Assignment :
Features of the Google Search Engine
Subject:
CS-100 ICT
Prepared By:
Waleed Liaqat
CE-2011/ Sec- C/116955
Su...
What is the Google search engine?
Let’s start by defining what a search engine is. A search engine is a program that
searc...
We can further understand some of the features of Google search engine and
how it works through examples on the next few p...
What’s happening:
When we use ‘ peter pan’ as our search terms, webpages displayed as search
results contain both the sear...
Problem 2: Searching with terms which can have different interpretations in
different scenarios e.g. ‘virus’ has a differe...
What’s happening:
When we search for ‘Sagittarius’, the results returned contain webpages where it
is present in relation ...
Problem 3: Searching for news or information from a particular period of time.
Query: PIA crash incidents between August 1...
What’s Happening:
Normally when we enter ‘ PIA crash incidents between August 1979 and
December 1984’ in the search engine...
What’s happening :
When we search for ‘Everything is fair in love and war’, we get results like ‘All’s
fair in love and wa...
Problem 5: Searching for complete information when we are only given part of
the information to use as a search term.
Solu...
What’s happening:
When we search for the required quotation using the search terms ‘fear of a
itself’ , we get webpages th...
What’s Happening:
When we perform the search with the words ‘Biology is tough’, we mostly get
webpages that contain all th...
What’s happening:
When we search simply for earthquake facts, we get our results in various
formats such as .pdf, .doc, .h...
What’s happening:
Conversion is made easy by using the names of units and currencies along with
numbers and entering them ...
What’s happening:
When we use the ‘Related:’ function, we get webpages or websites that
essentially have a similar built o...
What’s happening:
Using the ‘inurl:’ function, we limit the search results to only those webpages that
contain our keyword...
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Google search

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An overview of some of the workings of the google search engine

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Transcript of "Google search "

  1. 1. Assignment : Features of the Google Search Engine Subject: CS-100 ICT Prepared By: Waleed Liaqat CE-2011/ Sec- C/116955 Submitted to: Lec. Bilal Date Submitted: 03-10-2011
  2. 2. What is the Google search engine? Let’s start by defining what a search engine is. A search engine is a program that searches and fetches documents that contain certain keywords or the search criteria which you communicate to the engine through its interface. The Google search engine is a creation of the multinational corporation Google. Google search engine started out as a research project. Today, however, it has become the most widely used search engine on the planet. This is due to its simple design and ease of use, but more importantly it is because of the search engine’s capabilities and unique algorithm that gives efficient results, that it is the choice of billions across the planet. How it works? Once you specify the search criteria or keywords, this information is sent to the Google web server which uses it to search its index of webpages and collects webpages that match the given criteria. These webpages or websites are then arranged in order of their relevance by a program called PageRank. This is the very programme that gives Google an edge over other search engines. The results once sorted are displayed with the relevancy information as well as information such as total results and time taken to search and display. Google’s index server contains billions of webpages. The index is updated regularly through programs called crawlers. Although Google search engine provides fast results, the results may contain the search criteria but the webpage in its entirety may not be relevant to us. In such a case, to narrow down our searches we use certain symbols such as the hyphen, each of which serve a certain purpose.
  3. 3. We can further understand some of the features of Google search engine and how it works through examples on the next few pages. Problem 1: Searching for a webpage that contains one or the other element of the search criteria. Solution : Use of the pipe symbol (|) Queries : Peter Pan [fig. 1(a)], Peter|Pan [fig. 1(b)] Fig . 1(a) Entering ‘Peter Pan’ gives the following results. The listed webpages contain both search terms.
  4. 4. What’s happening: When we use ‘ peter pan’ as our search terms, webpages displayed as search results contain both the search terms, however when we use the pipe symbol (|) to separate ‘peter’ and ‘pan’ and search, the results are different and it is evident that the pipe symbol works as an ‘OR’ operator. Use of this operator allows us to expand our search results pool. Fig. 1 (b) shows the result when we include the pipe symbol between peter and pan.
  5. 5. Problem 2: Searching with terms which can have different interpretations in different scenarios e.g. ‘virus’ has a different meaning when we relate it to computers but a whole other meaning when we relate it to medical science. Another example is that of searching for Sagittarius which is the name of a constellation and a horoscope which are completely different concepts. Solution: Use of Hyphen symbol (-) Queries: Sagittarius [fig. 2(a)], -Constellation Sagittarius [fig. 2(b)]. Fig. 2(a) Search results for Sagittarius.
  6. 6. What’s happening: When we search for ‘Sagittarius’, the results returned contain webpages where it is present in relation to constellation or horoscope or both. To narrow our search results or to look for webpages where it is only explained as one of the twelve horoscopes we use the hyphen symbol (-) before constellation, which leads to exclusion of any webpage from the results pool that contains a reference to the collection of stars given the name Sagittarius. Fig. 2(b) Search results for Sagittarius when we use the hyphen symbol to eliminate the term constellation from our results pool.
  7. 7. Problem 3: Searching for news or information from a particular period of time. Query: PIA crash incidents between August 1979 and December 1984. (news) Solution: Using timeline feature. (fig. 3) Enter the period of time for which the information of PIA crash incidents is required to get results. Entering the given Query in the search engine (ordinarily) gives results regarding various crashes of the PIA including those which do not fall into the period of time specified. Fig. 3
  8. 8. What’s Happening: Normally when we enter ‘ PIA crash incidents between August 1979 and December 1984’ in the search engine, we get news articles on incidents that belong as well as incidents that don’t belong to the specified time period. Also, use of ‘between’ doesn’t ensure that the results pool will contain news reports from within the specified time period. In such cases, we use Google search tools, specifically, the timeline feature which will ensure that only news from the specified period is shown as a result. Problem 4: Searching for webpages containing exactly all of the search terms Solution: Use of Quotation marks (“”) Queries: Everything is fair in love and war [fig. 4(a)], “Everything is fair in love and war” *fig. 4(b)]. Fig . 4(a) Search results for first query.
  9. 9. What’s happening : When we search for ‘Everything is fair in love and war’, we get results like ‘All’s fair in love and war’. Both of these have essentially the same meaning. The replacement of ‘Everything’ with ‘All’ is known as stemming, a default process performed by the Google search engine in which it displays results which contain synonyms or variants of certain search terms. This process is stopped by use of quotation marks on our query. The use of the quotation marks allows only those results to be shown which contain the phrase ‘Everything is fair in love and war’ exactly but not necessarily as a complete phrase. Fig. 4(b) shows the results when quotation marks are added to the first query.
  10. 10. Problem 5: Searching for complete information when we are only given part of the information to use as a search term. Solution: Use of asterisk (*) Queries: Fear of a itself [fig. 5(a)], Fear of a * itself [fig. 5 (b)]. (Quote of J.K. Rowling, author of Harry Potter: ‘Fear of a name increases fear of the thing itself.’) Fig. 5 (a) Search for first query does not generate results relevant to you. Fig. 5 (b) Search for first query with the use of asterisk gives webpages that contain the quote required.
  11. 11. What’s happening: When we search for the required quotation using the search terms ‘fear of a itself’ , we get webpages that give information on movies. By combining the asterisk with the initial query, we specify that we are searching for a sentence or a phrase rather than individual terms. It also shows that we are missing a portion of the quote or dialogue required. This should be used when you can only recall a portion of the information required. Problem 6: Expanding your search results pool without using synonyms or variants of the search terms. Solution: Use of the Tilde symbol (~) Query: Biology is ~tough [fig. 6] Fig. 6 shows results when we search for ‘ Biology is ~ tough’.
  12. 12. What’s Happening: When we perform the search with the words ‘Biology is tough’, we mostly get webpages that contain all three words. In order to expand our results pool and to select the information we need from a larger variety of webpages, we would usually type in synonyms for particular search terms (in this case the word ‘tough’). This can be time consuming as individual searches have to be performed. To prevent this, we use the tilde symbol (~). Placing this symbol before a particular search term allows the Google search engine to give us a variety of results. As seen in figure 6, searching for ‘Biology is ~tough’ gives results which contain the sentences ‘Biology is hard’ and ‘Biology is difficult’, that essentially have the same meaning as our query. Problem 7: Searching for a particular file type. Solution: Using the Google ‘filetype:’ feature. Query: ‘Earthquake facts filetype:xls’ [fig.7] Fig. 7 shows search results for query no. 7, the user requires facts organized in the form of a table.
  13. 13. What’s happening: When we search simply for earthquake facts, we get our results in various formats such as .pdf, .doc, .html etc. However, a .pdf format may not display the facts as clearly as, e.g. , a spreadsheet document. In order to get results that specifically show the spreadsheet format, we add ‘filetype: xls ‘ to our query. Problem 8: Converting units or currencies without physical use of a calculator or physical calculation. Solution: Use of Conversion feature from Google search engine. Query: 1 GBP(British Pound) in USD (US Dollars), 24 in (inches) in ft (feet) both [ fig. 8]. Fig. 8 (above) conversion of pounds to dollars; (below) conversion of inches to feet.
  14. 14. What’s happening: Conversion is made easy by using the names of units and currencies along with numbers and entering them as search terms into the search box. Google search engine immediately identifies the given format and displays conversion as shown in figure 8. This is done when conversion through lengthy physical calculation is not required. Problem 9: Searching for similar webpages without searching for each site individually Solution: Using the ‘related:’ feature Query: related: www.facebook.com [fig. 9]. Fig. 9 shows results that have are similar to each other in function.
  15. 15. What’s happening: When we use the ‘Related:’ function, we get webpages or websites that essentially have a similar built or purpose. As shown in figure 9, websites related to Facebook, a social networking site, include myspace, twitter, youtube and hi5. All of these sites fulfill the purpose of social networking and thus are related to each other in that respect. We can use the ‘related:’ function to verify and validate same information from various sites. Problem 10: Finding a site when you remember its URL address only partially Solution: using ‘ inurl: ’ function Query: ‘inurl:Android4.0’ [fig. 10 ]. Fig. 10 shows results for ‘inurl:android4.0’. Android 4.0 appears in all the URL addresses listed.
  16. 16. What’s happening: Using the ‘inurl:’ function, we limit the search results to only those webpages that contain our keywords in their URL addresses. Such webpages according to statistics contain more relevant information on our search terms when compared to webpages that contain our search terms in their contents only. As these 10 examples show, the Google search engine is more powerful than the average search engine. Among other features of the Google search engine are: 1. ‘define: …’: definition of a search term is generated instead of using an online or paperback dictionary for the purpose. 2. ‘+’: Used to perform a force search on all the search terms instead of focusing on certain keywords. 3. ‘Weather’ : Entering this along with the name of a city and a country, gives a weather forecast of that location. 4. ‘Time’ : using this along with the name of a city or country gives the local time of that area.

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