Europe so the cohort of young people who are more likely to migrate is shrinking • Any numbers provided will be informed guesses and not enough to develop policy responses
  20. 20. Key Points • The debate very much focussed on expectations of increased numbers of people of Roma background • A higher proportion of Roma live in Bulgaria and Romania than in the A8 countries • However, it’s not clear how many Roma intend to leave or come to the UK
  21. 21. Key points • Local authorities need good quality, up- to-date local level data on how many migrants are living in the area, their nationality and backgrounds and characteristics in order to meet their duties under the Equality Act 2010 to eliminate unlawful racial discrimination, promote race equality and promote good relations.
  22. 22. WMP Chair; Rev Aled Edwards OBE
  23. 23. WMP Team Contact; 02
  24. 24. CONTACT DETAILS/further info • anne.hubbard@wmp.org.uk • http://migrantforum.org.uk/joint-2013- winner-woman-of-the-year-constance- nzeneu/ • http://wssagwales.wordpress.com/
  25. 25. Data and resources can be downloaded from the Wales Migration Portal ( registration required): http://wmp.infobasecymru.net/IAS

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