Life Science Chapter 2 The Cell


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Life Science Chapter 2 The Cell

  1. 1. Chapter 2 The Cell
  2. 2. 2-1 Cells: The Units of Life
  3. 3. The Microscope: A Tool <ul><li>Q: Why do scientists need to use microscopes? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Cells are small </li></ul>
  4. 4. Before…
  5. 5. Compound Microscope <ul><li>Combines the power of 2 lenses to enlarge the image and blend light toward your eye </li></ul>
  6. 6. Eye piece lens X objective lens 10x X 4x Low power 10x X 10x Medium Power 10x X 40x High Power = 40x = 100x = 400x
  7. 7. Eyepiece or ocular lens <ul><li>Lens closest to the eye </li></ul>
  8. 8. Objective Lens <ul><li>Lens closest to the specimen or object </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nosepiece <ul><li>Objectives fastened to this revolving structure </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stage <ul><li>Where you place your slide </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stage clips <ul><li>Hold slide in place </li></ul>
  12. 12. Body Tube <ul><li>Light travels through here </li></ul>
  13. 13. Light Source <ul><li>Provides light </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diaphragm <ul><li>Regulates the light reaching the objective lens </li></ul>
  15. 15. Base <ul><li>Supports the microscope </li></ul>
  16. 16. Arm <ul><li>Holds the body tube, acts as a handle </li></ul>
  17. 17. Coarse focusing knob <ul><li>Used to focus under low power only </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fine focusing knob <ul><li>Used to focus under high power only </li></ul>
  19. 19. A microscope reverses and inverts the image of an object seen under it e e Before viewing under the microscope While viewing under the microscope
  20. 20. Things moving under a microscope are actually moving in the opposite direction
  21. 21. Things moving under a microscope are actually moving in the opposite direction
  22. 22. Stereoscopic light microscope <ul><li>Give you 3D view of an object </li></ul><ul><li>Used to look at thick things light can’t pass through </li></ul>
  23. 23. Electron Microscopes <ul><li>Can magnify things more than 300,000 times </li></ul>
  24. 24. Transmission electron microscope <ul><li>Used to study parts inside a cell </li></ul>
  25. 27. Scanning Electron Microscope <ul><li>Used to see the surfaces of whole objects </li></ul>
  26. 33. Cell Theory <ul><li>All organisms are made up of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from cells that already exist </li></ul>
  27. 34. 2-2 Cell Structure
  28. 35. Living cells are dynamic and have several things in common <ul><li>Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm (gel-like material) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus (control center) </li></ul>
  29. 36. There are 2 basic types of cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic – no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic – has a nucleus </li></ul>
  30. 37. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Structure that forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move in and out of the cell </li></ul>
  31. 39. Features of the cell membrane <ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Double layer of fats with some proteins scattered throughout </li></ul>
  32. 40. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Gel-like material inside the cell membrane </li></ul>
  33. 41. Organelles <ul><li>Structures within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells </li></ul>
  34. 42. Nucleus <ul><li>Structure that directs all the activities of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the DNA </li></ul>
  35. 44. Chromatin <ul><li>Made up of protein and DNA (genetic blue print) </li></ul>
  36. 45. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Folded membrane that moves materials around in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Some have ribosomes on them, some don’t </li></ul>
  37. 47. Ribosomes <ul><li>Make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Some found on ER </li></ul><ul><li>Others in cytoplasm </li></ul>
  38. 48. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>The packaging and secreting organelles of the cell </li></ul>
  39. 50. Mitochondria <ul><li>Where food molecules are broken down and energy is released </li></ul>
  40. 52. Lysosomes <ul><li>Digests wastes and worn out cell parts </li></ul>
  41. 53. Vacuoles <ul><li>Storage areas, store water, food, wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Small in animals and large in plants </li></ul>
  42. 54. Cell Wall <ul><li>Rigid structure outside the cell membrane that supports and protects the plant cell </li></ul>
  43. 55. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Organelles where light energy is changed into chemical energy in the form of a sugar called glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul>
  44. 57. Chlorophyll <ul><li>Chemical in chloroplasts that traps light energy – reflects green light </li></ul>
  45. 59. Bacterial Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have membrane – bound organelles </li></ul>
  46. 60. Features of bacterial cells <ul><li>Cell wall and cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Single chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>No nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul>
  47. 61. 2-3 Cell Organization
  48. 62. Nerve Cell <ul><li>Send impulses through your body </li></ul>
  49. 63. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Can change shape </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Move through the duct work of your blood vessels </li></ul>
  50. 64. Plant Vessel Cell <ul><li>Transports water and minerals throughout the cell </li></ul>
  51. 65. Tissues <ul><li>Groups of similar cells that do similar things </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) smooth muscle tissue </li></ul>
  52. 66. Organ <ul><li>A structure made up of different types of tissues that work together </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) stomach </li></ul>
  53. 67. Organ System <ul><li>A group of organs working together to do a certain job </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) digestive system </li></ul>