Chemistry - Chp 2 - Matter and Change - Notes
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Chemistry - Chp 2 - Matter and Change - Notes

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    Chemistry - Chp 2 - Matter and Change - Notes Chemistry - Chp 2 - Matter and Change - Notes Document Transcript

    • Chapter 2 Matter and Change
    • Section 2.1 Properties of MatterObjectives• Identify properties of matter as extensive or intensive• Define physical property, and list several common physical properties of substances• Differentiate among three states of matter• Describe a physical changeMatter• Matter is anything that a.) __________________________ b.) __________________________Mass - __________________________________________________________________• Don’t confuse this with weight, a measure of gravityVolume - _______________________________________________________________Describing Matter• Properties used to describe matter can be classified as:1. Extensive - ____________________________________________________________Ex.)2. Intensive - _____________________________________________________________Ex.)Properties are…• Words that describe matter (adjectives)Physical Properties - _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Ex.)
    • Chemical Properties - ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Ex.)States of Matter1. Solid - ________________________________________________________________2. Liquid -_______________________________________________________________3. Gas - _________________________________________________________________• Vapor – a substance that is currently a gas, but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature Result of Will it States of Matter a Temp. compress? Definite Definite increase Volume? Shape? Solid Liquid Gas
    • Physical vs. Chemical ChangePhysical Change - _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Ex.)• Can be reversible; or irreversibleChemical Change - ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Ex.)
    • Name __________________________________ Date ___________________ Per _____ 2.1 Section Review1. Contrast the characteristics of the three states of matter?2. What kind of property can only be observed by changing the composition of thematerial?3. Which of the following are physical changes?a. making caramel from sugar c. freezing mercuryb. carving a wooden figure d. dissolving salt in water4.Use table 2.1 (in your book) to answer the following questions.a. Which of the liquids listed has the highest boiling point?b. What two properties of sucrose distinguish it from sodium chloridec. What single property do neon, oxygen, and ethanol have in common?
    • Section 2.2 MixturesObjectives• Categorize a sample of matter as a substance or a mixture• Distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous samples of matter• Describe two ways that components of mixtures can be separatedMixtures• Mixtures are a _______________________________ of at least ____________ substances; have variable composition. They can be either:1. Heterogeneous - ________________________________________________________Ex.)2. Homogeneous - ________________________________________________________Ex.)• Every part keeps it’s own propertiesSolutions are homogeneous mixtures• Mixed molecule by molecule, thus too small to see the different parts• Can occur between any state of matter: gas in gas; liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid (alloys), ect.• Thus based on the distribution of their components, mixtures are called homogeneous or heterogeneousPhase• The term “phase” is used to describe any part of a sample with uniform composition or properties.• A homogeneous mixture consists of ___________________________ phase• A heterogeneous mixture consists of ___________________________ phasesSeparating Mixtures• Some can be separated easily by physical meansEx.) rocks and marbles, iron filings and sulfur (use magnet)
    • • Differences in physical properties can be used to separate mixturesFiltration - _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________• Components of dyes such as ink may be separated by _________________________• ________________________________ takes advantage of different boiling points
    • Name _________________________________ Date ____________________ Per _____ 2.2 Section Review1. What is the difference between a heterogeneous and a homogeneous mixture?2. Describe a procedure that could be used to separate a mixture consisting of sand andsalt3. Classify each of the following as a substance or a mixture a.) silver b.) alphabet soup c.) textbook d.) table salt (sodium chloride)4. Describe in your own words the difference between a pure substance and a mixture5. Describe ways in which the various components of a mixture can be separated6. Explain the term phase as it relates to homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures
    • Section 2.3 Elements and CompoundsObjectives• Explain the difference between an element and a compound• Distinguish between a substance and a mixture• Identify the chemical symbols of elements, and name elements given their symbolsSubstances are either:a.) elements, orb.) compoundsSubstances: element or compoundElement - __________________________________________• cannot be broken down any simpler and still have properties of that element• all ______________ kind of atomCompounds - ____________________________________________________________• when broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the original compound• made of _______________________________ atoms, chemically combined (not just a physical blend) Compound vs. Mixture Compound Mixture
    • Elements vs. Compounds• _______________________________ be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but ____________________________________• A “chemical change” is a change that produces matter with a _______________________________________________ than the original matterChemical Change - A change in which one or more substances are converted intodifferent substances• Heat and light are often evidence of a chemical changeProperties of Compounds• Compounds have quite different properties than their component elements• Due to a _______________________________________, the resulting compound has new and different properties o Table sugar – o Sodium chloride – o Water –
    • Symbols & Formulas• Currently, there are 117 elements• Elements have a 1 or two letter symbol and compounds have a formula• An element’s first letter always __________________________, if there is a second letter, it is written ___________________________Ex.) B, Ba, C, Ca, H, He
    • Name ___________________________________ Date __________________ Per _____ 2.3 Section Review1. How can you distinguish between an element and a compound?2. Write the chemical symbols for each of the following elements a. copper b. oxygen c. phosphorus d. silver e. sodium f. helium3. Name the chemical elements represented by the following symbols a. Sn b. Ca c. S d. Cd e. P f. Cl4. Classify each of these samples of matter as an element , a compound or a mixture a. spaghetti sauce b. glass c. table sugar d. river water e. cough syrup f. nitrogen5. What elements make up the pain reliever acetaminophen, chemical formula C8H9O2N?Which element is present in the greatest proportion by number of atoms.
    • Section 2.4 Chemical ReactionsObjectives• Describe what happens during a chemical change• Identify four possible clues that a chemical change has taken place• Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactionsChemical Changes• The ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change is called a __________________________________________ o Iron plus oxygen forms rust, so the ability to rust is a chemical property of iron• During a chemical change (also called chemical reaction), ______________________________________________________________________________________________Chemical Reactions are…• When one or more substances are changed into new substancesReactants - ____________________________________________Products - _____________________________________________• The products will have ______________________________________ different from the reactants you started with• Arrows point _________________________________________________________Recognizing Chemical Changes1. Energy ______________________________________________________________2.3.4. Formation of a _________________________________ - a solid that separates fromsolution (won’t dissolve)5. Irreversibility – not easily reversed
    • • But, there are examples of theses that are not chemical – boiling water bubbles, etc.Law of Conversion of Mass• During any chemical reaction, the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants• _____________________________ can be accounted for
    • Name ___________________________________ Date ___________________ Per ____ 2.4 Section Review1. State the difference between a physical change and a chemical change, and list threelikely indications that a chemical change has taken place2. Classify the following changes as physical or chemical a. cookies are baked b. water boils c. salt dissolves in water d. a firefly emits light e. milk spoils f. a metal chair rusts3. Consider the law of conservation of mass as you answer this problem. Whenammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) breaks down explosively, it forms nitrogen gas (N2),oxygen gas (O2), and water (H2O). When 40 grams of ammonium nitrate explode, 14grams of nitrogen and 8 grams of oxygen are formed. How many grams of water areformed?4. State several physical or chemical properties that could be used to distinguish betweeneach of the following pairs of substances and mixtures a. gasoline and water b. copper and silver c. water and saltwater d. aluminum and steel
    • 5. Hydrogen and oxygen react chemically to form water. How much water would beformed if 4.8 grams of hydrogen reacted with 38.4 grams of oxygen