2. GLASGOW SCHOOL
• The pioneers of Glasgow school were the “Glasgow Four”. Charles Mackintosh,
Herbert Macnair, Margret Macdonald and Frances Macdonald.
• Charles Mackintosh was the leading person
• These four evolved an integrated vocabulary of decorative forms and an overall look
that was uniquely their own.
• They achieved a pared down version of Art Nouveau that paved the way for
• A Scottish spirit was infused by means of heathery colors and mystical Celtic symbols
• The Glasgow four absorbed many influences in an entirely personalized way to create
their own Art Nouveau language.
• Most of the participants were from Glasgow or trained here and had strong bond.
3. DEVELOPMENTS IN GLASGOW SCHOOL
• Architecture, interior designing and painting were the three forms of
art that rapidly grow and nourish in Glasgow and around since the
beginning of 1890’s.
• Macdonald sisters were considered as the pioneers of the graphical
and abstract paintings in Glasgow and with collaboration of
Mackintosh and Macnair, these four made a remarkable contribution
in the advancement of art in Glasgow.
4. • DEVELOPMENTS IN
ARCHITECTURE• In the beginning the two main buildings that came forward
were the “Glasgow Herald Building” and “Martyr’s
• “Herald” was built with a dazzling surface of sandstone
having a towering structure on its one side giving the
influence of Scottish architecture.
5. • In 1896, Mackintosh won the competition for Glasgow school of art.
• This building is a living example of Mackintosh’s own Art Nouveau.
• In this building he used the local gray granite brick, which gives influence of
Scottish architecture, but this version is quite amalgam version on which he mixed
some elements of Japanese architecture and also some other motifs.
6. • DEVELOPMENT IN PAINTINGS
• Their paintings usually follow the principles of:
Figures tend to be more emaciated and anguished.
An interest in symbolism, mythology and fairy subjects.
• Initially the paintings were quite graphical and also sometimes matching with the
space scenario example of O Ye, All Ye Who Walk in Willowood which was made
for a Willow tea room.
• Mostly paintings we see in this period are of dark colors especially yellow and its
tints are quite obvious.
• They often chose to work outdoors. Working outdoors allowed them to produce
paintings that were as true to nature as possible and it allowed them to paint
realistic objects in their natural environment.
7. O YE, ALL YE WHO WALK IN
Scotland, Glasgow, Willow
Tearooms (place associated)
pencil and oil painted gesso on
board, glass and enameled
overall: 1.91 ft. x 5.4 ft./54000 g
8. Embroidered panel Margaret
Macdonald Mackintosh 1902s
Design for stenciled mural decoration. Miss
Cranston's Tea Rooms. Charles Renee
Mackintosh. Hunterian Art Gallery.
9. VIENNA SCHOOL
• Many artists in Vienna introduced it; mainly it was originated in
rebellion of Vienna’s official art.
• The Vienna Secession was the name given to the group of artists,
architects and designers that broke away from the main
establishment of Viennese artists to form their own group. Formed in
1897, its radical period was brief yet its impact on the cultural life of
Vienna and beyond was immense and enduring.
10. DEVELOPMENTS IN VIENNA SCHOOL
• As the movement initiated against of Viennese official art academy soon the
people associated with movement started efforts to make the movement
significant and vibrant. The developments in Vienna school can be categorized in
I. The erection of secession building
II. The creation of VERSACRUM
III. The production of Wiener Werkstatte
11. • The Secession Building
The idea was to make an own
exhibition space where the
secessionists can exhibit there
artwork free from all
restrictions. For this purpose
they initially hired a 30 year old
architect “Josef Maria Olbrich”
to design the building. Many
exhibition were held in this
building and this proves to be
one of the superlative
secessions of the era.
12. • THE VERSACRUM
• The second achievement we see in the Vienna school is that of the creation of their art
journal the “Versacrum” which was considered one of the best art magazines in Vienna.
• Published from January 1898 to October 1903
• Contained articles on art theories and practical examples and contribution by both domestic
and foreign authors.
13. • The Wiener Werkstatte
• “Wiener Werkstatte” derived from German word meaning
• It was an Austrian art company registered on 19th May 1903,
founded by the secessionists.
• The main purpose of this workshop was to provide an outlet
for young art graduates of Vienna. The aim of the workshop
artists was to bring good art into every part of people’s lives.
They also wanted to break with the past and bring new style to
everything they produce, chiefly they emphasized on stunning
and exclusive craftsmanship.
SIGNIFICANCE OF WORKSHOP
The workshop was involved in jewelry making, production of
fabrics for dressmaking, the construction of furniture, ceramics
and other art forms, which could be incorporated in daily life.
14. EXAMPLES OF CRAFTSMANSHIP OF WIENER WERKSTATTE
One of the first known examples
of perforated design.
A table designed by Josef
Hoffman from Wiener
15. Who valued handmade craftsmanship any longer? Machine technology opened up endless
possibilities; Hoffmann wanted Viennese craftsmen to use machinery to make identical chair
parts cheaply, fast and with a lovely finish. In the end we can say that while Hoffmann used the
principles of the Morris chair, his designs and manufacturing techniques were from a totally
different country and in a totally different era.
16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLASGOW vs. VIENNA
SCHOOL OF ART
• It was the movement introduce and
spread by the “Glasgow Four” that is
only four artist are involved in making a
movement remarkable; it was not the
• The Architecture produced in Glasgow
was very plain with less ornamentation.
• Some Japanese and Scottish influences
were taken to carry out an amalgam
form of style.
• Painting were generating in this period a
lot with special style of watercolors.
• Many artist in “Vienna” introduced it;
mainly it was introduced in rebellion of
vienna’s official art.
• The Architecture produced in Viennese
was very ornamented although they
were designing for poor as well as rich.
• The influence were carried from
jedengstil movement. ( German art
• Mosaic murals and relief were more
generated in this period.
GLASGOW SCHOOL VIENNA SCHOOL
17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLASGOW vs. VIENNA
SCHOOL OF ART
• Painting’s subject were taking from
some superficial aspects like fairy tales.
• The use of organics element and
graphical forms in painting were
extensive. Especially botanical forms of
different kind were originating.
• The art journal that was very famous in
this period was “THE STUDIO“ edited
by Gleeson White.
• The “GLASGOW FOUR” transferred
their artwork by arranging little art
classes in other art school of Glasgow
• There subject were taken from general
and common topics/issues.
• The use of graphical form and organic
elements were there but they lack in
• The only art journal that was very
popular was “VERSACRUM” which was
originated by the Viennese
• They were transferring their artwork
through an artwork shop “THE WEINER
werkstatte” created by the artists.
GLASGOW SCHOOL VIENNA SCHOOL