Ele140

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Ele140

  1. 1.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١ J  ١٤٠
  2. 2. ‫א‬   ١٤٠ ‫א‬  ١-     W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬    ?  ? ١J   ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      
  3. 3.    ١٤٠ ‫א‬  ١-   ‫א‬  ،KKK،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬  KKKKKK،‫א‬ 
  4. 4.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١
  5. 5. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ١- ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • -١-
  6. 6.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ١-    ١J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ The International System of Units‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KK‫א‬ The Measurement Units‫א‬‫א‬ ١J ٢J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  Symbol‫א‬  Unit‫א‬ Quantity‫א‬  m Meter  kg Kilogram‫א‬ Mass‫א‬  A Ampere Current‫א‬  s Second Time‫א‬  K Kelvin Temperature‫א‬‫א‬  cd Candle Luminous Intensity‫א‬  Length‫א‬  The Measurement Units‫א‬‫א‬E١-١F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Luminous Intensity‫א‬Temperature‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬NForce‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ Watt‫א‬Electric Power‫א‬‫א‬K -٢- kg ‫א‬ s2
  7. 7.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬  ١- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  Nm W s  K Nm  JJoule‫א‬ Electric Energy‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ٢J ١  which attached to the measurement units، prefixes،Power of ten units power ‫א‬The International System of Units‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬of ten  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ Power of ten  1 * 10−18  1 * 10−15 ‫א‬ Symbol  a  f ‫א‬ Prefixes to the Units  Atto Femto  1 * 10−12  p  1 * 10−6 Micro  1 * 10−3  µ  m  1 * 10−2  c  1 * 10 −1  d Centi  1 *10−9 Pico  n  1 *101 Milli Deci  da  1 * 103 Nano  k  1 *102  h  1 *106  M  1 *1012 Deka  T  1 *109 Hecto Kilo Mega  G Giga Tera‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ١F The Basic Electrical Quantities‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣J ١ ‫א‬،Voltage‫א‬،Current‫א‬،Charge‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KElectrical Resistance‫א‬‫א‬ -٣-
  8. 8.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ١-  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ،EJ ‫א‬FElectrons‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KAtoms   KE‫א‬FNeutrons‫א‬،EH‫א‬FProtons‫א‬ Charge‫א‬ ١J ٣J ١ ‫א‬Electron‫א‬‫א‬،Q ،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Proton   K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  KC‫א‬Coulomb‫א‬ Current‫א‬ ٢J ٣J ١ ،I‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  WKCurrent‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ I= dQ dt A≡ C s E١J ١F  W‫א‬،Ampere‫א‬ E٢J ١F  KA‫א‬IW  KCCharge‫א‬WQ  Kstime‫א‬Wt ‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬Electrons -٤-
  9. 9.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬  ١- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   I E Load    ‫א‬E١J ١F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،voltage source‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K Pure D.C. Current  K١ Current (I)  KE٢J ١F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ time (t)  E٢J ١F Pulsating Current  K٢ current ( I )  KE١J ٣F،‫א‬ time ( t )  -٥-
  10. 10.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬  ١-  current ( I ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ time ( t ) current ( I )  time ( t )  Pulsating CurrentE٣J ١F Alternating Current K٣ sin wave‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  current ( I )  KAlternating Current‫א‬‫א‬ time ( t )  Alternating CurrentE٤J ١F Voltage‫א‬ ٣J ٣J ١ Volt،‫א‬‫א‬(Work)‫א‬‫א‬ V≡ V=  W‫א‬ J C E٣J ١F  W dW dQ E٤J ١F  W -٦-
  11. 11.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬  ١- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   KV‫א‬WV  KJ‫א‬WW  KCCharge‫א‬WQ Resistance‫א‬ ٤J ٣J ١ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Electric Power‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KOhm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  ، Ω Ohm،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Current (I)  W‫א‬‫א‬  Resistance (R)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ١F Resistance of a wire‫א‬‫א‬ ٥J ٣J ١  W‫א‬Wires‫א‬  KL،Length‫א‬ K١ KA،Cross-section Area‫א‬ K٢ -٧-
  12. 12.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ١-  ‫א‬K، ρ ،MaterialE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ K٣  K KT،Temperature‫א‬‫א‬ K٤ R= ρ.L A  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٧J ١F  K Ω Resistance‫א‬  W WR  K Ω.m ‫א‬‫א‬ Wρ  K m 2 ‫א‬،Cross-section Area‫א‬ WA  m،Length‫א‬ WL  E١J ١F ‫א‬K5m‫א‬،5mm‫א‬‫א‬ 1.72 * 10 −8 Ω m ‫א‬‫א‬، 20o C ‫א‬  ‫א‬  W،E٧J ١F‫א‬R‫א‬ R =  ∴ R = 1.72 ∗ 10 −8 -٨- ρ.L A   5  = 4.38 Ω  ∗ 2   −3  π 5 ∗ 10 2  ( )
  13. 13.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬  ١- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  Types of Resistors‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Opto-photo-ResistorsW‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Thermal-ResistorsW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K١ K٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 10000 1000 ‫أوم‬ 100 10 1 0 40 80 120 160 180 200 ‫درﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ١F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬WVoltage Dependent Resistors‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٣ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WLinear Resistors‫א‬‫א‬ K٤ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،VDR  KW‫א‬‫א‬ K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬K   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W -٩-
  14. 14.  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬  ١- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬WPotentiometer‫א‬E١ J ١F٣،٢،١‫א‬ ،Voltage Divider  KMega Ohm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EEF٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WRheostatE٢   Kilo ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،Ohm ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   EEF٧J ١F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K   K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1 + 2 1 2 V13 3  V23  EF +      ‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ١F  EF 3 -   Conductance‫א‬  ٦J ٣J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،Ampere per Volt‫א‬SiemensG G=  W‫א‬ 1 R E٥J ١F  KSiemens -١٠-
  15. 15.  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R=  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   W 1  G E٦J ١F  .Ohm  K‫א‬‫א‬G‫א‬                  -١١-
  16. 16.  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   ‫א‬‫א‬  :‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١  29000 kWE  Ω 7000E  0.0003 msE 0.05 AE 0.00009 VE 7000000 VE 0.000000008 sE 9000 kWE W K٢  A15mAE  s0.1 nsE  mA µA 800E  A13 nAE  W‫ א‬K٣ µA 800H15mAE  13 msH0.1 nsE 1A+  µA 800E  7000 µA+13 nAE  WA - B‫ א‬K٤ µA B=800،A=15mAE  B=13 ns A=0.1 msE B= 1000 nA ، µA A=800E  B=7000 µV،A=13mVE -١٢-
  17. 17.  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   A ‫ א‬K٥ B µA B=800،A=15mAE W   B=13 ns A=0.1 msE B= 1000 nA ، µA A=800E  B=7000 µV،A=13mVE -١٣-
  18. 18.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١ J    ٢
  19. 19. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • - ١٤ -
  20. 20. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-   ١J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Fundamental Law‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ George Simon Ohm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٨٢٦Ohm’s Law ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I I   Slope = R + R − V  t   ‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٢F  Ohm’s Law ٢J ٢ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬ Current Formula‫א‬EF ١J ٢J ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١J ٢F I= E V , I= RT R  KA‫א‬IW  KVVoltage Source‫א‬E  KV،Voltage Drop‫א‬‫א‬V - ١٥ -
  21. 21. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-   E١J ٢F ،50V‫א‬،100Ω ‫א‬   ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  I  A  100Ω  V    E١J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٢F  ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ I= V 50 = = 0.5A R 100 Resistance Formula‫א‬ ٢J ٢J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬ E٢J ٢F R=  V E , RT = I IT  W Ω ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W R T  KA‫א‬I  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I T  KV‫א‬E  KV‫א‬‫א‬V - ١٦ -
  22. 22. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-   E٢J ٢F  ، 75µA  ‫א‬،150mV  ‫א‬   ‫؟‬‫א‬   I = 75µA A   + V  150mV   -   E٢J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣J ٢F  ‫א‬  W‫א‬ R= V 150 * 10 −3 = = 2 * 10 3 Ω = 2KΩ −6 I 75 * 10   WNote ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  E٣J ٢F  K30V‫א‬‫א‬0.5 mA‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  W‫א‬ RT = E 30 = = 60 * 10 3 Ω = 60 kΩ −3 I T 0.5 * 10 - ١٧ -
  23. 23. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-   E٤J ٢F ‫א‬،10mAR1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،25 V‫א‬ V = 25 V V A R1 I = 10 mA     E٤J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ٢F R1 =  ‫א‬ V 25 = = 2.5 * 10 3 Ω = 2.5 kΩ −3 I 10 * 10 Voltage Formula ٣J ٢J ٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Voltage Drop‫א‬ ١J ٣J ٢J ٢ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬ E٣J ٢F V = I.R - ١٨ -
  24. 24. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-  Voltage Source‫א‬ ٢J ٣J ٢J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ، R T ‫א‬‫א‬ E٤J ٢F E = IT .R T  E٥J ٢F ‫א‬‫א‬ 500 Ω ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  0.1A‫א‬  ‫א‬ E = I T .R T = 0.1 * 500 = 50 V  E٦J ٢F  3mA‫א‬‫א‬ 27KΩ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ E = I T .R T = 3 * 10 −3 * 27 * 10 3 = 81 V  E٧J ٢F  0.8mA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 28 kΩ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ V = I * .R = 0.8 *10−3 * 28 *103 = 22.4 V   WNote ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٩ -
  25. 25. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-     V R I  E٥J ٢F   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥J ٢F          I = E٦J ٢F E٧J ٢F V = I*R          V R  R= V I  K‫א‬  Summary‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ ،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬Current‫א‬ K٢  KI = V W R W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ V = I*R ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤ K‫א‬‫א‬، R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٢٠ -
  26. 26. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١   W  K‫א‬  F E E K75%‫א‬  F K‫א‬  F E E K35%‫א‬  F K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ F E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ E  V = 5V , R = 1Ω  F E V = 15V , R = 10Ω  F  V = 50V , R = 100Ω  F E E  V = 30V , R = 15KΩ  F E  V = 250V , R = 5.6MΩ  F ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،12V10KΩ  K٣ ،J J J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤  K12V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،25V K٥  KJ J J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٢١ -
  27. 27. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦   8Ω ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬  Fuse R 120V V 100V    ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Fuse‫א‬   ‫؟‬100 V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬R‫א‬I‫א‬‫א‬ K٧  I = 2A ,  I = 2.5A , I = 5A , R = 18Ω EF R = 680Ω EF R = 56Ω EF  ‫א‬،3A 27Ω ‫א‬‫א‬ K٨ ‫؟‬‫א‬K W‫א‬‫א‬I‫א‬،V‫א‬‫א‬ K٩  I = 2A ,  I = 45A ,  I = 5A , - ٢٢ - V = 10V EF V = 90V EF V = 50V EF 
  28. 28. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬   ١-    R = 100Ω ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬Variable Voltage Source ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K100 V‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KI‫א‬V‫א‬‫א‬K   ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬ K V = 1V  ‫א‬ I = 5mA ‫א‬‫א‬ K١١  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E  V = 1.5V  F V = 2V  F E E  V = 3V  F E  V = 4V  F  V = 10V  F E K‫א‬‫א‬،I‫א‬V‫א‬،‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢  K R = 3.3kΩ R = 3.9kΩ 75V 50V R = 4.7 kΩ 100V - ٢٣ -    
  29. 29.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١ J  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ٣
  30. 30.  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • - ٢٤ -
  31. 31.  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ١-  ‫א‬‫א‬  Introduction ١J ٣ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   KPower‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Power ‫٢ א‬J ٣ KP،Watt‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬t‫א‬‫א‬ Power = P= Energy time E١J ٣F E t E٢J ٣F  ‫א‬L‫א‬Z‫א‬  KWatt‫א‬Power‫א‬  K Watt ⋅ second ⋅‫א‬‫א‬JEnergy‫א‬  Ksecondtime‫א‬  W  W WP WE Wt   Note WattW،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬Joule‫א‬  Watt =  Joule sec ond E٣J ٣F -٢٥-
  32. 32.  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   E١J ٣F  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،5 sec‫א‬100 J‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ Power = Energy E 100 J = = = 20 Watt t 5 sec time  W‫א‬  E٢J ٣F  ‫؟‬‫א‬Kt = 30 sec‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،P = 100 W‫א‬‫א‬ Energy ⇒ Energy = Power * time time E = P * t = 100 * 30 = 3000J = 3 kJ  ‫א‬ Power =  WNote  KWEEnergy‫א‬‫א‬  E٣J ٣F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  0.045 W EF  0.000012 W EF  3500 W EF   000 W، 000،10 EF   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KMWkWWmW‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،mW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KMW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ mW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،P=0.045 W EF  -٢٦-
  33. 33.  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   W P = 0.045 W = 0.045 * 10 3 * 10 −3 W = 45 * 10 −3 = 45 mW ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،P=0.000012 W EF  ‫א‬، µW ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ W P = 0.000012 W = 0.000012 * 10 6 * 10 −6 W = 12 µW W‫א‬kW،P=3500 W EF  P = 3500 W = 3500 * 10 −3 * 10 3 W = 3.5 kW WMW‫א‬P=10,000,000 W EF  P = 10,000,000 W = 10,000,000 * 10 −6 * 10 6 W = 10 MW  WNote W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  E٤J ٣F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬1400 WEF  K2500 WEF  K1000,000 WEF  ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢٧-
  34. 34.  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 1400 W = 1400 10 3 E F = 1.4 kW W = P * t = 1.4 kW * 1h = 1.4 kWh 2500 W = 2500 10 3 EF = 2.5 kW W = P * t = 2.5 kW * 2h = 5 kWh 1000000 W = 1000000 10 3 EF = 1000 kW W = P * t = 1000 kW * 5h = 5000 kWh Power in Electric Circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣J ٣ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬Power‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KOhm’s Law‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤J ٣F P = V.I  W  KWatt‫א‬،Power‫א‬ WP  KV،‫א‬ WV  KA‫א‬ -٢٨- WI
  35. 35.  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ١-  ‫א‬‫א‬   I +  R V    ‫א‬E١J ٣F  ‫א‬ V = I.R ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ E٥J ٣F P = V.I = I.R.I = I 2 .R   ‫א‬ I = V ‫א‬، R  W‫א‬ V V2 P = V.I = V. = R R E٦J ٣F V E , RT = I IT E٧J ٣F R=  E٥J ٣F  W‫א‬‫א‬،10Ω ‫א‬‫א‬ I=0.7AEF  I=1.4AEF  I=2.1AEF -٢٩-
  36. 36.  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ١-  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  P = I2 .R = (0.7) 2 *10 = 4.9W E F P = I 2 .R = (1.4) 2 *10 = 19.6W EF P = I 2 .R = (2.1) 2 *10 = 44.1W EF IP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  WK E٨J ٣F P α I2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ P = 4.9 Watt ← I = 0.7 A EF  P = 19.6Watt ← I = 1.4A EF   KEF‫א‬EF‫א‬EF  E٦J ٣F ،15 V10 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬،E٢J ٣F‫א‬  ‫؟‬12 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬ 12 kΩ  + V  I -  + 10kΩ 15V −  E٦J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٣F -٣٠-   
  37. 37.  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ١-  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I= V 15 15 = = 4 = 1.5 mA R 10 * 10 3 10  W12 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ V = I*R = 1.5 * 10 −3 * 12 * 10 3 = 12 V  KV=12 V 12 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬   Summary‫א‬ K Watt = Joule W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ sec ond K‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • Kopen circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K KAmpere. Hourx‫א‬ • K١١x‫א‬ •    -٣١-
  38. 38.  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬  ١-   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫؟‬ 350 j s ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١  ‫؟‬ 5 h  7500 j ‫א‬‫א‬–٢  500 ms 1000 j ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣   3750w EF  kw ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤   1000w EF  500 w EF  50000w EF   Kx‫א‬Ex‫א‬ 5 *106 F‫א‬–٥ ‫א‬ 2A  75V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٦  ‫؟‬ R L ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 3A ‫א‬120V –٧  ‫؟‬‫א‬  ‫؟‬100µA 10kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٨ -٣٢- 
  39. 39.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١ J ٤
  40. 40. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١-   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • - ٣٣ -
  41. 41. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫٠٤١ א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١-  Introduction ١J ٤ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬ Series Connection‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ٤ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R1 R1 R1 a a R2 a R2 R2 I  R3 R3 R3 b      b R4 b I I  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٤F - ٣٤ -

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