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LEARNING PERSPECTIVES CS 295.016 Raymund Abasolo, Sarah Mendoza, Reagan Austria
constructivism
“ a learning or meaning-making theory, that offers an explanation of the nature of knowledge and how human beings learn”  ...
key people constructivism
constructivism <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss cognitive psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child dev...
constructivism <ul><li>Jerome S. Bruner  (1915- ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the best known and influential psychologist...
constructivism <ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Soviet psychologist and the founder of  cultural-historical ps...
constructivism <ul><li>John Dewey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>led the progressive movement in American education </li></ul></ul>...
characteristics  ideas and concepts constructivism
constructivism &quot;Only by wrestling with the conditions of the problem at hand, seeking and finding his own solution (n...
constructivism <ul><ul><li>learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon thei...
constructivism <ul><ul><li>learner is at the center of the educational stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge cannot b...
teacher roles and learner roles constructivism
constructivism <ul><li>teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourages students to discover principles by themselves  </li></ul><...
constructivism <ul><li>learner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engages in an active dialog with teacher (i.e., socratic learning)  <...
implications to teaching and learning constructivism
constructivism <ul><li>Principles:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts ...
constructivism <ul><ul><li>promotes authentic learning, critical thinking, individualized instruction, and project-based l...
REFERENCES: Sadker, M. P. and D. M. Sadker (2005). Teachers, Schools, and Society.  7th edition. Boston : McGraw-Hill.   L...
Cognitivism Raymund Abasolo Reagan Austria Sarah Mendoza
Short Intro Etymology (meriam-webster online) cog·ni·tion Pronunciation: käg-ni-shən Etymology:  from Latin word “cognosce...
<ul><ul><li>Cognitive learning is about enabling people to learn by using their reason, intuition and perception.  </li></...
Characteristics  Ideas and Concepts <ul><ul><li>challenge the limitations of behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  ...
Key People <ul><ul><li>Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederic Bartlett  </li></ul></ul...
Atkinson - Shriffin <ul><ul><li>proposed a model of human memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified 3 memory stores: </...
Frederic Bartlett <ul><ul><li>   developed the Schema theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  views organized knowledge as an ...
A diagram that describes how a person's schema of &quot;egg&quot; might include the components shown:
David Ausubel <ul><ul><li>He was active in his field between the 1950s and 1970s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsumption Th...
<ul><ul><li>Main Principles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most general ideas of a subject should be presented first </li...
Robert Gagne <ul><ul><li>Conditions of Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning tasks for intellectual skills can be o...
<ul><ul><li>outlines nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(1) gaining a...
Example: The following example illustrates a teaching sequence corresponding to the nine instructional events for the obje...
Charles M.Reigeluth  <ul><ul><li>elaboration theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a model for sequencing and organizing cours...
<ul><li>Elaboration theory proposes seven major strategy components:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An elaborative sequence - choo...
Teacher Roles  <ul><ul><li>use of graphic organizers and concept maps to “offer students the concrete experience needed fo...
Learner Roles <ul><ul><li>do not simply know and memorize.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connecting and organizing knowledge...
Other Concepts: <ul><ul><li>Practicing or rehearsing improves retention especially when it is distributed practice.  </li>...
Reference: <ul><ul><li>Martin, S. (2006).  Definition of Cognitive Learning . Retrieved July 16, 2010 from:  http://ezinea...
BEHAVIORISM Raymund Abasolo Reagan Austria Sarah Mendoza
BEHAVIORISM: concepts <ul><ul><li>Tries to explain behaviors – observable and predictable responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
BEHAVIORISM: concepts <ul><ul><li>STIMULUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RESPONSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REINFORCEMENT </...
BEHAVIORISM: concepts <ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning –learning thru stimulus substitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
KEY PEOPLE
IVAN PAVLOV <ul><ul><li>physiologist known for classical conditioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENT: </li></ul></...
IMAGE SOURCE: http://www.northern.ac.uk/learning/NCMaterial/Psychology/lifespan%20folder/PAVLOV.gif
JOHN WATSON <ul><ul><li>father of Behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1913 article &quot;Psychology as the Behaviorist ...
JOHN WATSON <ul><li>The Little Albert Experiment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert is not afraid of rats </li></ul></ul><ul><...
EDWARD L. THORNDIKE <ul><ul><li>Known for SR BOND/CONNECTION theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
EDWARD L. THORNDIKE <ul><li>3 PRIMARY LAWS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>law of exercise/repetition: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeti...
Burrhus Frederic Skinner <ul><ul><li>Learning is based on the effects of behavior (reinforcement and punishment) </li></ul...
Burrhus Frederic Skinner <ul><li>OPERANT CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive reinforcement (reward) </li></ul></ul...
<ul><ul><li>Skinner Box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;engineer the environment and you can engineer human behavior” </l...
BF SKINNER
ALBERT BANDURA <ul><ul><li>psychologist doing a study on adolescent aggression  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focused on lear...
ALBERT BANDURA <ul><li>SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human learning is a function of observation and imitat...
BEHAVIORISM in EDUCATION
TEACHER ROLES <ul><ul><li>Teacher – centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated...
STUDENT ROLES <ul><ul><li>Passive listeners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiver of the information response until the beha...
IMPLICATIONS <ul><ul><li>Behaviorism is seen in direct instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students learn their attitud...
IMPLICATIONS <ul><ul><li>Shaping is useful in classroom management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling and learning </li><...
REFERENCES Sadker, M. P. and D. M. Sadker (2005). Teachers, schools, and sSociety.  Seventh edition. Boston : McGraw-Hill....
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  • Piaget understanding of the development of learning in children From his observation of children, Piaget understood that children were creating ideas. They were not limited to receiving knowledge from parents or teachers; they actively constructed their own knowledge. Piaget&apos;s work provides the foundation on which constructionist theories are based.
  • Bruner developed a theory of cognitive growth his approach (in contrast to Piaget) looked to environmental and experiential factors.  Bruner suggested that intellectual ability developed in stages through step-by-step changes in how the mind is used.
  • If some learning theories focus on what’s happening inside the human mind or the emotion, the behaviorists find interest in how people behave/act when prompted by outside forces. That’s why this theory is also known as SR (stimulus-response) theory. Man, when stirred by a stimulus, will respond on the given stimulus. Some behaviorists point out that a child is born like a blank slate. Each time one writes in a slate, the messages get recorded, which is similar to how a child develop. It is environmental factors rather than genetic or biological differences that make us behave differently. Behaviorism very much represents the nurture aspect of the nature-nurture debate. But what happens inside the mind is not known, that is why our minds are liken to a black box. STIMULUS &gt;&gt; &gt;&gt; RESPONSE For behaviorists, a learned behavior is something that can be unlearned, again by exposing them to another repeated stimuli. Because…(prompt for next bullet) repeated behavior becomes an automatic response For them, memory is associated with events. Take for instance a child who likes to play near an electric fan despite being reminded not to. If the child accidentally places her finger inside and bleeds, the event will be a reminder to her of what to do and what not to do.
  • key variables STIMULUS - any change in the physical environment capable of rousing the organism RESPONSE - any organic, muscular, glandular, or psychic process resulting from stimulation REINFORCEMENT - the effect of reinforcer; specifically to increase the probability that a response will occur PUNISHMENT - involves either the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus or withdrawal of pleasant stimulus as a consequence of behavior; not to be confused with negative reinforcement. BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION - refers to the changes in the behavior of an individual; also to psychological studies and testing in attempt to modify a behavior.
  • These are some of the concepts we will be encountering during the report: CLASSICAL: Continuous pairing of two stimuli so that a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit the same response previously elicited by the first. WATSON’S BEHAVIORISM: All other behavior is established through stimulus-response associations through conditioning . CONNECTIONISM: learning was the formation of a connection between stimulus and response. SR connections were formed through random trial and error . OPERANT: a type of learning that will increase the probability that a response will occur as a function of reinforcement SOCIAL LEARNING: learning happens through observation and modeling. Each of these 5, represents the 5 key people who were known for their studies about behaviorism. We will be tackling more of these concepts, when we discuss the key people.
  • These are the 5 key people who have made behaviorism an important learning theory. Let’s get to know them one by one…
  • In his experiment, Pavlov has three scenario: Pre-Conditioning ringing of bell caused no response from the dog and placing food in front of the dog made it salivate. Conditioning Pavlov rung the bell a few seconds before the dog was presented with food. The dog salivates after seeing the food. The ringing of the bell and feeding was repeated. The dog’s salivating response always follows. Post conditioning The bell is rung again, without food but the dog salivated. His theory is known as Classical Conditioning. For this experiment, the food was the unconditioned stimulus, the salivation was the unconditioned response, the bell was the condition stimulus and salivation was the conditioned response to the bell.
  • Stimulus Generalization: Once the dog has learned to salivate at the sound of the bell, it will salivate at other similar sounds. Extinction: If you stop pairing the bell with the food, salivation will eventually cease in response to the bell. Spontaneous Recovery: Extinguished responses can be &amp;quot;recovered&amp;quot; after an elapsed time, but will soon extinguish again if the dog is not presented with food. Discrimination: The dog could learn to discriminate between similar bells (stimuli) and discern which bell would result in the presentation of food and which would not. Higher-Order Conditioning: Once the dog has been conditioned to associate the bell with food, another unconditioned stimulus, such as a light may be flashed at the same time that the bell is rung. Eventually the dog will salivate at the flash of the light without the sound of the bell.
  • He said that psychology should be the science of observable behavior. According to Watson “humans are born with a few reflexes and the emotional reactions of love and rage. All other behaviors are established through stimulus-response associated through conditioning” As such, the environment plays an important role in human development in as much as learning is needed in it.
  • Albert was a boy who was not scared of rats.  In order to demonstrate classical conditioning, Watson created a sudden loud noise played whenever Albert touches the rat.  Albert was frightened by the sound, became conditioned and avoided the rat, and other white objects The event was seen as cruelty to humans but some accounts say that Watson reversed the trauma by presenting white, furry objects accompanied by something pleasant, while some others claimed that it was never deconditioned. 12 infants: “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I&apos;ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select–doctor, lawyer, artist–regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors&amp;quot; This quote routinely appears in introductory texts in education and psychology and is used to illustrate the radical environmental views of behaviorists. This denies the existence of any human instincts, inherited capacities or talents, and temperaments
  • cat experiment (a cat is placed inside a cage with a lock.  the only way for the cat to open the cage was too strike a latch/button.  the cat was wild at first and opens the cage by accident only.  the experiment was repeated several times and the cat behaves the same way exceptthat it opens the cage faster than the usual.)
  • law of exercise/repetition - the more time a stimulus induced response was repeated, the longer it&apos;s retained. conversely, the bond weakens when not practiced or exercised. Ex: classroom drills in math b. law of effect - (pleasure and pain principle) response is repeated if followed by pleasure and weakened if followed by displeasure Ex. Ray gave a funny answers when the teacher asked a question. He gets scolded for it. When he gave the correct answer teacher praised him. Ray will most likely give correct answers whenever he recites. c. law of readiness - due to the structure of  the nervous system, some connections are more predisposed to happen than others. People learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to learn. This includes adequate rest, proper health, and avoiding distractions. Ex. A good example of the law of readiness is ensuring students from out of town have proper housing facilities (Maslow’s first hierarchy). A student that is worrying about where their household goods are, or if their family is safe will not be ready to learn.
  • If Watson and Pavlov are contiguity (believes in simultaneity of stimulus and response) theorists, skinner is a reinforcement theorist – learning is based on the effects of behavior (reinforcement and punishment) Skinner&apos;s work differs from that of his predecessors (classical conditioning), in that he studied operant behavior (voluntary behaviors used in operating on the environment).
  • In #1, Peter was presented with a pleasant stimulus In #2, Peter was presented with an unpleasant stimulus In #3, Peter’s pleasant stimulus was taken back In #4, the unpleasant stimulus presented to Peter was taken away. He was relieved from the unpleasant stimulus. children can be conditioned to acquire desirable skills and behaviors.  breaking learning into smaller steps and rewarding them will enable them to achieve mastery
  • This is an example of the Skinner Box, used by BF Skinner to point out these 4 scenarios. When the lever was pressed by the rat a small pellet of food was dropped onto a tray. The rat soon learned that when he pressed the lever he would receive some food. In this experiment the lever pressing behavior is reinforced by food. If pressing the lever generates electricity on the floor grid, the rat will no longer press the lever. This shows how His quote about “engineering the environment” shows his belief that a constructive environment can push &amp;quot;human achievement to its limits.&amp;quot;
  • His famous experiment was the BoBo Doll Study in 1961. Since he was studying adolescent aggression, he purposively filmed one of his students (girl) beating up a bobo doll while yelling “sockeroo!”. This film was later on shown to a group of kindergarten students who obviously found it hilarious. After watching the film, the kids went inside a playroom and saw another Bobo Doll. How they reacted to the doll was similar to how they saw it on the film. He called the phenomenon observational learning or modeling, and his theory is usually called social learning theory. The study was significant because it departed from behaviorism’s insistence that all behavior is directed by reinforcement or rewards. The kids were not given any incentive but rather they were just imitating what they saw. Also, Bandura has shown that when a model is exposed to stimuli intended to have a conditioning effect, a person who simply observes this process, even without participating in it directly, will tend to become conditioned by the stimuli as well. Many studies categorized Bandura under Behaviorism but he prefers to group his idea as social cognitivism
  • Simply put, we learned because of what we see or observe. Bandura extablished that there were certain steps involved in the modeling process: 1. Attention . If you are going to learn anything, you have to be paying attention. Likewise, anything that puts a damper on attention is going to decrease learning, including observational learning. If, for example, you are sleepy, groggy, drugged, sick, nervous, or “hyper,” you will learn less well. Likewise, if you are being distracted by competing stimuli. Some of the things that influence attention involve characteristics of the model. If the model is colorful and dramatic, for example, we pay more attention. If the model is attractive, or prestigious, or appears to be particularly competent, you will pay more attention. And if the model seems more like yourself, you pay more attention. 2. Retention . Second, you must be able to remember what you have paid attention to. This is where imagery and language come in: we store what we have seen the model doing in the form of mental images or verbal descriptions. When so stored, you can later “bring up” the image or description, so that you can reproduce it with your own behavior. 3. Reproduction . You have to translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior. So you have to have the ability to reproduce the behavior in the first place. I can watch Olympic ice skaters all day long, yet not be able to reproduce their jumps, because I can’t ice skate at all! On the other hand, if I could skate, my performance would in fact improve if I watch skaters who are better than I am. 4. Motivation . And yet, with all this, you’re still not going to do anything unless you are motivated to imitate, i.e. until you have some reason for doing it.
  • As behaviorism is very evident in traditional classrooms, the main role of the teacher is the expert authority. Classroom rules, lesson plans, and assessments are all evidences of behaviorism being utilized in the classroom – and these are all prepared by the teachers. teacher should create an environment in which appropriate behavior is being reinforced. Teacher should be prompting students to give out the correct answers. It is the teacher’s responsibility to correct student mistakes. To continue conditioning a student until the app response is given The teacher should serve as a model at all times.
  • A student should be a learner and a follower He must be able to take in the stimuli presented by the teacher for him to attain development.
  • As mentioned above, a traditional classroom employs a behaviorist approach. An understanding of the reward-punishment theory will definitely help a lot in observing proper classroom management – which one will work best for naughty students, which will motivate students to study more. example: For beginning students, Math is a neutral stimulus, but if it is paired with a fear-producing stimulus , say an impatient teacher, the student learns to hate math after several exposure to the teacher. this belief leads to the principle that teachers and schools need to provide ample opportunity for students to give variety of responses and the correct response be given a reward. Rewards and punishment must be tailored to the situation and to the child. Some situation calls for punishment, some requires just a penalty. Punishment must also be chosen because it doesn’t translate to learning. Rather it gives emphasis on the undesirable response. And it doesn’t eliminate it but just suppresses it. Ex. Teacher gave you a detention for cheating in class for 1st quarter. Student will behave in 2nd or 3rd and when he thinks he’s already clear, might repeat the act again.
  • Shaping in classroom: In classroom, a classclown repeats his act because his peers laugh at him but if his classmates do not respond to his acts he’ll probably stop doing it. This will also hold true for class disrupters. Teacher can just ignore a student who disrupts class, a non-responded act will soon stop anything observed can be learned. A lesson modeled/demonstrated in class will be acquired easily than if it was read from a book The reward and punishment can be translated to monitoring. If teacher realizes that a child is failing in class, the teacher can give feedback and student will most likely work more next time.
  • Transcript of "Learning perspectives abasolo_austria_mendoza"

    1. 1. LEARNING PERSPECTIVES CS 295.016 Raymund Abasolo, Sarah Mendoza, Reagan Austria
    2. 2. constructivism
    3. 3. “ a learning or meaning-making theory, that offers an explanation of the nature of knowledge and how human beings learn” (Abdal-Haqq, 1998)
    4. 4. key people constructivism
    5. 5. constructivism <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss cognitive psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child development research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive development stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the basis of learning is discovery </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. constructivism <ul><li>Jerome S. Bruner (1915- ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the best known and influential psychologists of the twentieth century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the key figures in the so called 'cognitive revolution' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has great influence in the field of education </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. constructivism <ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Soviet psychologist and the founder of cultural-historical psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Zone of proximal development &quot; (ZPD)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children.  </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. constructivism <ul><li>John Dewey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>led the progressive movement in American education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instruction needs to be centered around activities that are meaningful to students' experiences </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. characteristics  ideas and concepts constructivism
    10. 10. constructivism &quot;Only by wrestling with the conditions of the problem at hand, seeking and finding his own solution (not in isolation but in correspondence with the teacher and other pupils) does one learn.&quot; ~ John Dewey, How We Think , 1910 ~
    11. 11. constructivism <ul><ul><li>learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge (Bruner) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive structure provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to &quot;go beyond the information given&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  http://tip.psychology.org/bruner.html </li></ul>
    12. 12. constructivism <ul><ul><li>learner is at the center of the educational stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge cannot be handed from one person to another (teacher to learner), but must be &quot;constructed&quot; by each learner by interpreting and reinterpreting a constant flow of information.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a discovery approach based on the assumption that students should build (construct) knowledge for themselves.  </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. teacher roles and learner roles constructivism
    14. 14. constructivism <ul><li>teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourages students to discover principles by themselves  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engages in an active dialog with learner (i.e., socratic learning)   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitates learning by providing a variety of experiences  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serves as a guide, facilitator, and co-explorer who encourages learners to question, challenge, and formulate their own ideas, opinions, and conclusions, rather than a dispenser of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use  scaffolding - questions, clues or suggestions that help a student link prior knowledge to the new information </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. constructivism <ul><li>learner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engages in an active dialog with teacher (i.e., socratic learning)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so  </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. implications to teaching and learning constructivism
    17. 17. constructivism <ul><li>Principles:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn ( readiness ).   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student ( spiral organization ).  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps ( going beyond the information given ).  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOURCE: http://tip.psychology.org/bruner.html </li></ul>
    18. 18. constructivism <ul><ul><li>promotes authentic learning, critical thinking, individualized instruction, and project-based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relies heavily on the students' initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows students to learn at their own speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning activities are characterized by active engagement, inquiry, problem solving, and collaboration with others. &quot;Correct&quot; answers and single interpretations are de-emphasized. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. REFERENCES: Sadker, M. P. and D. M. Sadker (2005). Teachers, Schools, and Society. 7th edition. Boston : McGraw-Hill.  Lefrancois, G. R. (1994). Psychology for Teaching . 8th edition. California : Wadsworth Publishing Company. &quot;Lev Vygotsky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.&quot; Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lev_Vygotsky>. &quot;IDKB - Models/Theories.&quot; George Mason University Classweb . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. <http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.htm>. Moore, Julie. &quot;Learning Theory Fundamentals.&quot; Encyclopedia of Educational Technology . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. www.etc.edu.cn/eet/eet/ . &quot;Jerome Bruner and the Process of Education&quot;. T he Encyclopaedia of Informal Education . N.p., n.d. Web. 23 July 2010. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm . &quot;IDKB - Models/Theories.&quot; George Mason University Classweb . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.htm . &quot;Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology.&quot; Projects Server Introduction . University of Georgia, Association for Educational Communications and Technology, n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Main_Page .  Thanasoulas, Dimitrios &quot;Constructivist Learning.&quot; SEAsite - SE Asian Languages and Cultures . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. <http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Teachers_Page/Language_Learning_Articles/constructivist_learning.htm>.  Ismat , Abdal-Haqq. &quot;Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for Those Who Would Link Practice to Theory. ERIC Digest. .&quot; ERICDigests.Org - Providing full-text access to ERIC Digests . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. <http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-3/theory.htm>.  &quot;Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.&quot; THIRTEEN - New York Public Media. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Aug. 2010. <http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html>. Jones, M. Gail , and L. Brader-Araje. &quot;The Impact of Constructivism on Education:  Language, Discourse, and Meaning.&quot; American Communication Journal 5.3 (2002): n. pag. American Communication Journal . Web. 2 Aug. 2010. Grow, Gerald. &quot;Cognitive Model of Learning.&quot; Longleaf Publications home page. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Aug. 2010. <http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/StrategicReader/StratModel.html>. Archives Jean Piaget . Web. 2 Aug. 2010. <www.archivespiaget.ch >.
    20. 20. Cognitivism Raymund Abasolo Reagan Austria Sarah Mendoza
    21. 21. Short Intro Etymology (meriam-webster online) cog·ni·tion Pronunciation: käg-ni-shən Etymology:  from Latin word “cognoscere” meaning – to come to know, investigate cog·ni·tive 1 : of, relating to, being, or involving conscious intellectual activity 2 : based on or capable of being reduced to empirical factual knowledge
    22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Cognitive learning is about enabling people to learn by using their reason, intuition and perception. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Characteristics  Ideas and Concepts <ul><ul><li>challenge the limitations of behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli,  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus more on the internal processes and connections that take place during learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is on how learners remember, retrieve, and store information in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines the mental structure and processes related to learning </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Key People <ul><ul><li>Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederic Bartlett </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Ausubel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Gagne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles M.Reigeluth </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Atkinson - Shriffin <ul><ul><li>proposed a model of human memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified 3 memory stores: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short Term memory or working memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Frederic Bartlett <ul><ul><li>  developed the Schema theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  views organized knowledge as an elaborate network of abstract mental structures which represent one's understanding of the world.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Schema -  internal knowledge structure. New information is compared to existing cognitive structures called &quot;schema&quot;. Schema may be combined, extended or altered to accommodate new information. (schemata - plural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schemata grow and change as new information is acquired . </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. A diagram that describes how a person's schema of &quot;egg&quot; might include the components shown:
    28. 28. David Ausubel <ul><ul><li>He was active in his field between the 1950s and 1970s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsumption Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in a school setting </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Main Principles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most general ideas of a subject should be presented first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>differentiated in terms of detail and specificity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prior knowledge is essential for the comprehension of new information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advance Organizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An advance organizer is information that is presented prior to learning and that can be used by the learner to organize and interpret new incoming information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expository - describe the new content. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative - presents the new information in the form of a story to students. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skimming - used to look over the new material and gain a basic overview. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer - visuals to set up or outline the new information. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept mapping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Robert Gagne <ul><ul><li>Conditions of Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in a hierarchy according to complexity: stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following, use of terminology, </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><ul><li>outlines nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(1) gaining attention (reception) (2) informing learners of the objective (expectancy) (3) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) (4) presenting the stimulus (selective perception) (5) providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) (6) eliciting performance (responding) (7) providing feedback (reinforcement) (8) assessing performance (retrieval) (9) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization). </li></ul>
    32. 32. Example: The following example illustrates a teaching sequence corresponding to the nine instructional events for the objective, Recognize an equilateral triangle: 1. Gain attention - show variety of computer generated triangles 2. Identify objective - pose question: &quot;What is an equilateral triangle?&quot; 3. Recall prior learning - review definitions of triangles 4. Present stimulus - give definition of equilateral triangle 5. Guide learning- show example of how to create equilateral 6. Elicit per formance - ask students to create 5 different examples 7. Provide feedback - check all examples as correct/incorrect 8. Assess performance- provide scores and remediation 9. Enhance retention/transfer - show pictures of objects and ask students to identify equilaterals
    33. 33. Charles M.Reigeluth <ul><ul><li>elaboration theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a model for sequencing and organizing courses of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instruction should be organized in increasing order of complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instructions are made of layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each layer elaborates on the previously presented idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by elaborating the previous layer, it reiterates and as an effect it improves memory retention </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Elaboration theory proposes seven major strategy components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An elaborative sequence - choose organizing structure: (conceptual, procedural, theoretical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning prerequisite sequences -learner's background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis - integration of previously presented ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogies - relate to the learners field of experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive strategies -embedded/ detached cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner control - learner's motivation and relevance </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Teacher Roles <ul><ul><li>use of graphic organizers and concept maps to “offer students the concrete experience needed for cognitive learning to take place” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use technology in the classroom to allow exploration and attract attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the learner's background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>present ideas in an increasing order of complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ask questions that will guide, and trigger learner's mind </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Learner Roles <ul><ul><li>do not simply know and memorize. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connecting and organizing knowledge around important concept </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Other Concepts: <ul><ul><li>Practicing or rehearsing improves retention especially when it is distributed practice.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial Position Effects - It is easier to remember items from the beginning or end of a list rather than those in the middle of the list, unless that item is distinctly different. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful Effects - Meaningful information is easier to learn and remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization Effects - When a learner categorizes input such as a grocery list, it is easier to remember.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you can't force someone to learn </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Reference: <ul><ul><li>Martin, S. (2006). Definition of Cognitive Learning . Retrieved July 16, 2010 from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Definition-of-Cognitive-Learning&id=365039 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrctional Design Knowledge Base (2006). Instructional Models. Retrieved July 16, 2010 from: http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ho, Wenyi (). Cognitive Theories of Learning. Retrieved July 16, 2010 from: http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/w/x/wxh139/cognitive_1.htm#gestalt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning-Theories.com (2008). Cognitivism. Retrieved July 20, 2010 from: http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kearsley, Greg (2010). Subsumption Theory (D.Ausubel). Retrieved July 20, 2010 from: http://tip.psychology.org/ausubel.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kearsley, ACT * J.Anderson. Retrieved July 20, 2010 from: http://tip.psychology.org/a nderson .html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kearsley, Greg (2010). Conditions of Learning (Gagne). Retrieved July 20, 2010 from: http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia. (2010). Advance Organizers. Retrieved July 21, 2010 from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Advance_organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abott, Bruce (2009). Human Memory. Retrieved July 21, 2010 from: http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/AtkinsonShifrin.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sabine, Reljic (2010). Elaboration Theory. Retrieved July 21, 2010 from: http://www.slideshare.net/sreljic/elaboration-theory </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. BEHAVIORISM Raymund Abasolo Reagan Austria Sarah Mendoza
    40. 40. BEHAVIORISM: concepts <ul><ul><li>Tries to explain behaviors – observable and predictable responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SR (stimulus-response) theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tabula rasa – blank slate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior can be learned or unlearned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repeated behavior becomes an automatic response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>memory is associated with events </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. BEHAVIORISM: concepts <ul><ul><li>STIMULUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RESPONSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REINFORCEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PUNISHMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. BEHAVIORISM: concepts <ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning –learning thru stimulus substitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson’s behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. KEY PEOPLE
    44. 44. IVAN PAVLOV <ul><ul><li>physiologist known for classical conditioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENT: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involves a food, a dog and a bell </li></ul>IMAGE SOURCE: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/pavlov.jpg
    45. 45. IMAGE SOURCE: http://www.northern.ac.uk/learning/NCMaterial/Psychology/lifespan%20folder/PAVLOV.gif
    46. 46. JOHN WATSON <ul><ul><li>father of Behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1913 article &quot;Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It “ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humans are born with a few reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasized the importance of learning and environmental influences in human development </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. JOHN WATSON <ul><li>The Little Albert Experiment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert is not afraid of rats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rat is paired with loud noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert is frightened by the sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert is afraid of rats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert is afraid of white, furry objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversing the experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twelve Infants Quote </li></ul>IMAGE SOURCE: http://www.nndb.com/people/078/000030985/john-b-watson-1-sized.jpg
    48. 48. EDWARD L. THORNDIKE <ul><ul><li>Known for SR BOND/CONNECTION theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cat is placed inside a cage with a lock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cat opens the cage by accident.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiment was repeated, cat behaves the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opens the cage faster </li></ul></ul>IMAGE SOURCE: http://www-distance.syr.edu/thorndike.gif
    49. 49. EDWARD L. THORNDIKE <ul><li>3 PRIMARY LAWS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>law of exercise/repetition: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetition = retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>law of effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pleasure and pain principle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>law of readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some connections are more predisposed to happen </li></ul>
    50. 50. Burrhus Frederic Skinner <ul><ul><li>Learning is based on the effects of behavior (reinforcement and punishment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPERANT – random behavior; not caused by any stimulus </li></ul></ul>IMAGE SOURCE: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_d8ls7V72AkA/SyvENnrkplI/AAAAAAAAAV4/KuXaFC9ylbc/S700 skinner-80s-smiling%5B1%5D.jpg
    51. 51. Burrhus Frederic Skinner <ul><li>OPERANT CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive reinforcement (reward) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter is given a jelly bean for being good. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting unpleasant stimulus (punishment I) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter’s nose was tweaked for being bad. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>punishment II (penalty) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter’s jelly bean is taken away for being bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative reinforcement (relief) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter’s nose is released because he said sorry </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><ul><li>Skinner Box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;engineer the environment and you can engineer human behavior” </li></ul></ul>B. F. Skinner IMAGE SOURCE: http://mrbakerrocks.info/IMAGES/SkinnerRat.jpg
    53. 53. BF SKINNER
    54. 54. ALBERT BANDURA <ul><ul><li>psychologist doing a study on adolescent aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focused on learning, modeling, and imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BoBo Doll Study (1961) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>departed from behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social cognitivism </li></ul></ul>IMAGE SOURCE:http://www.psychnews.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/bozo-300x300.jpg
    55. 55. ALBERT BANDURA <ul><li>SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human learning is a function of observation and imitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steps in the modeling process: </li></ul></ul>Attention > Retention > Reproduction > Motivation
    56. 56. BEHAVIORISM in EDUCATION
    57. 57. TEACHER ROLES <ul><ul><li>Teacher – centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing stimulus material and prompting the correct response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>view errors as not enough conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>model </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. STUDENT ROLES <ul><ul><li>Passive listeners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiver of the information response until the behavioral change is permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb instructional presentations and material, and use them to create performances which indicate attainment of correct mental models </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. IMPLICATIONS <ul><ul><li>Behaviorism is seen in direct instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students learn their attitudes toward school, subjects due to classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding correct trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully chosen reinforcement improves learning </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. IMPLICATIONS <ul><ul><li>Shaping is useful in classroom management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and feedback </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. REFERENCES Sadker, M. P. and D. M. Sadker (2005). Teachers, schools, and sSociety. Seventh edition. Boston : McGraw-Hill.   Lefrancois, G. R. (1994). Psychology for teaching . 8th edition. California : Wadsworth Publishing Company. Mergel, B. (1998).  Instructional design & learning theory .  Retrieved 12 July 2010 from http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm  Steele, M.M. (2005, April 30). Teaching students with learning disabilities: Constructivism or behaviorism?  Current Issues in Education  [On-line],  8 (10). Available:http://cie.ed.asu.edu/ volume8/number10/ &quot;IDKB - models/theories.&quot; George Mason University Classweb . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2010. <http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.htm>. Instructional design approaches. (n.d.). UW Departments Web Server . Retrieved July 24, 2010, from http://depts.washington.edu/eproject/Instructional%20Design%20Approaches.htm Definitions and perspectives of learning:. (n.d.). TeachNet. Retrieved July 24, 2010, from http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/behaviorism.html
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