Chemistry - Chp 14 - The Behavior of Gases - Study Guide


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Chemistry - Chp 14 - The Behavior of Gases - Study Guide

  1. 1. Name ___________________________________________ Date __________________ Chapter 14 – The Behavior of Gases Study GuideIn this chapter we’ve learned many gas laws that predict the behavior of gases, but alongwith the math of this chapter you will also be tested on the theory behind the conceptscovered in class.As for the math portion of this test…All the equations will be given to you on the test.However, you still need to make yourself familiar with each one and know when to useone equation over another.• Know that gases expand to fill their container• What is compressibility?• How does adding gas to a closed container affect the pressure?• How does changing the volume of a container affect the pressure?• How does changing the temperature of a gas affect the pressure?• How does changing the pressure on a sample of gas affect the volume?• Know how to reduce the combined gas law to any of the other three gas laws• What is the combined gas law?• Know that every temperature for this test needs to be converted from Celsius to Kelvin.• How do you convert from Celsius to Kelvin?
  2. 2. • What is the 1st ideal gas law?• What is the 2nd ideal gas law?• When do you use the 1st ideal gas law, when do you use the 2nd?• Why is there no such thing as an ideal gas?• Under what conditions does a real gas behave like an ideal gas?• What is Dalton’s law of partial pressure? Be able to solve for any unknown using Dalton’s law of partial pressure.• How does molar mass of a particle affect the rate at which it diffuses or effuses?• What is Graham’s law? Be able to compare the rates of diffusion or effusion in two gases using Graham’s law.
  3. 3. Example problems 1. The gas in a closed container has a pressure of 3.00 kPa at 30 oC. What will the pressure be if the temperature is lowered to -172 oC? 2. Calculate the volume of a gas (in L) at a pressure of 1.00 x 102 kPa if its volume at 1.20 x 102 kPa is 1.50 x 103 mL (Be careful, this one needs a conversion) 3. A gas with a volume of 4.0 L at 90.0 kPa expands until the pressure drops to 20.0 kPa. What is the new volume if the temperature remains constant? 4. A gas with a volume of 3.00 x 102 mL at 150.0 oC is heated until its volume is 6.00 x 102 mL. What is the new temperature of the gas if the pressure remains constant during the heating process? 5. A sealed cylinder of gas contains nitrogen gas at 1.00 x 103 kPa pressure and a temperature of 20 oC. The cylinder is left in the sun, and the temperature of the gas increases to 50 oC. What is the new pressure in the cylinder?
  4. 4. 6. If 4.50 g of methane gas (CH4) is introduced into an evacuated 2.00 –L container at 35 oC, what is the pressure in the container? 7. Which gas effuses faster: hydrogen or chlorine? How much faster? 8. A gas mixture containing oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide has a total pressure of 32.9 kPa. If PO2 = 6.6 kPa and PN2 = 23.0 kPa, what is the PCO2?bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb