Introduction to mechatronics and mechatronics system design

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  • 1. Introduction To Mechatronics And Mechatronics System Design ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت‬ ‫و ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ‬
  • 2. ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت‬ ‫‪Overview of Mechatronics‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ هﻲ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت ه ﻲ آﻠﻤ ﻪ ﺗﺠﻤ ﻊ وﺗ ﺼﻒ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ ﺑ ﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜ ﺎ‬ ‫واﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت و ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴ ﺎ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴ ﻮﺗﺮ ﻓ ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت اﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻘ ﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت .‬ ‫وﻳﻜﻮن هﺬا اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﻦ اﺟﻞ اﻟﺰﻳﺎدة و ﺗﻌﺘﺒ ﺮ أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻓﻠ ﺴﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ و ﺗﻤﺜﻞ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻔﻠ ﺴﻔﺔ اﻻﺳ ﺘﺨﺪام اﻷﻣﺜ ﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴ ﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ .‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎت اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣ ﺖ ﺷ ﺮآﻪ ﻳﻮﺳ ﻮآﺎوا ﺑﻮﺿ ﻊ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳ ﻒ اﻷﺻ ﻠﻲ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ اﻟﻔﻌ ﺎل ﺑ ﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜ ﺎ واﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت ﻓ ﻲ‬ ‫‪brushless‬‬ ‫‪ motor‬وﻋ ﺮف ﻳﻮﺳ ﻮآﺎوا اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت ﻋﻠ ﻰ أﻧﻬ ﺎ ﺗﺘﻜ ﻮن ﻣ ﻦ‬ ‫"‪ "mech‬وﻓ ﻰ ﻣ ﻦ‬ ‫‪mechanism‬‬ ‫‪ electronics‬وﻗ ﺪﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻌ ﺎﻟﻢ ﻓ ﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻮآﺎوا اﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ .‬ ‫و "‪ "tronics‬ﻣ ﻦ‬ ‫0691ﺑﻮاﺳ ﻄﺔ ﺷ ﺮآﻪ‬
  • 3. ‫واﻟﺴﺆال هﻨ ﺎ ه ﻞ آ ﺎن ﻗﺒ ﻞ 0691ﻳﻮﺟ ﺪ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت ؟ اﻹﺟﺎﺑ ﺔ ﻧﻌ ﻢ‬ ‫وﻟﻜ ﻦ ﺑ ﺪون اﺳ ﻢ ﻟ ﻦ ﺑﻌ ﺾ اﻟﻨ ﺎس ﻳﻌﺘﻘ ﺪون أن اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت ﻟﻴ ﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮى هﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﻩ أو ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺟﻴﺪ‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﺳﻮآﺎوا ﺗﻮاﻟ ﺖ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔ ﺎت وآ ﺎن ﻣ ﻦ أهﻤﻬ ﺎ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳ ﻒ اﻟﺨ ﺎص‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎراﺷ ﻴﻤﺎ و ﺗﻮﻣﻮزوآ ﺎ وﻓﺎآ ﺎدا ﻓ ﻲ أوراﻗﻬ ﻢ وه ﻮ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ اﻟﻔﻌ ﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴ ﺔ ﻣ ﻊ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴ ﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣ ﺎت و اﺗﺨ ﺎذ اﻟﻘ ﺮار اﻟ ﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻓ ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت اﻟﺘ ﺼﻨﻴﻊ و اﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ وإﻧﺘ ﺎج اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠ ﺎت اﻟ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ أﻳﻀﺎ وﻋﺮف هﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳ ﻒ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳ ﻒ ﺳ ﻨﻪ 0002‬ ‫أو ‪ Y2K‬وﻳﻮﺿ ﺢ ه ﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳ ﻒ أن ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴ ﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣ ﺎت ﺗﻠﻌ ﺐ‬ ‫دور ﻣﺘﺰاﻳ ﺪ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت و ﻳ ﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴ ﻮﺗﺮ و ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠ ﻪ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرات اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪ DSP‬و اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪. CAD‬‬ ‫وﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ أﺧﺮى ﻓﺎن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﻪ اﺗﺨ ﺎذ اﻟﻘ ﺮار ﺗ ﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﻄ ﺮق واﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳ ﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺜ ﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳ ﻪ ﺗ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳ ﺔ أو اﻟﺮاﺟ ﻊ‬ ‫‪feedback design‬‬ ‫‪ theory‬وﻧﻈﺮﻳ ﻪ اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ وآ ﻼ ه ﺬﻳﻦ اﻷﺳﺎﺳ ﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟ ﻮﺟﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫وأﺳ ﺎس اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓ ﺔ ﻓ ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﻪ اﺗﺨ ﺎذ اﻟﻘ ﺮار اﻟ ﺼﻌﺐ اﻧﺘ ﺸﺮ ﺟ ﺪا ﺧ ﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘ ﻮد اﻟﺜﻼﺛ ﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﺿ ﻴﺔ واﻟ ﺬي أدى إﻟ ﻰ ﺗﻮﺳ ﻴﻊ ﻣﺠ ﺎل ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘ ﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت .‬
  • 4. Auslander and Kempf at ‫وﺑﻌﺪ ذﻟﻚ ﺗﻮاﻟﺖ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔ ﺎت ﻣﺜ ﻞ‬ . ‫6991 وهﻮ آﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ "Mechatronics is the application of complex decision making to the operation of physical systems." 1997 ‫وهﻨﺎك ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ أﺧﺮ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺳﻨﻪ‬ " Mechatronics is a methodology used for the optimal design of electromechanical products." Bolton ‫وهﻨﺎك ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ أﺧﺮ ﻗﺎم ﺑﻪ‬ "A Mechatronics system is not just a marriage of electrical and mechanical systems and is more than just a control system it is a complete integration of all of them and Mechatronics engineering appears modern concurrent engineering design practices. ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳ ﻒ اﻟﻤﺒ ﺴﻂ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت وه ﻮ ﻣ ﻦ ﻓ ﺮوع‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳ ﺔ و ﻟ ﻴﺲ ﻣ ﺸﺘﻖ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳ ﺔ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴ ﺔ أو اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴ ﺔ و اﻟ ﺬي‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﺎ واﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺎت و ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬
  • 5. ‫و اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺖ آﺜﻴﺮا ﺧﻼل ال 52 ﺳﻨﻪ اﻟﻤﺎﺿ ﻴﺔ و اﻧﺘ ﺸﺮت‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر واﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت اﻟﺬآﻴﺔ واﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة .‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻴﺎس أﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻣ ﻦ اﻷﻧﻈﻤ ﺔ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴ ﺔ وه ﻮ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻈﻤ ﺔ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴ ﺔ آﻠﻬ ﺎ و ﻋﻨﺎﺻ ﺮ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت ﺗ ﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﺠ ﺴﺎت‬ ‫‪ actuators and microcontrollers‬اﻟﻤ ﺸﻐﻼت ‪sensors‬‬ ‫‪control‬‬ ‫‪time‬‬ ‫‪real‬‬ ‫‪and‬‬ ‫)‪(microprocessors‬‬ ‫.‪software‬‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻮن اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت ‪ actuators‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴ ﺔ اﻟﺪﻗ ﺔ ﻣﺜ ﻞ اﻟﻤ ﻮاﺗﻴﺮ اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺪﻗﺔ وال ‪solenoids‬‬ ‫وهﻨ ﺎك اﻟﻌﺪﻳ ﺪ ﻣ ﻦ أل ‪ sensors‬وﻳ ﺴﺘﺨﺪم آ ﻞ ﻧ ﻮع ﻣﻨﻬ ﺎ ﺣ ﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ وﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت ﻟﻠﻀﻮء و اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ و اﻟﻮزن و اﻟﻠ ﻮن ودرﺟ ﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة و اﻟﺼﻮرة .‬ ‫أذن ﻳﻤﻜﻨﺎ اﻟﻘﻮل أن اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ت ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﺛ ﻼث أﺷ ﻴﺎء رﺋﻴ ﺴﻴﻪ‬ ‫و ﻣﻮﺿﺢ دور آﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ آﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬
  • 6. 1- Sensor perceive environmental 2- Actuators make decision 3- Controllers take action ‫وﻓﻰ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت‬
  • 7. ‫وﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ هﺬا اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدﻩ ﻓﻰ آﻞ ﺟﺰء‬ 1- Physical system modeling ‫وﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ • mechanics of solids • translation and rotational systems • fluid systems • electrical systems • thermal systems • micro and nano systems • rotational electromagnetic MEMS 2- Sensors and actuators ‫ اﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﻩ اﻧﻮاع‬sensors ‫وﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ال‬ 1- optical ex * photodiodes * phototransistor
  • 8. 2- magnetic * hall effect device 3- acceleration • MEMS ACCELEROMETERS 4- force • strain gauge and load cell (strain gauge are hard to mount on flexures • prefab load cells are expensive • very accurate • very stiff • multiaxis load cells are available
  • 9. ‫وهﺬﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ اﺷﻜﺎل ال ‪sensors‬‬
  • 10. MEMS
  • 11. 4- Actuators • Elctro-mechanical actuators • Motors DC motors AC motors Stepper motors • Piezoelectric actuators • pneumatic and hydraulic actuators • micro and nana actuators 5- Signals and systems • Mechatronics modeling • Signals and systems in Mechatronics • Response of dynamic systems • Root locus method • Frequency response method • State variable method
  • 12. • Stability , controllability and observability • Observers and kalman filters • Design of digital filter • Optimal control design • Adaptive and non-linear control design • Neural networks and fuzzy design • Intelligent control for Mechatronics • Identification and design optimization 6- Software and data acquisition • Data acquisition systems • Transducers and measurement systems • A/D , D/A conversion • Amplifiers and signals conditioning • Computer based instrumentation system • Software engineering • Data recording
  • 13. 6- Computer and logic systems • Digital logic • Communication systems • Fault detection • Logic system design • Asynchronous and synchronous sequential • Computer architectures microprocessors • System interfaces • Programmable logic controllers PLC • Embedded control computer and
  • 14. Introduction of Mechatronics Design The following figure show the modern Mechatronics system And this also show the Mechatronics but in general view.
  • 15. ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﻴﻦ ﻻﺣﻈﻨﺎ أن اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ﺗﺒﺪأ ﺑﻔﻜﺮﻩ واﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ و ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮط أن ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻨﻈﺎم ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ أو‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻲ .‬
  • 16. ‫وﻋﻤﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﻄﻮات هﻲ‬ ‫1- اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﻜﺎن أو اﺧﺘﻴﺎر ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫2- ﻧﻤﺬﺟﺔ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺳﻠﻮك ه ﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻ ﺮ و ﺗ ﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮآﻬﺎ أﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫3- ﺣ ﺴﺎب اﻟﻨ ﻮاﺗﺞ اﻟﻨﺎﺷ ﺌﺔ ﻣ ﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت اﻟ ﺪﻣﺞ ﺑ ﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻ ﺮ و‬ ‫هﻞ هﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب أم ﻻ ؟‬ ‫وأﻳ ﻀﺎ آ ﻞ ﻣﻨ ﺘﺞ أو ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﻪ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت ﻳﻜ ﻮن وﺣﻴ ﺪ ﻓ ﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔ ﺔ و اﻟ ﺸﻜﻞ و ﻟﻜ ﻦ ه ﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠ ﺎت واﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت ﺗ ﺸﺘﺮك ﻓ ﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ هﻴﺌﻪ ﺗﺒﻴﻦ وﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺘﻬﺎ .‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻳ ﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﻴ ﺎر اﻷﻣﺜ ﻞ و اﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺠﻴ ﺪ اﻟ ﺬي ﻳ ﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴ ﻊ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻ ﺮ اﻟﻤﻮﺟ ﻮدة ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜ ﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ و ه ﺬا ﻳ ﻮدى‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت إﻟ ﻰ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ اﻟ ﺬي ه ﻮ أﺳ ﺎس هﻨﺪﺳ ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت و ﺗﻜﻮن ﺻ ﻮر اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴ ﺔ و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ و ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت أﻳﻀﺎ .‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻧﺮى أن هﻨﺎك ﻣﺎآﻴﻨ ﺎت ﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ ﻣ ﻊ اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت وذﻟ ﻚ ﻣﺜ ﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎآﻴﻨﺎت أﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻘﺪرة ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫‪and hydraulic‬‬ ‫‪drives‬‬ ‫‪electrical drives, pneumatic‬‬
  • 17. ‫واﻟﻤﺎآﻴﻨ ﺎت اﻟﻤ ﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻟﻠﻘ ﺪرة ﻣﺜ ﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﻟ ﺪات و اﻟﻤ ﻀﺨﺎت و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﺮوﺳ ﻮر و أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻳﺘﺘ ﻀﺢ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ ﻓ ﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠ ﻒ اﻟﻤﺮآﺒ ﺎت‬ ‫آﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎرات و اﻟﻐﻮاﺻﺎت و اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات.‬ ‫و اﻟﻤﺎآﻴﻨﺎت اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ﻃﺒﻌ ﺎ ﻓ ﻲ ﺻ ﻮرﻩ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ أﺟﻬ ﺰﻩ اﻻﺗ ﺼﺎﻻت و أﺟﻬ ﺰﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠ ﻪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧ ﺎت و اﻟﺤ ﺴﺎﺳﺎت و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت و اﻻﺟﻬﺰﻩ اﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺔ و اﻻﺟﻬﺰﻩ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ .‬ ‫وﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ اﻻﺟﻬ ﺰﻩ ﻳ ﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳ ﺪ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﻮﻇ ﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة و اﻟﻤﺤﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ اﻟ ﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓ ﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠ ﻒ اﻟﻈ ﺮوف و اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت ﻓ ﻰ أﺟ ﻮاء‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﻩ أو ﺧﻄﺮﻩ .‬ ‫ه ﺬﻩ اﻷﻣﺜﻠ ﺔ ﺗﻮﺿ ﺢ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ ﺑ ﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴ ﺎت و ه ﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﺎن و هﻤﺎ‬ ‫1- اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫2- اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﻪ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫أوﻻ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت أو ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫)‪ (hardware integration‬وه ﺬا ﻳﻨ ﺘﺞ ﻋﻨ ﺪ ﺗ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈ ﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ آﻨﻈﺎم ﻋﺎم أو ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ overall system‬و ﻳﻜﻮن ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫ﻋ ﻦ وﺿ ﻊ و ﺗﺮآﻴ ﺐ اﻟﺤ ﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫‪ sensors‬و اﻟﻤ ﺸﻐﻼت‬
  • 18. ‫‪ actuators‬واﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎت اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘ ﺔ ‪microprocessors‬‬ ‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻰ .‬ ‫و اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺮوﺳﻴ ﺴﻮر ﻳﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻣ ﻊ اﻟﻤ ﺸﻐﻼت و ﻣ ﻊ اﻟﺤ ﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ آﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻮن ﻣﻊ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم .‬ ‫وهﺬا ﻳﻮدى إﻟ ﻰ ﺣ ﺴﺎﺳﺎت ذآﻴ ﻪ و ﻣ ﺸﻌﻼت ذآﻴ ﻪ و ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠ ﺔ و ﻳﻜ ﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺒﺎص ‪ bus connection‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻘﺪة .‬ ‫وﻣ ﻦ هﻨ ﺎ ﻧﺠ ﺪ اﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴ ﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﻌ ﺪدة ﻟﺒﻨ ﺎء ﻧﻈ ﺎم ﻋ ﺎم و ﺷ ﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫)‪ (hardware integration‬واﻟﻨ ﻮع اﻟﺜ ﺎﻧﻲ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ وه ﻮ‬ ‫‪ software integration‬وه ﺬا ﻳﻌﺘﻤ ﺪ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﺧ ﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ و‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬
  • 19. ‫‪Modeling and simulation of Mechatronics‬‬ ‫‪system‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت اﻟﻤﺤﺪدة واﻟﻤﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺗﺤﺪد ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫و ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻮن ﺧ ﺼﺎﺋﺺ ه ﺬﻩ اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘ ﺎت أو ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺘﻬ ﺎ اﻷداء اﻟﻌ ﺎﻟﻲ وه ﺬا ﻣ ﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺎت ﺟﺪﻳﺪة ﻓﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ و ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ .‬ ‫وﻓ ﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺗ ﺴﺎﻋﺪ اﻟﺮﺳ ﻮم اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴ ﺔ ﻓ ﻰ ﻧﻤﺬﺟ ﺔ دﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ و اﻟﺬي ﻳﻜﻮن ﺿﺮوري ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ .‬ ‫وهﺬﻩ اﻟﺮﺳ ﻮم ﻣﺜ ﻞ ‪ bond graph representation‬اﻟﺘ ﻲ ﺗﺘ ﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮدي إﻟﻰ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻷﻣﺜﻞ .‬ ‫وهﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺒﺎدىء ﺗﻄﺒ ﻖ أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻓ ﻰ اﻟﻤﺠ ﺎﻻت ذات اﻟﻄﺎﻗ ﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻌ ﺪدة اﻟﺘ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﺎل أو أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻻت اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻷﺗﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﻗ ﺔ اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ أو اﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ أو اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺬﺟﺔ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﺗﺒ ﺪأ ﺑﻔﻜ ﺮﻩ واﺿ ﺤﺔ ﻋ ﻦ اﻟ ﺴﻠﻮك‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎم و ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻷداء‪performance‬‬
  • 20. ‫‪Modeling perspectives‬‬ ‫‪(A) System properties‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺳﻠﻮك اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳ ﺐ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤ ﺎد ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﺗﻜ ﻮﻳﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدﻳ ﺔ و ﻧﻈ ﺎم اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ وﻋﻤﻮﻣ ﺎ اﻟﺤ ﺪود ﻓ ﻰ أداء اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ﺗﺤ ﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت و اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬ ﺎ وﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟ ﺮﻏﻢ ﻣ ﻦ ﻋ ﺮض دﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﺘ ﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘ ﻮى ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﺗﺮآﻴ ﺐ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ﻓﻘ ﻂ و ﺳ ﺒﺐ ه ﺬا اﻧ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘ ﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻤﻴ ﺰات ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴ ﻪ اﻟﺘ ﺮاﺑﻂ أو اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴ ﻊ‬ ‫‪synthesis‬‬ ‫‪.process‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻹﻧ ﺸﺎﺋﻴﺔ اﻟﺘ ﻲ ﺗ ﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﻌﻼﻗ ﺎت اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴ ﺔ ﺑ ﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت و‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻈﻤ ﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴ ﺔ ‪ subsystem‬واﻟﺘ ﻲ ﻳﻮﺿ ﺤﻬﺎ ﻟﻨ ﺎ رﺳ ﻢ اﻟ ﺮواﺑﻂ‬ ‫‪ bond graph‬و ﻳﻮﺿﺢ أﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻧﺘﻘﺎل اﻟﻄﺎﻗ ﺔ و ﺗﺒﺎدﻟﻬ ﺎ ﺑ ﻴﻦ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ اﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ و ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ .‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت هﻲ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎح ﻓﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴ ﻞ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم و ﻓ ﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﻪ اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴ ﻊ‬ ‫أو ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﻪ اﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ وه ﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣ ﺎت أو اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧ ﺎت ﺗ ﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠ ﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨ ﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻹﻧ ﺸﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈ ﺎم ﻣﺜ ﻞ اﻟﻘ ﺪرة ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻋﻤ ﻞ اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫‪ controllability‬واﻟﻘﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ‪observability‬‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ هﻮﻳﺔ اﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة ﻓﻰ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﻣﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ‪.time scale‬‬
  • 21. ‫و ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ أو اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ و اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺜ ﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ أﻣﺎآﻦ اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت ‪ actuators‬وأﻣﺎآﻦ اﻟﻤﺠﺴﺎت ‪sensors‬‬ ‫و اﻟﺘ ﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒ ﺮ ﻣ ﻦ أه ﻢ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت ﻓ ﻰ ﺗ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﺎآﻴﻨ ﺎت و اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﻤ ﺸﻐﻼت ﺗﻌﺘﻤ ﺪ ﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت اﻟﺘ ﻲ ﺗﻘ ﻮم ﺑﻬ ﺎ اﻟﻤﺎآﻴﻨ ﺎت و ﺗﻌﺘﻤ ﺪ‬ ‫أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻋﻼﻗ ﺎت اﻟ ﺮﺑﻂ ﺑ ﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت و اﻷﻧﻈﻤ ﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴ ﺔ و‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرات اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‪ input signals‬اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺠﺴﺎت‬ ‫‪(B) Achievable performance‬‬ ‫آﻤ ﺎ ذآﺮﻧ ﺎ ﺳ ﺎﺑﻘﺎ أن ﺗﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ اﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ واﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓ ﻰ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺮوري ﺟﺪا ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻷداء اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب .‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ﺼﻤﻤﻮن ﻋ ﺎدﻩ ﻳ ﻀﻌﻮن ﻓ ﻰ اﻋﺘﺒ ﺎرهﻢ ﻣﻈﻬ ﺮ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ‪aspects‬‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄآﻴﺪ أن اﻷداء اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﻘ ﻖ و ﻣ ﻦ اﻟ ﻀﺮوري أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻣﻼﺣﻈ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴ ﻖ اﻷداء اﻟﻤﻄﻠ ﻮب وﻳﻌﺘﻤ ﺪ ذﻟ ﻚ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﺣ ﺪود ﻣﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدﻳ ﺔ‬ ‫‪ hardware‬ﺛ ﻢ ﺑﻌ ﺪ ذﻟ ﻚ ﻧﻘ ﻮم ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤ ﺚ ﻧﻈ ﺎم اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ .‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎح اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ واﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ه ﻮ ﺗﺤﺪﻳ ﺪ اﻟﺨ ﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎم و اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰة ‪ characteristics‬ﻟﻠﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻧﺤﻘﻖ اﻷداء اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب .‬
  • 22. ‫و ﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈ ﺎم ﻣﻴﻜ ﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ ﻳﻌﻄ ﻰ ﻟﻨ ﺎ أداء آ ﺎﻓﻲ ﻳﺠ ﺐ أن ﻳﻘ ﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ﺼﻤﻢ ﺑﺄﺗﺒ ﺎع اﻷﺗ ﻲ وه ﻮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴ ﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺎت اﻟﻄ ﺮق أو اﻟﻨﻤ ﺎذج‬ ‫‪ methodology‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺛﻮاﺑﺖ ‪ parameters‬اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت اﻟﻤﺎدﻳ ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ و اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ وهﺬا ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄآﻴﺪ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪس‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ﻻﺧﺘﻴ ﺎر اﻟﺜﻮاﺑ ﺖ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳ ﺒﺔ ﻓ ﻰ اﻟﺘ ﺼﻤﻴﻢ واﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳ ﺒﺔ ﻟﻜ ﻞ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم‬ ‫وﻗﺪرﺗﻬﺎ ‪ inherent‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻷداء اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب.‬ ‫‪( C ) Control system design‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜ ﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ ﻳ ﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺠ ﺎﻻت ﻋﺪﻳ ﺪة و ﻇ ﺮوف ﺗ ﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﺘﻌ ﺪدة‬ ‫وﻟ ﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠ ﺐ أن ﻳﻜ ﻮن اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻤﻠ ﻲ ‪ practical‬وﻳﺘ ﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﻠ ﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴ ﺬ ‪ implementation‬و اﻟﺜﺒ ﺎت ‪ maintainer‬وان ﻳﺤﻘ ﻖ‬ ‫أﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﻪ اﻗﻞ‬ ‫وﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ أهﻢ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻲ داﺋﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻬﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ أﺧﺮى أن ﻳﻜﻮن ﻟﺪﻳﻪ اﻟﻘﺪرة أﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﺗ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﻔ ﺴﻪ ﻓ ﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟ ﻪ اﻟ ﻀﺮورة ﻟﻴﺘﻮاآ ﺐ ﻣ ﻊ اﻟﺘﻐﻴ ﺮ اﻟ ﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻓ ﻰ دﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴ ﺔ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم‬ ‫واﻟﻨﻤﺎذج اﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺮرﻩ وﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﻜﻮن أﻟﺠ ﻮرﻳﺜﻢ ‪algorithm‬‬ ‫اﻟ ﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻤﻠ ﻲ وان ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣ ﻞ ﻣ ﻊ ﻋ ﺪم اﻻﺳ ﺘﻘﺮار وﻋ ﺪم اﻟﺜﺒ ﺎت واﻟﺘﻐﻴ ﺮ‬ ‫اﻟ ﺴﺮﻳﻊ واﻷﻧﻈﻤ ﺔ اﻟﻐﻴ ﺮ ﺧﻄﻴ ﻪ و اﻷﻧﻈﻤ ﺔ اﻟﻐﻴ ﺮ ﻣﺆآ ﺪة أو اﻟﻐﻴ ﺮ‬ ‫واﺿﺤﺔ .‬
  • 23. ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت هﻨﺪﺳﺔ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت‬ ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ اﻷﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Automated steering systems for vehicles on‬‬ ‫‪automated highways‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﻩ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻷﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪(AHS‬‬ ‫‪highways systems‬‬ ‫‪ automated‬ﻋﺮﻓ ﺖ‬ ‫آﻄﺮﻳﻘ ﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺔ و ﻓﻌﺎﻟ ﺔ ﻓ ﻰ ﺣ ﻞ ﻣ ﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﺰﺣ ﺎم اﻟﻤ ﺮوري و ﻣ ﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫آﺜﺮة اﻟﺤﻮادث ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺗﺤ ﺴﻴﻦ آﻔ ﺎءة اﻟﻄ ﺮق‬ ‫اﻟ ﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣ ﻦ ﺧ ﻼل اﻋﺘﺒ ﺎرات آﺜﻴ ﺮة ﻣﻨﻬ ﺎ اﻷﻣ ﺎن ﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟﻄﺮﻳ ﻖ و‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼت اﻟﻮﻗﻮد و اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺎت اﻟﺘﻠﻮث .‬
  • 24. ‫وﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻷﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ )‪ (AHS‬واﺣﺪﻩ ﻣ ﻦ أﺷ ﻜﺎل‬ ‫اﻟ ﺬآﺎء ﻓ ﻰ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜ ﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ ﻓ ﻰ وﺳ ﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻ ﻼت ﻓﻜ ﻞ ﻣﺮآﺒ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻄﺮق )‪ (AHS‬ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣ ﺰودة ﺑﺤﺎآﻤ ﺎت ﻣﺜﺒﺘ ﺔ ﻓ ﻰ اﻷﺗﺠ ﺎة‬ ‫اﻟﻄ ﻮﻟﻲ ‪longitudal‬‬ ‫و ﺣﺎآﻤ ﺎت أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻓ ﻰ اﻷﺗﺠ ﺎة اﻟﻌﺮﺿ ﻲ‬ ‫‪. lateral‬‬ ‫واﻟﺤﺎآﻤ ﺎت اﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘ ﺔ ﻓ ﻰ اﻻﺗﺠ ﺎﻩ اﻟﻄ ﻮﻟﻲ وﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬ ﺎ اﻟﺤﻔ ﺎظ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻣ ﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ أو زﻣﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ time headway‬ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة و اﻷﺧ ﺮى اﻟﺘ ﻲ‬ ‫أﻣﺎﻣﻬﺎ وﺗﻜﻮن هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﺪدﻩ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻨﻮع اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ .‬ ‫واﻟﺤﺎآﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ أن ﺗﻜﻮن اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﻣﺴﺎر ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ lane‬ﺑﻄﻮل اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ .‬ ‫وﻓﻰ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ هﺬا‬
  • 25. ‫وﻣﻦ وﺟﻬﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻴﺎت أن هﺬﻩ اﻟﻄ ﺮق اﻟ ﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻻﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (AHS‬ﺗﻌﺘﺒ ﺮ ﻣﺜ ﺎل راﺋ ﻊ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﺗﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ﻣ ﻊ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗ ﻪ وﺗﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ آﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ .‬ ‫وﻣ ﻦ اﻟﻤﻬ ﻢ أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻓ ﻰ ه ﺬﻩ اﻟﻄ ﺮق آﻴﻔﻴ ﻪ ﻗﻴ ﺎس ﻣﻮﺿ ﻊ اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة و‬ ‫إﺣﺪاﺛﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻖ .‬ ‫وﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ )‪(PATH‬‬ ‫‪Transit and Highways‬‬ ‫‪The Partners For‬‬ ‫‪Advanced‬‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺿ ﻊ ﻣﻌ ﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴ ﻪ ﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ﻋﻼﻣ ﺎت ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴ ﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪(nail‬‬ ‫‪magnetic‬‬ ‫‪ marker‬وﻳﻜ ﻮن ﻣﺜﺒ ﺖ ﺑﻬ ﺎ أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟﻄﺮﻳ ﻖ‬ ‫‪ magnetometers‬و ﺗ ﺪﻓﻦ ه ﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋ ﺔ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻣ ﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﻳﺔ ﻓﻰ آﻞ ﻣﺴﺎر و ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺮات ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮل اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ .‬
  • 26. ‫وﻳﻌﺘﻤ ﺪ ﻧﻈ ﺎم اﻟﺤ ﺴﺎﺳﺎت ﻋﻠ ﻰ أن ﺗﻜ ﻮن ﻣﺜﺒﺘ ﻪ ﻋﻨ ﺪ ﻗﻴﻤ ﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﻨ ﻪ‬ ‫‪ reference‬و ﻳﻜﻮن هﺬا ﻣﺤﺪد ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳ ﺎس اﻟﻌﻼﻣ ﺎت اﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴ ﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻤﻜ ﻦ أن ﺗ ﺆدى إﻟ ﻰ إﻏ ﻼق اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم واﻟﺘ ﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻧﻈ ﺎم ﺿ ﺒﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤ ﺎور ﻓ ﻰ اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة ‪ steering‬وأﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﻤﻤﻜ ﻦ ﻓ ﻰ اﻟﺤ ﺎﻻت‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ أن ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻔﺮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻰ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة و ﺗﻮدي إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ .‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻮن هﻨﺎك أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﺣ ﺴﺎﺳﺎت أو ﻣﺠ ﺴﺎت ﻣﺜﺒﺘ ﻪ ﻓ ﻰ اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة وﻟﻨﺘﺨﻴ ﻞ‬ ‫إذا ﺛﺒﺘﻨﺎ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺠﺴﺎت ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹآ ﺼﺪام اﻷﻣ ﺎﻣﻲ ﻓﻬ ﺬا ﻳ ﻮدى إﻟ ﻰ ﻧﻈ ﺮﻩ‬ ‫‪ look ahead‬ﺻ ﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧ ﺔ ﺑﻤﺮآ ﺰ ﺛﻘ ﻞ اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة وﻣ ﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫أﺧ ﺮى ﻓ ﺎن اﻟﻜ ﺎﻣﻴﺮا اﻟﺘ ﻲ ﺗﻜ ﻮن ﻣﺜﺒﺘ ﻪ أﻳ ﻀﺎ ﻓ ﻰ اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة ﺗﻌ ﺮف ه ﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌ ﺪ أو اﻟﻨﻈ ﺮة‬ ‫‪ look ahead‬ﺑﻤﻘ ﺪار ﺻ ﻐﻴﺮ وﻟﻜ ﻦ إذا ﺛﺒﺘﻨ ﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺴﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ارﺗﻔﺎع ﺧﻤﺴﺔ أﻣﺘ ﺎر ﻣ ﻦ اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة ﻓ ﺎن اﻟﻜ ﺎﻣﻴﺮا ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻨ ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار آ ﺎﻓﻲ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟ ﺼﻮرة اﻟﺒﻌﺪﻳ ﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳ ﻖ و ﻟﻜ ﻦ ه ﺬا ﻏﻴ ﺮ ﺣﻘﻴﻘ ﻲ و‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ .‬ ‫وﻟ ﺬﻟﻚ اﻟﻌﻠﻤ ﺎء واﻟﺒ ﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ ﻓ ﻰ )‪ (PATH‬وﺟ ﺪوا ﺣ ﻼ ﻟﻬ ﺬﻩ ﻟﻤ ﺸﻜﻠﻪ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﺪد اآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺠﺴﺎت ﻓﻰ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ أﻧﺤﺎء اﻟ ﺴﻴﺎرة و ﻓ ﻰ‬ ‫اﻹآﺼﺪام اﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ و اﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ.‬
  • 27. ‫و ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻬﺬا اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﺗﺮوﻧﻰ آﻤ ﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﻨ ﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻤ ﺪ أوﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﺗﺤﺪﻳ ﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌ ﺔ اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم و ه ﺬا ﻣ ﺎ ﻗﻤﻨ ﺎ ﺑ ﻪ أﻻن و اﻟﺨﻄ ﻮة اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن اﺧﺘﻴﺎر ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻔﻌﺎل ﺑ ﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠ ﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم ﻣﺜ ﻞ اﻟﻤﺠ ﺴﺎت و ﺗﻮزﻳﻌﻬ ﺎ و اﻟﻤ ﺸﻐﻼت واﻟﺘ ﻲ ﺗﻜ ﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة ﻓﻰ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة و اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ ﻧﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻤﺤ ﺎور و اﻟﻔﺮاﻣ ﻞ وﻣ ﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨ ﺎ ﻣﻼﺣﻈ ﻪ ﻣﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت اﻟﻨﻈ ﺎم اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔ ﺔ و ﺗﻮﻗ ﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬