Ahsgs plagarism abridj2012
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Ahsgs plagarism abridj2012 Ahsgs plagarism abridj2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azlina Murad Sani University Teaching & Learning Centre & Dept of Language Studies, SEML azlina@uum.edu.myAHSGS 3RD COLLOQUIUM FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS ©The intellectual rights of the original sources are asserted. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012
  • Objectives At the end of this talk, you should be able to  identify the different types of plagiarism  distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable forms of attribution AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 2
  • What is Plagiarism? Latin: plagiarius, kidnapper, literary thief To take (ideas, writings, etc.) from (another) and pass them off as one‟s own. American Heritage Dictionary “…the use of pre-existing material by the author of a new work in such a manner that it appears to be claimed to be an original contribution by that author, in particular because of the absence of a citation of the original work.” (Davison et al. cited in Clarke, 2005, p.5) “Academic plagiarism occurs when a writer repeatedly uses more than four words from a printed source without…reference to the original… in a work presented as the author’s own research and scholarship.” (Hexham, 2005, p.2) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 3
  • Plagiarism by students A study of 23 U.S colleges: 38% students admitted to some form of internet plagiarism. Almost 50% did not even consider it to be cheating. (New York Times, 2003) American survey: 70 % of students admitted to some cheating; 2005 40% admitted to internet plagiarism (Center for Academic Integrity, 2005) An assistant professor shares her thesis with her PhD student. The student not only plagiarized passages from her, but submitted work that was basically her thesis. (Chronicle of Higher Educ, 2004) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 4
  • Consequences An estimated 10,000 students a year are subjected to disciplinary action across Australian universities, mostly for plagiarism (University World News, Dec 2010) A British university withholds the degree of an English major who admits to plagiarism throughout his academic career, but claims he did not know that his “cut and paste” techniques were a problem. (Chronicle of Higher Educ, 2004) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 5
  • Plagiarism by academics The Guardian, UK; Oct 30 2007 reported:  Durham University: former dean investigated for plagiarism, resigned  Wolverhampton University: senior lecturer dismissed for plagiarism  Southern Illinois University: University President accused of lifting sections from original works, ruled unintentional  University of Colorado: professor dismissed for plagiarising & falsifying research  All India Institute of Medical Sciences: 6 professors & a director accused of fraudulent journal publications Kock (1999):  In a prestigious US university: Foreign assistant professor of Information Systems published data plagiarised from a counterpart‟s PhD; resigned. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 6
  • Why the big fuss? Centrality of writing in academia  Students: demonstration of scholarship deserving the award of the degree ○ No false claims of idea contribution  Academics: obligation to advance knowledge ○ Gives false „aura of expertise‟ ○ Career—accelerated progress of „less fit academics‟, sometimes at the expense of the truly deserving ones. ○ Affects the image of academia (Clarke, 2005) Respect and trust as honour code in academic writing  valuing and respecting not just knowledge itself but contributors to the body of knowledge. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 7
  • Plagiarism as violation of implicit trust As members of the global academic community, scholars/ researchers trust that:  When we express ideas that are a product of careful thought, then we have the rights of intellectual ownership  Someone will use our ideas, and/or build on them for the advancement of human knowledge.  Those who choose to do so will have the intellectual integrity/honesty to give credit to us as the originator of the idea, opinion, data or words. (Hexham, 2005; Clarke, 2005) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 8
  • Challenge of academicwriting culture for juniorscholarsNegotiating knowledge advancement: Ideas have to be „original‟, but based on something read. Expert opinion has to be included, but they should be critiqued and expanded. Credit should be given to other writers, but your own voice should be clear Build upon what you read, but use your own words (Purdue Online Writing Lab) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 9
  • Adaptation: Plagiarism Quiz, Learning Centre, UNSWAHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 10
  • 1. You have an interesting opinion, but you can‟t put it into words very well. Then you come across some sentences in an article that say exactly what you want to say. You borrow some of the wording. Since you had the idea in your mind even before you found the article, you don‟t need to cite the reference. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 11
  • 2. You found an idea that fits in well into your proposal. You use it, but you rewrite the idea in a better way than the original. It‟s now in your own words, so you don‟t need to provide the source. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 12
  • 3. You borrowed some sentences from a book. You don‟t use quotation marks to indicate the words you borrowed, but you provided the reference in your bibliography list. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 13
  • 4. After weeks of struggling, you have come up with a conceptual framework for your study. You create an original figure to show proposed relationships between your variables. To explain the relationships, you rely on phrases that have come from your readings. As your framework is original, you haven‟t referenced the phrases. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 14
  • 5. You have done a lot of reading on your topic. You submitted a paper where almost every line is a direct quotation or paraphrase. You double checked to ensure that all sources are properly cited, using quotation marks. You also provided a comprehensive reference list. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 15
  •  You have read a document related to the topic of your study in your native language. In writing your paper, you used several ideas from that source, translating them into English. You don‟t cite the source. Your lecturer doesn‟t know your native language.Plagiarism includes translating into another language: original words or paraphrase of ideas opinions, recommendations, speculations, insights, arrangement of ideaswithout attribution to the original work and/or intentionally passing off as one’s own. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 16
  • What doesn‟t needdocumentation? Common knowledge and undisputed facts, including those in your specific field  Common sense, myths, events in history (unless specifically derived from historical documents)  Rule of thumb: information that is found undocumented in at least five reliable sources, or easily found in general references. (Purdue OWL) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 17
  • Refer to Handout AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 18
  • Source text Although teachers at all levels are traditionally considered as knowledge managers, the field of education has not embraced Knowledge Management (KM) with the same enthusiasm shown by other fields, particularly those in business organizations pursuing “business intelligence”. While people in academia do conduct cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies, the preference still seems to be towards disciplinary specializations and integrity of traditional academic disciplines.Source: Bajunid, I.A. (2004). Preliminary explorations of knowledge management initiative in higher education institutions. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 1 (1) p.5 AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 19
  • Borrowed idea: Example 1 Education seems to be rather conservative compared to other fields. While people in academia do conduct cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies, the preference still seems to be towards disciplinary specializations and integrity of traditional academic disciplines. This practice should be reconsidered. The need to look outwards, and take advantage of the benefits of interdisciplinary work is crucial if educationists intend to keep up with the knowledge demands of the 21st century. TYPE: Straight plagiarism— borrowing exact sentences Correction? AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 20
  • Example 1 Education seems to be rather conservativeQuote compared to other fields. Bajunid (2004) observed marks that “ while people in academia do conduct cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies, the preference still seems to be towards disciplinary specializations and integrity of traditional academic disciplines” (p. 5). This practice should be Pg no. reconsidered. The need to look outwards, and take advantage of the benefits of interdisciplinary work is crucial if educationists intend to keep up with the knowledge demands of the 21st century.In ref ------------ list Bajunid, I.A. (2004). Preliminary explorations of knowledge management initiative in higher education institutions. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction,1(1), 1-30. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 21
  • Example 2 Although traditionally, teachers are considered as “knowledge managers”, the field of Education has not embraced knowledge management with the same enthusiasm shown by other fields, particularly business organizations, particularly those with the pursuit of business intelligence. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 22
  • Example 2Although traditionally, ^ teachers are ^considered as “knowledge managers”, the field ofEducation has not embraced knowledgemanagement with the same enthusiasm shown byother fields, particularly business organizationswith the pursuit of “business intelligence”. TYPE: Straight plagiarism ○ Change of capitalization, punctuation, substitution with synonym, addition/deletion of one or two words REMEDY:  Copy exactly  If original has an error, use (sic)  CITE source and page no at the end of the quoted part  Ref list AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 23
  • Example 3 In his 2005 article published in the Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, eminent educationist Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid proposed that although teachers at all levels are traditionally considered as knowledge managers, the field of education has not embraced Knowledge Management (KM) with the same enthusiasm shown by other fields. He observed that while people in academia conduct cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies, the preference seems to be towards disciplinary specializations and integrity of traditional academic disciplines. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 24
  • Example 3 Praise In his 2004 article published in the Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, eminent educationist Ibrahim Quote marks Ahmad Bajunid proposed that “although teachers at all levels are traditionally considered as knowledge managers, the field of education has not embraced Knowledge Management (KM) with the same enthusiasm shown by other fields.” He observed that “while people in academia conduct cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary Close quote and reopen studies, the preference …seems to be towards disciplinary specializations and integrity of traditional academic disciplines” (p.5). Page no TYPE: Simple plagiarism using a citation  Borrowing exact sentences/paragraph with incomplete acknowledgement (not using quotation marks and page numbers properly) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 25
  • Example 4  Although educators, whether at primary or tertiary levels, are traditionally considered as knowledge managers, the field of education itself has not embraced the idea of Knowledge Management with the same enthusiasm shown by other fields, such as in business. “While educators in academia do conduct cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies, the preference still seems to be towards disciplinary specializations and integrity of traditional academic disciplines.” (Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid, 2004, p.5) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 26
  • Student modifies originalExample 4 here and there without citing  Although educators, whether at primary or tertiary levels, are traditionally considered as knowledge managers, the field of education itself has not embraced the idea of knowledge management with the same enthusiasm shown by other fields, such as in business. “While educators in academia do conductProperly cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies, the cites preference still seems to be towards disciplinary specializations and integrity of traditional academicthis part disciplines.” (Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid, 2004, p.5) TYPE: Plagiarism with hanging quotations  Delay inserting quote marks, and/or continuing to copy after closing the quote AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 27
  • Example 5  Surprisingly, knowledge management has not gained popularity among educators, despite the fact that they traditionally manage knowledge on a daily basis. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 28
  • Example 5  Surprisingly, knowledge management has not gained popularity among educators, despite the fact that they traditionally manage knowledge on a daily basis. (Bajunid, 2004) TYPE: Illegitimate paraphrase Idea is taken with no acknowledgement to original source AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 29
  • Main Types of Plagiarism  Straight  Simple  Hanging quotation  Illegitimate paraphrase/paraphrasing as plagiarism (terms from Hexham, 2005) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 30
  • Other Types: Complex plagiarism:  Taking a selection of material from more than one page of one author‟s work, without citations. False leads:  Using material from one source and citing another that is somewhat relevant, with the purpose of steering reader away from plagiarized material.  Quoting a primary source from a secondary source, giving the false impression that you actually read the the primary source .  Plagiarising a paraphrase from secondary source without citing, giving the impression that you paraphrased the primary source yourself. AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 31
  • Review: Common manifestations ofplagiarism  Direct copying of a single sentence or significant parts of a sentence, paragraphs or a sentence without quotation marks.  Copying of ideas, concepts, research results, images, designs, text or any combination.  Paraphrasing with minor changes but maintaining essential meaning, form and/or progression of ideas AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 32
  • Review: Common manifestations ofplagiarism  Relying on a specific interpretation that is not one‟s own, without identifying whose idea/interpretation it is.  Cutting or pasting statements from multiple sources and/or piecing together work of others, and representing as original work, without own contribution/voice. Source: University of Melbourne academichonesty.unimelb.edu.au AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 33
  • Why does it happen? An intentional attempt to imply originality? Unintentional?  Lack of analytical skills, therefore unable to find your own voice?  Lack of language/writing skills?  Ignorance of academic referencing conventions?  Sloppy note taking? AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 34
  • When does plagiarism require seriousaction? When it occurs in a scholarly work and/or refereed, published work When it makes or implies a claim of originality through  Not taking attribution seriously, don‟t bother  Deliberate attempts to hide the origin of materials When it involves taking a large amount, or significant parts of one or more work. (Clarke, 2005. p.19) AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 35
  • Basic Tips Google Purdue OWL (online writing lab) and APA Style  Systematic note taking/writing ○ to distinguish between your ideas/wording from others from the start  Proper documentation keeping with style manual/style sheet from the start ○ In text citation ○ Reference/bibliographic entry AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 36
  • Nothing gives an author so much pleasureas to find his works respectfully quoted byother learned authors. Benjamin Franklin AHSGS 3rd Colloquium 15122012 37