Object oriented concepts in arabic
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Object oriented concepts in arabic

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Object oriented concepts in arabic

Object oriented concepts in arabic

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  • 1. May 2002 ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻇ‬ ‫ﻔﻮ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ﻘﻮ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻊ‬‫ﺟﻤﻴ‬©٢٠٠٢-٢٠٠٠-‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻧ‬‫ﻧﺘﺮ‬‫واﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬‫ﻠﻜﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺑﻴ‬‫ﻌﺮ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋ‬‫ا‬ http://www.c4arab.com/ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 2. ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺌﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬ ‫ل‬‫ﺩﺨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ١‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻤﻔ‬: ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬Object‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬‫ﻭﻜﻭﺩ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻀﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ‬.‫ﺃﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬Class‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬،‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﺨﻼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺄ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﺌﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬Instances‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬. ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠﻲ‬‫ﺍﺨ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻜل‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻘﻭل‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫؟‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺸ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬،‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻔﻪ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،. Vehicle #NumberOfVehicles: integer #mark : string #speed maximal : integer #speed courante : integer + CreateVehicle () + DestroyVehicle () + Start () + Accelerate(rate : integer) + Advance () + MoveBack () ‫ﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬ #‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ #‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ #‫ﻯ‬‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ #‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ +‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺸ‬() +‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻫ‬() +‫ﻠﻊ‬‫ﺃﻗ‬() +‫ﺴﺎﺭﻉ‬)‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬( +‫ﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﺘ‬() +‫ﺍﺠﻊ‬‫ﺘﺭ‬() ،‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻗ‬)‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﻤﺘ‬‫ﻭﻗ‬ ،: ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻯ‬‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻜل‬ ،‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﺒﻤﻌ‬،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ name of the class description of attributes or member data description of methods = associate code to data ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﺻ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫اﻷﻋ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺞ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﺻ‬ ‫و‬= ‫ت‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫د‬‫ﻛﻮ‬‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺼﻴ‬‫ﺗﺨ‬ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 3. ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺴﺨﺘﻪ‬‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﺴ‬:‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﻨﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬)instance attributes.( ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬)instanciation(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﻼﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺒﺨ‬‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬، ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻨﺢ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬. ‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻟﺴﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬UML)Unified Modeling Language(، ‫ﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﻭ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘﺭ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﻟﻌﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬. ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻁﻼﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹ‬‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻤﺩﺨل‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺘ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﻤﺭ‬،‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﺨ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬.‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺄ‬‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘ‬‫ﻴﻤﻪ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻠﻪ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨﻼ‬: v‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺸ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻟﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺴﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺴﻡ‬ v‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻋ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺴ‬‫ﻘﺴﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬: IdentifierAttribut: IdentifierType v‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺘ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠﻲ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺴﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺤﺠﺠ‬(‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻜﺫ‬ ، ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﺀ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺴﻭ‬ ،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺸ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬. ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻅﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻼ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻠﺘﻌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻜ‬‫ﹼﻤﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﺭ‬. ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨﻼ‬،‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬)NumberOfVehicles(‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬.‫ﻀل‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺸ‬)CreateVehicle(‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬) DestroyVehicle(.‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺨﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺎﺴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻲ‬‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻴﻌﺘ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒل‬،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺘﻼ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻤﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻴﻌﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺫ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻼ‬)‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻹﻋﺩ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺘﺨ‬(‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺎﺴﻡ‬‫ﺘﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬‫ﺘ‬.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﻨﺘﻜ‬)Class Attribut.( ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬: PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 4. Vehicle #NumberOfVehicles: integer # Mark : string # MaximalSpeed: integer # CouranteSpeed: integer + CreateVehicle () + DestroyVehicle () + Start () + Accelerate(rate : integer) + Advance () + MoveBack () ‫ﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬ #‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ #‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ #‫ﻯ‬‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ #‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ +‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺸ‬() +‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻫ‬() +‫ﻠﻊ‬‫ﺃﻗ‬() +‫ﺴﺎﺭﻉ‬)‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬( +‫ﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﺘ‬() +‫ﺍﺠﻊ‬‫ﺘﺭ‬() ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍﺤ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺼﻨ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﻥ‬‫ﻴﻠ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬.‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻜﺫ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﻤ‬‫ﻓﺴ‬،‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻭﺨ‬،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺄﺨﺫ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﻠﻊ‬‫ﺃ‬Start()‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭ‬‫ﻬﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻴ‬،‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﻔﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻋﺭ‬.‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ،‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬)‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬، ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﻨﺘﻜ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﻘﺎﺘﻪ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻴﺠﺭ‬)‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻓﺭ‬‫ﻴﺘﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬.( Class Instances Mark = "Peugeot" MaximalSpeed=200 CouranteSpeed=165 Mark = "Renault" MaximalSpeed=230 CouranteSpeed=140 Instanciation Instances Mark = "Peugeot" MaximalSpeed=200 CouranteSpeed=165 Mark = "Renault" MaximalSpeed=230 CouranteSpeed=140 Instanciation Class PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 5. ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺸ‬CreateVehicle()‫ﺒ‬‫ﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻪ‬‫ﻫﺩ‬ ،،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﺌ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬.‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻟﺘﺩﻗ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺍﻜﺭ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺘﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨﻼ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻼ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻭﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺍﺘﻪ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬‫ﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻌﻤ‬:‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬.‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻜﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻨﺸ‬ ‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺸﺎﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴﺴﺘ‬،‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺘﺸ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻭﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ،‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺨ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬:‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺸ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺘ‬. ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘ‬‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨ‬:‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠﺘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬: ‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﺃﺩ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻭﺘﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺍﻜﺭ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻔﺫ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺠﻌل‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻭﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻴﺌ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻭﺘﺘﻌ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﺔ‬. ٢‫ﻠ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻤﻔ‬‫ﺔ‬:encapsulation ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﺘ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬،‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭ‬.‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﻜ‬: v‫ﻨﺎﺘﻪ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻀﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻴﺠﻤﻊ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬(‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟﺠﺘ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻘﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻜﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬، )‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬.( v‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺘﺠﺭ‬:‫ﻬﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴﻜل‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﺭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻠﻪ‬‫ﺸﻜ‬ ،‫ﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺭﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﺒﺎل‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻁﻼ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬. v‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺘﺠﺭ‬:‫ﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬(، ‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻓﻤ‬،‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻲ‬‫ﺍﺨ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻠﻭﻤﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﺃﺩ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻴﺩﺭ‬‫ﺃﻡ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻴﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻴ‬،‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺒﺨ‬‫ﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﻻ‬...‫ﻟﺦ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻁﻼ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬: v‫ﺇﺴﻡ‬ v‫ﻟﺩﺨﻭل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ v‫ﻟﺨﺭﻭﺝ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤ‬‫ﻬﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺜل‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺔ‬interface‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺇ‬، ‫ﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺴﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬public‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤﺨ‬ ‫ﻘﻰ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻟﺠﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺨ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺴﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜل‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻭ‬private‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜل‬ ،‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﺘﻤ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻨﺘﻤ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬،‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﺫ‬‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬.‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﺘﻤ‬. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 6. ‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﺭﻤﺠﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎ‬‫ﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬oop‫ﺜل‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬، ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻔﺎﺫ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬. ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺒ‬،‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃﻋ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺠﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻔﺎﺀ‬‫ﺇﺨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠﻲ‬‫ﺍﺨ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻜل‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺘﻐ‬)‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﺘ‬(‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻠﺠﻭﺀ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬.‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺈ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺸﻜل‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﺜ‬)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬(، ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﺘ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻔﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺘﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻬﺎﺠ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ )‫ﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﺍﺨل‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﻋﻼﻡ‬‫ﺍﻋﻲ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬، ‫ﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺒﻲ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﺒﻤ‬‫ﺍﻡ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍﻻ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜل‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﻔﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻹﺨ‬(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬، ‫ﺼﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻔﻜ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﺨ‬. ٣‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:Heritage ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬‫ﺉ‬‫ﺒﺎﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻴﻌﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻴﺘﻌ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻠﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬/‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻠﻲ‬‫ﻠﺴ‬‫ﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺘﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ )‫ﻴﺎﺭﺸ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﻲ‬.(‫ﻴل‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﺎﺀ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻔﻜﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺨ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬. ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﻭﺩ‬.‫ﺓ‬‫ﻔﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺈﻤﻜﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺨﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺘﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺨﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬. ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬،‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺠﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬: v‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﻤﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻜ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻨﺨ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻤﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻜﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﻱ‬‫ﻘﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. v‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﻤﺎ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬،‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬.‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻪ‬‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﻋﻲ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻜﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻹ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺘﻌﻤ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬/‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﺠﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬: ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﻔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻕ‬‫ﻤﺸ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺼﻨ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻓﻜﺭ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﺘﻤ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﻜ‬‫ﻜﻼﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺴ‬: PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 7. ٣.١.‫اﻷول‬‫ﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤﺜ‬‫ا‬:‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎﺋﻨ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ا‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺎﻧ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬Graphic objects ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬X‫ﻭ‬Y‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻭ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺫ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﻌ‬: v‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﻘﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻜﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻔﺫ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬( v‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺃ‬ v‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤ‬ v‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺤﺭ‬. ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ObjetGraphic‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘ‬‫ﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻨ‬:‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺌﺭ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬Line & Circle‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ، ‫ﺒﻪ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺨﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺍﺘﻪ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻴ‬:‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬Rayon‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻭ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺌﺭ‬‫ﻠﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬Length & Angle‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬،:‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﺴﻁ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺒﺨ‬)‫ﻨﺎﺘﻪ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬(‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬‫ﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻘﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﺭ‬‫ﺴﻁ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻟﻜﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺈﻤﻜﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺴﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬GetX‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭل‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺈﻤﻜﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻔﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨﻼ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﻌ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻗﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻅﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺈﻋﺎﺩ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺌﺭ‬‫ﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬Display‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻜﺫ‬Clear‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺒ‬، ‫ﺘﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻔﻜﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺌﺭ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬:‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬Polymorphism‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻬﺎﺠ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬Display‫ﻭ‬Clear‫ﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺴﻁ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬. ‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﻌﻭﺩ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻴﻜ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻗ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ، ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬)‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬/‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬: v‫ﻱ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬:‫ﺍﺌﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬overload‫ﺍﻹﺴﻡ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍﻡ‬‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬/‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭ‬/‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻤﺨﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬. v‫ﻱ‬‫ﻘﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺒﻊ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺈﻋﺎﺩ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻴﺘﻌ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﻊ‬‫ﻟﺘﻭﻗ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤﺎل‬ )‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻌﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬.( ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺎ‬‫ﺘﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬)‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻌﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻬﺎﺠ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺃﻨﺸ‬ ‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺃﻤﺤﻭ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺃﻜ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻔﺴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬.‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭ‬‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤ‬ ،‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬.‫ﺓ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬polymorphism‫ﺓ‬‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 8. GraphicObject #NumberOfGraphicObjects: integer # Color : ColorType # X: integer # Y: integer ()Create+ + Destroy () + GetX() + GetY() + SetX() + SetY() + MoveTo(ToX : integer, ToY : integer) + Display () + Clear () Line # Length: integer # Angle: float ()Create+ + Destroy () + GetLength(): Integer + SetLength(Value: Integer) + Display () + Clear () Circle # Rayon: integer ()Create+ + Destroy () + GetRayon(): Integer + SetRayon(Value: Integer) + Display () + Clear () Base class: general concept Derived class: specialized concept PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 9. ‫ﻴﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺌﻥ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ #‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ #‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ #‫ﺱ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ #‫ﻉ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺸ‬() +‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻫ‬() +‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺨﺫ‬() +‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺨﺫ‬() +‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬() +‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬() +‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬)‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻭ‬:‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬( +‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺃ‬() +‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤ‬() ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺴﻁ‬ #‫ﻁﻭل‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ #‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻭ‬‫ﺯ‬:‫ﻘﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺸ‬() +‫ﺩ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﻡ‬() +‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺨﺫ‬() +‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻀﻊ‬)‫ﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﻗ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬( +‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺃ‬() +‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤ‬() ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬ #‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻗ‬:‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺸ‬() +‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻫ‬() +‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺨﺫ‬() +‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻀﻊ‬() +‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺃ‬() +‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤ‬() ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺴل‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬GraphicObject ‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬UML‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺫﻭ‬‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻻ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺘﺠﺎ‬. ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺨ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﻜﺘﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺍﻹﺴﻡ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺞ‬‫ﻨﺴﺘ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺌل‬‫ﺍ‬)italic(‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬. ‫ي‬ ‫ﺎﻋﺪ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬: ‫م‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫ﻔﻬﻮ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻖ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬: ‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺼ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﺨ‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫ﻔﻬﻮ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻐ‬‫ﺘﻡ‬ ،‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻜﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻔﺎﺩ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 10. ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺌل‬‫ﺍ‬)italic(‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬. ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺀ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻋ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻠﺘﺫﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬. ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺃﺠ‬MoveTo،‫ﺒﻲ‬‫ﺃﺩ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺄﺴ‬‫ﺒ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﻌ‬‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬: method GraphicObject :: MoveTo (Pos X: Integer, Pos Y: Integer) { [object Clear] [object Set X : Pos X] [object Set Y : Pos Y] [object Display] } ‫ﺎﺝ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺩ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬MoveTo ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻬل‬‫ﻟﺴ‬Clear ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬MoveTo‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺘﻕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻷ‬Line‫ﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ، ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬Circle.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺭ‬.‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺈﺫ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬MoveTo‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬Circle،‫ﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬Clear ‫ﻭ‬Display‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬Circle)‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻨﺸ‬Circle::Display‫ﻭ‬Circle::Clear(، ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬MoveTo‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬Line،‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻔﻲ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬Clear‫ﻭ‬Display‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬Line)‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻬﺎﺠ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬Line::Clear ‫ﻭ‬Line::Display.( ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻨﻭﺭﺩ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨ‬،‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺎ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬: v‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻭﺠﻌ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻷﻜﻭ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺠﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻟﻜﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻘﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. v‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺒ‬،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻜﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﻜﺘ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻨﺩ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﻋﻲ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺔ‬‫ﺴﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺒﻭ‬. v‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴل‬‫ﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺄﺴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﻜﻼ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬،‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬. v‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻘﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻜﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬. v‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻜﻭﺩ‬)‫ﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬(‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻏﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﻪ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﻐﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﻬل‬‫ﻴﺴ‬debug. v‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻬل‬‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻭ‬:‫ﺇ‬‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﻨﺘﻜ‬‫ﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﺭﻤﺠﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ differential programming. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 11. ٣.٢.‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺎل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻠﻌﺭﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﻅ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺃﺴ‬‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬/‫ﺫﻭ‬‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺠﻊ‬‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﻪ‬. ‫ﻀﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭ‬‫ﺘﺘﻭ‬: v‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬Cars v‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺸﺎ‬Trucks v‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬Helicopters v‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﺴ‬Boats ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﺨﻼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﻟﻤﻼﺌﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﻪ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻬﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻜل‬.‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨﻼ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﻘﺎﻗ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬:‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺠﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺎﺴﻡ‬‫ﺘﺘ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺇﻻ‬،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻓﻌ‬،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻁﺅ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﺍﻹﺴﺭ‬،‫ﻜﺎﻹﻗﻼﻉ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻭﻗ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬.‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻜل‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟﻜل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎ‬.‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻜل‬ ،‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻴﻪ‬‫ﻨﺴﻤ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺃ‬:‫ﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﻋ‬. ‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬: Vehicle RollingVehicle Helicopter Boat Car Truck PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 12. ‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻋﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﻅ‬‫ﻟﺤ‬‫ﺫﺝ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻨﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺃﺴ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺍﺘ‬،‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬:،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒﺠﻤﻌ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻀﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﻭ‬.‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﻤ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬. ‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﺝ‬‫ﺈﺩﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺒﻜ‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺃﺴ‬ ‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻨﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻗﺘ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻌ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬)‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬(AerialVehicle‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬، ‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻓ‬: ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﻸ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﺘﺴ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻋﺭ‬ Vehicle RollingVehicle AerialVehicle Boat Car Truck Helicopter Airplane PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 13. ‫ﺇﺴﻡ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺄﺨﺫ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬taxonomy‫ﻩ‬‫ﻬﺫ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻤ‬، ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻌل‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬. ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬/‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺘﻌﺭ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻭﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﻬﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺜﻪ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻔﻪ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻓﺭﻋﻲ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻘﺎﻗﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹﺸﺘ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺸﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬. ٣.٣.‫ﻟﻤﺠﺭﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻷ‬‫ﺍ‬:abstract ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻻ‬ ،‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﻘﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬،‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻁ‬، ‫ﺒﻕ‬‫ﻟﺴﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻤﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺨ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﻜﺘﻭ‬.‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻨﻤ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬. ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒﺭﻤﺠ‬‫ﻋﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻨﺢ‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻘﻭل‬‫ﻨ‬implementation ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻫﺠ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻭﻤ‬،‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻫﺠ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬.‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫؟‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻤﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍل‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻻ‬ ،‫ﻟﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻴﺨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬)‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬(‫ﻟﻜل‬‫ﻟﻜﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﻸ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬، ‫ﺒﻌﻤل‬‫ﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻭﺘ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﺘﺠﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺯﻭل‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﻨﺘﻜ‬،‫ﺒﺭﻤﺠﻲ‬concrete.‫ﺓ‬‫ﻘﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬. ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﻸ‬‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫؟‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﻉ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺘ‬)‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﻸ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﺘﺴ‬ ،‫ﻨﺴﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 14. ‫ﻟﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬/‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬/‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻹ‬(...‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻵ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺘﻌﺘ‬ ،polymorphism. ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻨﺨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﻌﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻤ‬،:‫ﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﻋ‬ ،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻴﺴﺎﺭﻉ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺊ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﻊ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺤﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺴﻭ‬. ‫ﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻏﺎ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻴﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ،‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺤﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬.‫ﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬،‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺫ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﻌﻤ‬:‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺘﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻔﺎﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘ‬‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ polymorphism،‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺃﺴ‬‫ﺒﺎﻉ‬‫ﺒﺎﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻭ‬. ٣.٤.‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺒ‬‫ﺼﻌ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬: ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﻨﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﻫﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺴ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬.‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻏﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺼﻌ‬.‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺘﺘﺭﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻘﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻘﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻔﻪ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬." ٣.٤.٠ ١.‫ا‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﺟ‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻜﺜ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﻠﺴ‬‫ﺗﺴ‬: ‫ﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻟﻐ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺎﻕ‬‫ﺒﺎﻻﺸﺘ‬‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺎل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺘ‬‫ﺍﻻ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬.‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﺍﻥ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻗﻁ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻜﻠﺏ‬.‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻷ‬ ،‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻻ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻵ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﻭﻋ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺄ‬‫ﺒ‬.‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻴﻌﺘ‬،‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﻜﻠﺏ‬_‫ﺩ‬‫ﺃﺴﻭ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻜﻠﺏ‬_‫ﺭ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﻜﻠﺏ‬،‫ﻟﺸﻌﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﻠﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺴﻭﺀ‬ ، ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻷﺴ‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬.‫ﺩﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬)‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬)‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬(‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﻠﺏ‬. ‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﻓﺎ‬،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺩﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬،‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﻭﻻ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻓﻪ‬‫ﺤﺫ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬،‫ﻘﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺎﻕ‬. example of a superfluous class ( intermediary1) )‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬١( base paper 1 intermediary1 intermediary2 paper 2 paper 3 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 15. ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻗﺎﻋ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴﻤﺘ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻁ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬١‫ﻻ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻠﺘﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﻘﺎل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺇ‬.‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬)‫ﻤﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻨﺸ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬(‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺘ‬)‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬(‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻗ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ﺸﺘﻕ‬.‫ﺤﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻴﻁ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬٢.‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻐﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻤﻲ‬‫ﻨﺴ‬‫ﺭﻗﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤﺸ‬ ‫ﻠﻙ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺫ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺼﻨ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. ٣.٤.٠ ٢.‫ﺪ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺸ‬‫ا‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺛ‬‫ا‬‫ور‬:construction inheritance ‫ﻘﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ،‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺨ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺊ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺸ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺠﺫﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺎ‬.‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘ‬‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻓﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺈ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺜﻡ‬،‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬،‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﺠﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ،‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬" :‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬"‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬. ٣.٤.٠ ٣.‫ﻘ‬‫ﺎﺳ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻣﺘ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻐ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ات‬‫ﻟﺘﺼﻮر‬‫ا‬‫ﺔ‬:the conceptual incoherence ‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺘﺅﺩ‬.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬‫ﺯﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﻁ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻊ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘ‬،‫ﺩﺠﺎﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺴﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﻭﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺠﺎﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﻴﻌ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺄﺴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬.‫ﻘﻭل‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﻊ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬"‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺠﺎﺠﺔ‬." ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻜﺫ‬:‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﻻﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻋﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻤﺞ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺭﺙ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬.‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬، ‫ﻤﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ،‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬polymorphism‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻘﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺠﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻠﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻤ‬ )‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬١( ‫ﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻗﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬١ ‫ﻴﻁ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬١ ‫ﻴﻁ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬٢ ‫ﻗﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬٢ ‫ﻗﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬٣ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 16. ٣.٥.‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:the multiple inheritance ‫ﻴﻤﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻌﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺘﻭﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻠﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻌ‬‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬‫ﺒﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬. ‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬‫ﻨﺘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ٌﺸﻜل‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬:‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻨﺭ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻔﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺭﻜ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬Hovercraft)‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺃﺠﺩ‬‫ﻟﻡ‬(‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﺴﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﻟ‬. ‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺭﻜﺭ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻠﻡ‬‫ﻨﻌ‬‫ﻭ‬)‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻋ‬ ،‫ﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﺨﺭ‬.(.‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻗ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬، ‫ﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﻭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬: ‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺎل‬‫ﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺎل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻔﺴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺒل‬،‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻨﺩ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﻲ‬‫ﻨﺘ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻤﺘﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨﺩ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻓﻤ‬،‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺈ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺴﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻤﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻔﺴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻹﺸﻜﺎل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻟ‬. ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺘﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻤﺸﻜ‬.‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻔﻲ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬D‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﺴﺨﺘ‬‫ﺙ‬A‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،B‫ﻯ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬، ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬C‫ﻟﺴﻲ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫؟‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﺤﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﺴﺨﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺄ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍل‬‫ﻟﺴﺅ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺜ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻟﺸﺎﺌﻜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺔ‬‫ﺒﻤﻌﺎ‬‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺁ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻘﺘﺭ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺒ‬. Hovercraft RollingVehicle Boat ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺭﻜ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺴ‬ D B C A PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 17. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻔﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘ‬‫ﻷﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻤﻜﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺁ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬polymorphism.‫ﻠﻤﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﻟﺘﻜﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻘﻊ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤ‬.‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻔﻲ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻓﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬ )‫ﻓﺎ‬‫ﻟﺠﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﺴﻲ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬(‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻭﻤ‬‫ﻫﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎﻭ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻘﺘﺭ‬‫ﺘ‬. ٣.٦.‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:the interfaces ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻗﺘﺭ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻌ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻠﻭل‬‫ﺤ‬.‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺁ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬)‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬(‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻬﻲ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻫﺠ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﻭ‬‫ﺀ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،. ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬Implement‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬.‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻵ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﹼﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬.‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬ polymorphs‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻔﺫ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻷ‬ ،. ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ،‫ﺒل‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻵ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ Smalltalk‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺴﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬)‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬:‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺌ‬‫ﻟﺸ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﻓﺎ‬‫ﻟﺠﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬. ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﻭﻭ‬‫ﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻏﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻔﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬،‫ﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺩ‬‫ﺘﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻠﺴ‬‫ﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒﺎﺘ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬.‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻘﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﺒﺩل‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻘﺘﺭ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﻌﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭ‬(‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻴﻌﺘ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻠﻌﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘ‬،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺒﺩل‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻴﺌﺎ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻬﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻨﺸ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻟﻐ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﻌﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻘل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻟﻐ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻠﺭﺴﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻘﺘﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻘﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﻻﺸﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻴﺘﻌ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﺼﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﻩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،.‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻟﺭﺠﻭﻉ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺭﻜ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻘﺎﻗﻪ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﻫل‬ ،‫ﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﺒﻭ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺯﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬، ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﺀ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺠﺭ‬‫ﻴﻨﺔ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﺒﻭ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺯﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬،،‫ﻘل‬‫ﻤﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ،‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻬﺘ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺯﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘ‬.‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺒﺎﻷﻭ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺘﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍل‬‫ﻟﺴﺅ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻋ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻨﺭ‬:‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻀل‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻴﻌﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻊ‬‫ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺨ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺘﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺴ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬. ٤‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬aggregation: ٤.١.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭ‬: ‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺠﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬"‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬"...‫ﺃﻭ‬"‫ﻠﻙ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬"...‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬"‫ﻪ‬‫ﻟ‬."...‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻘﻭل‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬،‫ﻴﻜﻲ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻜﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻓﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭ‬‫ﺭﻙ‬‫ﻤﺤ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﺃﺭ‬،‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺭ‬‫ﺇﻁﺎ‬.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 18. ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺘ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻤ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻜﺫ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻘﻕ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺎﻭ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬.‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻬﺎﻡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻜﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﻪ‬.‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻼ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻼ‬ ‫ﺒﻊ‬‫ﺃﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬ )‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻼ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﺸﺎﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﺓ‬‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﺠ‬ ‫ﻤﺎل‬(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﺠ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺃﻜ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﹸﻤﺘ‬‫ﺘ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻜﺎﺭﺩ‬١‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺏ‬ ِّ‫ﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬٤‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬: ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺎل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺩ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﻟﻌﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬UML‫ﻘﺩﻤﺘﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬aggregation.‫ﺏ‬ ِّ‫ﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺓ‬‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻻ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬. v‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒﺠﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ِّ‫ﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻜﺎﺭﺩ‬)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬:‫ﺓ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﺠ‬.( v‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒﺠﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻜﺎﺭﺩ‬)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬:‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻼ‬ ‫ﺒﻊ‬‫ﺃﺭ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺘﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺎﺭ‬.( ٤.٢.‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻭﺏ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬: ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻬﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺒﻤ‬‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻤﻊ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻋﺴﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻔﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻓ‬.‫ﺩﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻨﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺄ‬‫ﻓﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ AWACS‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺘﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬.‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﻭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻓﻜ‬)‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬‫ﻨﻊ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻨ‬(‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫؟‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻀﻌ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬ ١‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬. ٢‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬: Car Motor Chassis Wheel ١ ١ ٤ ١ ١ ١ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺭﻙ‬‫ﻤﺤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺇﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬ ١ ١ ٤ ١ ١ ١ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 19. ‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻗﻁ‬‫ﻻ‬)‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻤﻊ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﻟﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬.( ‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺁ‬)‫ﻴﺠﻤ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻜل‬.( ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻨﺨ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻬﺘ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﺒﻭ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺯﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬‫ﻗﻁ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺁ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻁ‬. ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬: ‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬. ‫ﻨﺸﺘﻕ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻨﺨ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒﺨﺎ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺯﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘ‬:‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬. ... ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬‫ﻴﺘﻪ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻓﻌﺎ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﻯ‬‫ﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺢ‬.‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻬﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺘﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺒﺘﻐ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺒﺘﺔ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻴﺠﺔ‬‫ﻨﺘ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻨﺸ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬. ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻀل‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬١،٢ ,٢،٣ ,٢‫ﺓ‬‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ، ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻀل‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻊ‬‫ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻓﻜﺭ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬:١،١,٢،١,٣. ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻵﺘ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻗ‬ RadarAirplane Interfacing Detector Interfacing plots flying AWACS 2.1 AWACS 1 AWACS 2.3 AWACS 2.2 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 20. ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻭﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺨ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬‫ﻻ‬ ،‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻗ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬UML.‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺜل‬‫ﺘﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺎ‬‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻜ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻭﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬(‫ﻠﺢ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺒﻭﻗﺎ‬‫ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﺍﻹﺴﻡ‬‫ﻴﺙ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬Interface. ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬‫ﻴﺸ‬‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤ‬/‫ﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺝ‬‫ﺇﺩﺭ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻭ‬.‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺭ‬. ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻁ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬ ǎ ǚ Ǜ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﻛ‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫أ‬١ ٫٢ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﻛ‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫أ‬١ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﻛ‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫أ‬٣٫٢ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﻛ‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫أ‬٢ ٫٢ ‫ﺍﺝ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺸ‬‫ﻘﻁﻌﺔ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻷﺴﻬ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺼﻨ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬. Airplane Interfacing plots flying AWACS 3.1 AWACS 3.3 AWACS 3.2 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 21. ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻗ‬ ٥‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﺼﻔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬Polymorphisme: ٥.١.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭ‬: ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﻜ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺉ‬‫ﺒﺎﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺙ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬.‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻯ‬‫ﺍﻷﻗﻭ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺄ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻜ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻯ‬‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷ‬.‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺍﺴﻤﻪ‬‫ﻴﻪ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺸ‬‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻭﺠﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺨﺫ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﻔﻪ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﻟﺘﺴ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬. ٥.٢.‫ت‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫د‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ة‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﻗ‬: ‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﻟﺠﺔ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻭ‬‫ﻴﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺌﻥ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬GraphicObject .‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﺩﺴ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺞ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﺭﺅ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬:‫ﻴﺎﺀ‬‫ﺃﺸ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺌﺭ‬‫ﺩﻭ‬ ،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺎ‬‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻘﺎﻗ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﻴﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺌﻥ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬.‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻕ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺘﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬)notion of pointers downward compatibility.(‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ،‫ﻜل‬)‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬"‫ﺭﺠﻊ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬Reference"(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺸﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﺌﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬. ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺎ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺃﺭﺩ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺃﻨﺸ‬Display ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺭﺴﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟﻜل‬.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺎ‬‫ﺘﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﻏﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬‫ﻠﺴل‬‫ﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﺘﻤ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻜل‬‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺞ‬‫ﻴﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺌﻥ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬:‫ﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬.‫ﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻵ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬: method Drawing :: Display { for every GraphicObject include ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬١,٣ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬٣,٣ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻜ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬٢,٣ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 22. { [Object Display] } } ‫ﻭﻋﺔ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﺼﻔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺎل‬‫ﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠﻤ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺃﻨﺸ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬.‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻵ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺄﺨﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﺍﺘ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺭ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻌﺠ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻜﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺫ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺍﺨ‬‫ﻟﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬late Bending. ‫ﹼﺭ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺭﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺀ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺇﺠﺭ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﻋ‬ ،‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻴﻜ‬‫ﻜﻼﺴ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻤﺠﺎ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻔﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‬:‫ﻟﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺭﻉ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬)early Bending.(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎ‬ ،‫ﺄﺨﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻔﺴﻪ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻘﻊ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺊ‬ ‫ﻨﺸ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﺫ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎﺀ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬. ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻴﺘﻌ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻻ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻔﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭ‬‫ﻗﺩ‬‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﺭﻙ‬‫ﺘﺤ‬ MoveTo‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،.‫ﻟﻜﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻪ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻘﻪ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺜﻡ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻺ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻐ‬ ،‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﺌﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﺓ‬‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻀل‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻜﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬،‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬polymorphism‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬. ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻠﺨ‬‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﺀ‬‫ﻟﺸﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺫ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬: method GraphicObject :: Delete { [Object SetColor: BackgroundColor] [Object Display] } ‫ﺎﺝ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﺼﻔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬‫ﺎل‬‫ﺘﻌﻤ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺇ‬delete ٥.٣.‫ﺎﺟ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﺷﻜ‬‫ت‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫د‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻊ‬:‫ﺪ‬‫اﺋ‬‫ﺰ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺤﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬Overloading ‫ﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻘﺘﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺁ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺌﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺒﻜ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺎ‬‫ﺘﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺨ‬/‫ﺍل‬‫ﺩﻭ‬/‫ﺍﻹﺴﻡ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺇﺠﺭ‬. ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻴﻌ‬‫ﺘﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻘﺘﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬،‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻜﻤ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺃﻨﺸ‬ v‫ﺃﺭ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻟﻐ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬Default. v‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬. ٦‫ﻛﺔ‬‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻟﺸ‬‫ا‬‫ﻗﺔ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻋ‬:The Relation of Association ‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺭﻤﺠ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻓﺭ‬‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬‫ﻟﺙ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬Heritage‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬Aggregation‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺘﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺈﺫ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 23. ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﺠﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺘﺭﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻷ‬ ،‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺇ‬..."‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬) ...IS A."(‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺼﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘﻤ‬.‫ﻘﻭل‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬..." :‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﻴﺘ‬ "...‫ﺃﻭ‬،..."‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬"...‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻨﺠ‬‫ﺒﺎﻹ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬،"USES A."‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﻬﻭ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻔﻲ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺘﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬aggregation...")‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﻜ‬("...‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﻨﺭ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺄﺘﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻴﺘﻌ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻴﻜ‬‫ﻜﻼﺴ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻻ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻔﺭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬. ‫ﺼﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻔﻜ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﺨ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﹼﺭ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻨﺫ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻤ‬. ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺕ‬: v‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺃﻗ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ v‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ v‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭ‬‫ﻬﺭ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻴ‬aggregation. ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻗ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺠ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻭ‬)‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺇﺩ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬(‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺍﻷﻗ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،.‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬،‫ﺍل‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬)‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﺇﺩ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﺌﻤﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬.( ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬aggregation)‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﻨﻌﺘ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻯ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟ‬(‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺎ‬‫ﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬.‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﺘﺘ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﺠﻌل‬‫ﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺼل‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻓ‬،‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺄﺘﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﺼﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬. ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬aggregation‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﻡ‬‫ﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻜﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬،‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻜﻤ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﻗﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻊ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘ‬،: "‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ِّ‫ﻅ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺃ‬٠‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻗﻔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬/‫ﻘﻁ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻅ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻗﻔ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺃ‬" PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 24. ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺼﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻏﺎ‬ ،‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺫ‬‫ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻡ‬‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﺸﺭ‬.‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬،‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺜﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎل‬‫ﻓﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬aggregate‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺍﻷﻗ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻟﺸﻜل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺫ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺼﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬: ١ * * is cleaned by is contained ١ clean * n ١feeds is fed by * containing Animal Guardian Zoo Cage * * ‫ﺒﻞ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻒ‬ َ‫ﻈ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ُ‫ﻳ‬١ ‫ﺒﻞ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ى‬‫ﺤﺘﻮ‬‫ﻣ‬ ١ ‫ﻒ‬ ِ‫ﻈ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻳ‬* n ١‫ﻌﻢ‬‫ﻳﻄ‬ ‫ﺒﻞ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻌﻢ‬‫ُﻄ‬‫ﻳ‬ * ‫ي‬ ‫ﺤﻮ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻗ‬ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 25. ‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺤﺩ‬‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬‫ﻟﺏ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻗ‬ ٧‫ﺎﺋﻦ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ا‬‫ذج‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﻧﻤ‬ ‫م‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺧ‬: ‫ﺍﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺒﻤ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺠ‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻘﺩ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻌﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺘ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻤﻤ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ،‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﺍل‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬.‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬.‫ﺜﻼ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒﺭﻤﺠ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻓﻌل‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﻴﻌﻤ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻯ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ﺍﻉ‬‫ﻨﻭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﻨﺎﻭ‬‫ﻴﺘ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭﻭ‬ ،‫ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻜل‬.‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬‫ﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺼﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻔﻜ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﻭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻕ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬. Animal Guardian Zoo Cage١ ١ n n ١ is cleaned by 0..n ٠ ١ clean 0..n ١feeds is fed by ‫ﺍﻥ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﻭ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻗ‬١ ١ n n ١ ‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬ 0..n ٠ ١ ‫ﻑ‬ ِ‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬ 0..n ١‫ِﻢ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ُﻄ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﺒﻞ‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻌﻢ‬‫ُﻄ‬‫ﻳ‬ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 26. ‫ﻨﻭﻋﻪ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺃﺸ‬،‫ﻟﺨﺘﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒل‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﺠﺘ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺫ‬‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬،‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻨﺴ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺸﺨ‬.‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺘﺭﺩﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬،‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻘﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺸﻜﺭ‬ ،‫ﻓﺎﺘﻜﻡ‬‫ﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺘﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﺎﻗﺘﺭ‬. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 27. ٨‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫د‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ا‬‫س‬ ‫ﻮ‬‫ﺎﻣ‬‫ﻗ‬: ‫ﺭﺡ‬‫ﻟﺸ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﻲ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ‫ﺼﻁﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻹﻨﺠﻠ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍل‬‫ﻟﺩﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺸ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻭ‬‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎﺴ‬‫ﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺌﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻜ‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ Object ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬. ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ Instance ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺘﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﻴل‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ Instanciation ‫ﺜﺭ‬‫ﺃﻜ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻘﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﺸﺘ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻘﺩﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻊ‬ ،‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﺘ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﺫ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬: ‫ﻋﺪي‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎ‬‫ا‬‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ﺧﺎ‬ ‫ار‬‫ﺻﺪ‬ ‫إ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﺘﻖ‬‫ﻤﺸ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺭ‬ Heritage ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌ‬‫ﻔﺎﺀ‬‫ﺇﺨ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻏﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬. ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﺒﺴ‬‫ﻜ‬ Encapsulation ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺃﺴ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬)‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬(‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬،‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﺒﻤﻌ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬،‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬. ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ Aggregation ،‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺨﺫ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠﻭ‬‫ﺃﺴ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺘﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺴﻡ‬‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫ﻨ‬. ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ Polymorphism ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻤﺘﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬‫ﺨﻼ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬. ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ Class ‫ﻫ‬‫ﻴﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤ‬ ،‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍل‬‫ﻟﺩﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻬﺩﻡ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬. ‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻤ‬ Method ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺴﻭ‬ ،‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ Attributes ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻴﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻠﻕ‬‫ﻟﺨ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭل‬‫ﻨﺩ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬. ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻤﺸ‬ Constructor ،‫ﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﻡ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺒﺘ‬‫ﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻬﺎﺝ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺍﻜﺭ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺭ‬‫ﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬. ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻤ‬ Destructor ،‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻤﺘﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍل‬‫ﻟﺩﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻠﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜ‬‫ﻭ‬. ‫ﺍﺌﺩ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴل‬‫ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍ‬ Overload ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘ‬ ‫ﺜل‬‫ﺘﻤ‬)،‫ﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ،‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺨﺎ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬(...‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﺒﻤ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬. ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬ Interface ‫ﻬﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻠﻜﺎﺌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﺀ‬‫ﺇﺠﺭ‬)‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬( ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻠﺴ‬‫ﻭﻤﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﻼ‬. ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬ Modeling ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ﻤﺸﺘ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴﻤﺘ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻟﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻗﺔ‬ Page ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﺘﺭﻜ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ aggregation. ‫ﺍﻜﺔ‬‫ﻟﺸﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬ Association PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com
  • 28. ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺌﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇ‬ ‫ل‬‫ﺩﺨ‬‫ﻤ‬......................................................................................................2 1‫ﺌﻥ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻔﻬﻭ‬‫ﻤ‬:............................................................................................................2 2‫ﻟﻜﺒﺴﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻔﻬﻭ‬‫ﻤ‬ENCAPSULATION:........................................................................5 3‫ﺍﺜﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬:HERITAGE..............................................................................................6 3. 1.‫ل‬‫ﻷﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ل‬‫ﻟﻤﺜﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺎﻨ‬‫ﻟﺒ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺌﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﻜﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬GRAPHIC OBJECTS..................................................7 3. 2.‫ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ل‬‫ﻟﻤﺜﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬:‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﺎ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺔ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬.......................................................................11 3. 3.‫ﺓ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤﺠ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻷ‬‫ﺍ‬:ABSTRACT............................................................................13 3. 4.‫ﺍﺜﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺘﺨ‬‫ﺒﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:...................................................................14 3. 4. 01.‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﺜ‬‫ﻣﻜ‬ ‫ﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺗ‬:.......................................................................................14 3. 4. 02.‫ﻟﺘﺸﻴﻴﺪ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺛ‬‫ورا‬:CONSTRUCTION INHERITANCE..............................................15 3. 4. 03.‫ﺔ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺎﺳ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻣﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻴﺮ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺼﻮرا‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ا‬:THE CONCEPTUAL INCOHERENCE............................15 3. 5.‫ﺓ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺜﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬:THE MULTIPLE INHERITANCE...............................................16 3. 6.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬:THE INTERFACES.............................................................................17 4‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺭﻜ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:AGGREGATION..................................................................................17 4. 1.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬:............................................................................................................17 4. 2.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺜﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻠﻭ‬‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬‫ﺭﻜ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬:........................................................18 5‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬:POLYMORPHISME.....................................................................21 5. 1.‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬:............................................................................................................21 5. 2.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻗﻭ‬:..............................................................................................21 5. 3.‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻔﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺘﻌ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻨﺎﺠﻊ‬ ‫ل‬‫ﺸﻜ‬:‫ﺩ‬‫ﺌ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ل‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺤﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍ‬OVERLOADING........................................22 6‫ﻟﺸ‬‫ا‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗ‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻛ‬‫ﺮ‬:CIATIONTHE RELATION OF ASSO.......................................22 7‫ﺋﻦ‬‫ﻜﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ذج‬‫ﻤﻮ‬‫ﻧ‬‫م‬‫ﺘﺎ‬‫ﺧ‬:...................................................................................................25 8‫ات‬‫ﺮد‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫س‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮ‬:.....................................................................................................27 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version http://www.fineprint.com