Chapter  3 The Biosphere Chapter  3 The Biosphere Chapter  3 The Biosphere
 
 
 
3-1 What is Ecology
Objectives <ul><li>Identify the levels of organization that ecologists study </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods used t...
Ecology <ul><li>The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between their environment </li></ul>
Biosphere <ul><li>The portion of the planet which all life exists </li></ul>
Levels of Organization  <ul><li>To understand relationships within the biosphere ecologists ask questions about events and...
Species <ul><li>A group of organisms similar to one another that can breed together </li></ul>
Populations <ul><li>Groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area </li></ul>
Communities <ul><li>Assemblages of different populations that live in a particular place together with their non-living ph...
Ecosystem <ul><li>Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their non-living environm...
Biome <ul><li>A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities </li></ul>
 
Ecological Methods <ul><li>Observing </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul>
3 – 2 Energy Flow
Objectives <ul><li>Identify the source of energy for life processes </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the flow of energy through liv...
Producers <ul><li>Sunlight  is the main energy source for life on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Some types of organisms rely on ...
Producers (autotrophs) <ul><li>Use energy from the environment to make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) plants, some ...
Photosynthesis <ul><li>Process that converts light energy, carbon dioxide and water into oxygen, sugars and starches </li>...
 
Chemosynthesis <ul><li>The process that converts chemical energy into carbohydrates </li></ul>
 
Consumers (heterotrophs) <ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply </li></ul>
Herbivores <ul><li>Eat plants </li></ul>
Carnivores <ul><li>Eat animals </li></ul>
Detritivores <ul><li>Feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) mites, earthworms, snai...
Decomposers <ul><li>Break down organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) fungi, bacteria </li></ul>
Feeding Relationships <ul><li>Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to a...
Food Chain <ul><li>A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten </li></ul>
Food Web <ul><li>A network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an e...
 
Trophic Levels <ul><li>Each step in a food chain or food web </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  –  Producers </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd  ...
Ecological Pyramid <ul><li>A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic lev...
Energy Pyramid <ul><li>A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy available of each level </li></ul>
<ul><li>Only about 10% of energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level ...
Biomass Pyramid <ul><li>Represent the amount of food available for each trophic level </li></ul>
biomass <ul><li>The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level </li></ul>
Pyramid of numbers <ul><li>Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level </li></ul>
 
 
3 – 3 Cycles of Matter
Objectives <ul><li>Describe how matter cycles among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Expla...
<ul><li>Energy is crucial to an ecosystem, but organisms need more than that to survive </li></ul><ul><li>They also need <...
Recycling in the Biosphere <ul><li>Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems </l...
Evaporation <ul><li>The process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas </li></ul>
Transpiration <ul><li>The process by which water can enter the atmosphere by evaporating from leaves of plants </li></ul>
Condensation <ul><li>Forming Clouds </li></ul>
Precipitation <ul><li>When water returns to the earths surface </li></ul>
 
Nutrients <ul><li>All the chemical substances that an organism needs to live </li></ul><ul><li>Every living organism needs...
The Carbon cycle <ul><li>There are 4 different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle: </li></ul><ul><li>Biologic...
 
The Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids, which in turn are used to build  proteins <...
Nitrogen fixation <ul><li>Process of converting nitrogen gas into useful forms </li></ul>
 
The Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>Phosphorus is essential to living organisms because it forms part of important life sustainin...
 
Nutrient Limitation <ul><li>Ecologists are often interested in the primary productivity of an ecosystem </li></ul>
Primary Productivity <ul><li>The rate at which organic matter is created by producers </li></ul><ul><li>If a nutrient is i...
Limiting Nutrient <ul><li>Single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in...
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Biology - Chp 3 - The Biosphere - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 3 The Biosphere Chapter 3 The Biosphere Chapter 3 The Biosphere
  2. 5. 3-1 What is Ecology
  3. 6. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the levels of organization that ecologists study </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods used to study ecology </li></ul>
  4. 7. Ecology <ul><li>The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between their environment </li></ul>
  5. 8. Biosphere <ul><li>The portion of the planet which all life exists </li></ul>
  6. 9. Levels of Organization <ul><li>To understand relationships within the biosphere ecologists ask questions about events and organisms that range in complexity from single individuals to the entire biosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Studies can focus on… </li></ul>
  7. 10. Species <ul><li>A group of organisms similar to one another that can breed together </li></ul>
  8. 11. Populations <ul><li>Groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area </li></ul>
  9. 12. Communities <ul><li>Assemblages of different populations that live in a particular place together with their non-living physical environment </li></ul>
  10. 13. Ecosystem <ul><li>Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their non-living environment </li></ul>
  11. 14. Biome <ul><li>A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities </li></ul>
  12. 16. Ecological Methods <ul><li>Observing </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul>
  13. 17. 3 – 2 Energy Flow
  14. 18. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the source of energy for life processes </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the flow of energy through living systems </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the efficiency of energy transfer among organisms in an ecosystem </li></ul>
  15. 19. Producers <ul><li>Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Some types of organisms rely on the energy stored in organic chemical compounds </li></ul>
  16. 20. Producers (autotrophs) <ul><li>Use energy from the environment to make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) plants, some algae, certain types of bacteria </li></ul>
  17. 21. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Process that converts light energy, carbon dioxide and water into oxygen, sugars and starches </li></ul>
  18. 23. Chemosynthesis <ul><li>The process that converts chemical energy into carbohydrates </li></ul>
  19. 25. Consumers (heterotrophs) <ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply </li></ul>
  20. 26. Herbivores <ul><li>Eat plants </li></ul>
  21. 27. Carnivores <ul><li>Eat animals </li></ul>
  22. 28. Detritivores <ul><li>Feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) mites, earthworms, snails, crabs </li></ul>
  23. 29. Decomposers <ul><li>Break down organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) fungi, bacteria </li></ul>
  24. 30. Feeding Relationships <ul><li>Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers) </li></ul>
  25. 31. Food Chain <ul><li>A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten </li></ul>
  26. 32. Food Web <ul><li>A network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem </li></ul>
  27. 34. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Each step in a food chain or food web </li></ul><ul><li>1 st – Producers </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd – 3 rd or higher – consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy </li></ul>
  28. 35. Ecological Pyramid <ul><li>A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web </li></ul>
  29. 36. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy available of each level </li></ul>
  30. 37. <ul><li>Only about 10% of energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level </li></ul>
  31. 38. Biomass Pyramid <ul><li>Represent the amount of food available for each trophic level </li></ul>
  32. 39. biomass <ul><li>The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level </li></ul>
  33. 40. Pyramid of numbers <ul><li>Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level </li></ul>
  34. 43. 3 – 3 Cycles of Matter
  35. 44. Objectives <ul><li>Describe how matter cycles among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why nutrients are important in living systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the availability of nutrients affects the productivity of ecosystems </li></ul>
  36. 45. <ul><li>Energy is crucial to an ecosystem, but organisms need more than that to survive </li></ul><ul><li>They also need </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals/nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul>
  37. 46. Recycling in the Biosphere <ul><li>Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems </li></ul>
  38. 47. Evaporation <ul><li>The process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas </li></ul>
  39. 48. Transpiration <ul><li>The process by which water can enter the atmosphere by evaporating from leaves of plants </li></ul>
  40. 49. Condensation <ul><li>Forming Clouds </li></ul>
  41. 50. Precipitation <ul><li>When water returns to the earths surface </li></ul>
  42. 52. Nutrients <ul><li>All the chemical substances that an organism needs to live </li></ul><ul><li>Every living organism needs nutrients to grow and carry out essential life functions. Like water; nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through cycles </li></ul>
  43. 53. The Carbon cycle <ul><li>There are 4 different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle: </li></ul><ul><li>Biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Geochemical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed biogeochemical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Human activity </li></ul>
  44. 55. The Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids, which in turn are used to build proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Many different forms of nitrogen occur naturally in the biosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Although nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly </li></ul>
  45. 56. Nitrogen fixation <ul><li>Process of converting nitrogen gas into useful forms </li></ul>
  46. 58. The Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>Phosphorus is essential to living organisms because it forms part of important life sustaining molecules such as DNA and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, phosphorus does not enter the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals, and in ocean sediments </li></ul><ul><li>As the rocks and sediments gradually wear down, phosphate is released </li></ul><ul><li>Plants absorb phosphate then it moves to the rest of the ecosystem </li></ul>
  47. 60. Nutrient Limitation <ul><li>Ecologists are often interested in the primary productivity of an ecosystem </li></ul>
  48. 61. Primary Productivity <ul><li>The rate at which organic matter is created by producers </li></ul><ul><li>If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organisms growth </li></ul>
  49. 62. Limiting Nutrient <ul><li>Single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem </li></ul>

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