Biology - Chp 3 - Cells - PowerPoint


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Biology - Chp 3 - Cells - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function
  2. 2. Section 3-1 The History of the Cell Theory and Microscopes
  3. 3. Historical View of the Cell Theory <ul><li>As science improves, so do improvements in scientific instruments, and improved scientific instruments lead to new discoveries. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1590 – Zacharias Janssen <ul><li>Built first simple microscope (one set of lenses) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1670’s Anton Van Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>Made improvements </li></ul><ul><li>270x magnification </li></ul><ul><li>Saw bacteria, protozoa, sperm cells, red blood cells and yeast cells </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1665 – Robert Hooke <ul><li>Produced a compound microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Saw hollow boxes and named them “cells” </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1831 – Robert Brown <ul><li>Saw central structure in plant cells, called this structure a nucleus </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1838 – Matthias Schleiden <ul><li>Concluded that all plants are made of cells </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1838 – Theodor Schwann <ul><li>Concluded that all animals are made of cells </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1839 – Johannes Purkinje <ul><li>Stated that “the cell is the unit of function of life” </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1858 – Rudolf Virchow <ul><li>Concluded that “ cells come only from previously existing cells” </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are composed of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>New cells are produced from existing cells </li></ul>
  13. 13. Compound Microscope <ul><li>Contains a combination of two lenses </li></ul>
  14. 14. Eyepiece or ocular lens <ul><li>Lens closest to the eye </li></ul>
  15. 15. Objective Lens <ul><li>Lens closest to the specimen or object </li></ul>
  16. 16. How to figure out magnification <ul><li>Eyepiece X objective = Magnification </li></ul><ul><li>10x X </li></ul><ul><li>10x X </li></ul><ul><li>10x X </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nosepiece <ul><li>Objectives fastened to this revolving structure </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stage <ul><li>Where you place your slide </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stage clips <ul><li>Hold slide in place </li></ul>
  20. 20. Body Tube <ul><li>Light travels through here </li></ul>
  21. 21. Light Source <ul><li>Provides light </li></ul>
  22. 22. Diaphragm <ul><li>Regulates the light reaching the objective lens </li></ul>
  23. 23. Base <ul><li>Supports the microscope </li></ul>
  24. 24. Arm <ul><li>Holds the body tube, acts as a handle </li></ul>
  25. 25. Coarse focusing knob <ul><li>Used to focus under low power only </li></ul>
  26. 26. Fine focusing knob <ul><li>Used to focus under high power only </li></ul>
  27. 27. A microscope reverses and inverts the image of an object seen under it e e Before viewing under the microscope While viewing under the microscope
  28. 28. Things moving under a microscope are actually moving in the opposite direction
  29. 29. Things moving under a microscope are actually moving in the opposite direction
  30. 30. Stereomicroscope <ul><li>Binocular microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Object is seen in </li></ul><ul><li>3-D </li></ul><ul><li>Only used to see large objects </li></ul><ul><li>Does not reverse or invert images </li></ul>
  31. 31. Transmission Electron Microscope <ul><li>Uses a beam of electrons instead of light rays </li></ul><ul><li>200,000x magnification </li></ul><ul><li>tissues have to be sliced really thin, dry and in a vacuum chamber </li></ul><ul><li>can’t be used with living material </li></ul>
  32. 34. Scanning Electron Microscope <ul><li>provides images with 3-D quality </li></ul><ul><li>can’t be used with living material </li></ul>
  33. 39. Micromanipulator <ul><li>Used to dissect cells, can remove nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of cells has been increased by manipulation and dissection of cells </li></ul>
  34. 41. High – Speed Centrifuge <ul><li>Spin at high speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Cell components sort out at different layers according to density </li></ul>
  35. 42. Microscopic Measurements <ul><li>Use the unit called the micrometer </li></ul><ul><li>1/1000 of a meter </li></ul>
  36. 43. How to convert millimeters to micrometers <ul><li>Multiply by one thousand…or </li></ul><ul><li>Move the decimal point 3 places to the right </li></ul>
  37. 44. How to convert micrometers to millimeters <ul><li>Divide by 1,000…or </li></ul><ul><li>Move the decimal point 3 places to the left </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) 2,500 micrometers = </li></ul><ul><li>.15 micrometers = </li></ul>
  38. 45. How to find the diameter of your field of view <ul><li>Place a transparent plastic ruler in the field of view like this </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Convert to micrometers </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 mm = </li></ul>
  39. 46. Section 3-2 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  40. 47. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Have a nucleus and membrane covered organelles </li></ul>
  41. 48. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Don’t have a nucleus and membrane covered organelles </li></ul>
  42. 50. Eukaryotic Cell Structures
  43. 51. Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Separates the cell from its environment </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the transport of materials in and out </li></ul><ul><li>Allows some materials but not others to pass through this is called… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable </li></ul></ul>
  44. 53. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Extensive network of tube-like structures that forms a passageway that functions in the transport of materials throughout the cells </li></ul>
  45. 55. Ribosomes <ul><li>Site of protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to the walls of the ER or move freely in the cytoplasm </li></ul>
  46. 56. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Stack of tiny, flattened sac-like tubes used in secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Package protein molecules in a membrane and send the package to the cells surface </li></ul>
  47. 58. Mitochondria <ul><li>Where cellular respiration takes place to release energy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mighty Mitochondria” </li></ul><ul><li>Powerhouse of the cell </li></ul>
  48. 60. Microtubules <ul><li>Tubes that serve as support for the cell </li></ul>
  49. 62. Microfilaments <ul><li>Thin threads attached to the cell membranes, play a role in movement </li></ul>
  50. 64. Lysosomes <ul><li>Vesicles that contain enzymes used in digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Fuses with food vacuoles to digest food into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Digest old cell structures to dispose of them or even entire cells </li></ul>
  51. 67. Nucleus <ul><li>Regulates all the cells activities </li></ul>
  52. 69. Chromosomes <ul><li>Long coiled fibers that carry the material of heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Made of protein and DNA </li></ul>
  53. 71. Nucleolus <ul><li>Composed of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in the passage of RNA into the cytoplasm </li></ul>
  54. 72. Centrioles <ul><li>Small cylinders in the cytoplasm that play a role in cell division </li></ul>
  55. 74. Cilia
  56. 76. Flagella
  57. 78. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Organelle found only in plants, used to make food </li></ul>
  58. 80. Vacuoles <ul><li>Spherical, bubble-like storage sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have very large vacuoles compared to animal cells </li></ul>
  59. 81. Cell Wall <ul><li>Rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Made of cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Permits most things to pass through </li></ul>Cell Wall
  60. 82. Section 3-3 Cellular Processes
  61. 83. The Big Idea <ul><li>Cells need to regulate the movement of dissolved molecules on either side of the membrane </li></ul>
  62. 84. Cell membrane <ul><li>Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support </li></ul>Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains
  63. 85. Cell membrane <ul><li>Made of a double layered sheet called a lipid bilayer </li></ul>Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains
  64. 86. Cell Wall <ul><li>Provide support and protection for cell </li></ul><ul><li>Found in more than just plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contrary to popular belief, not selectively permeable </li></ul>
  65. 87. Cell Walls
  66. 88. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries <ul><li>One of the more important functions of the cell membrane is to regulate the movement of dissolved molecules from one side of a membrane to the other </li></ul>
  67. 89. Concentration <ul><li>The mass of solute in a given volume of solution </li></ul><ul><li>Mass/volume </li></ul>
  68. 90. <ul><li>What is the concentration of 12 grams of salt in 3 liters of water? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the concentration of 12 grams of salt in 6 liters of water? </li></ul>
  69. 91. In a solution, particles move constantly
  70. 92. Diffusion <ul><li>Process by which molecules of a substance move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration </li></ul>
  71. 93. Diffusion
  72. 94. Diffusion
  73. 95. Equilibrium <ul><li>When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system </li></ul>
  74. 96. <ul><li>Because diffusion depends on random particle movements, substances diffuse across membranes without energy being used </li></ul><ul><li>Even during equilibrium, particles still move, but there is no net change in concentration </li></ul>
  75. 97. Osmosis <ul><li>The diffusion of water </li></ul>
  76. 98. Osmosis
  77. 101. Isotonic <ul><li>The concentration of solutes is the same inside and outside the cell </li></ul>
  78. 102. Hypertonic <ul><li>Solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell </li></ul>
  79. 103. Hypotonic <ul><li>Solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell </li></ul>
  80. 105. Facilitated Diffusion <ul><li>Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels </li></ul>High Concentration Low Concentration Cell Membrane Glucose molecules Protein channel <ul><li>Only go from high concentrations to low concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require energy </li></ul>
  81. 106. Types of Active Transport <ul><li>Sometimes cells must move materials in the opposite direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low concentrations to high concentrations </li></ul></ul>
  82. 107. Active Transport <ul><li>Energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient </li></ul>
  83. 108. Active Transport Molecule to be carried Molecule being carried Energy
  84. 109. Molecular transport <ul><li>Small molecules and ions are actively transported </li></ul>
  85. 110. Carrier proteins <ul><li>Proteins that act like pumps </li></ul>
  86. 113. Endocytosis <ul><li>The process of taking material into the cell by means of infolding of the membrane </li></ul>Food particle engulfing Forms a vacuole
  87. 114. Phagocytosis <ul><li>Cell eating </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells do this </li></ul>
  88. 116. Pinocytosis <ul><li>Cell drinking </li></ul>
  89. 117. Exocytosis <ul><li>Forces contents out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Endocytosis in reverse </li></ul>
  90. 120. Section 3-4 The Diversity of Cellular life
  91. 121. Unicellular Organism <ul><li>Single celled </li></ul><ul><li>Do everything a living organism does </li></ul>
  92. 122. Multicellular Organism <ul><li>Many celled </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on communication and cooperation among specialized cells </li></ul>
  93. 123. Specialization <ul><li>When cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks </li></ul>
  94. 124. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Transport oxygen </li></ul>
  95. 125. Pancreatic Cells <ul><li>Make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Packed with ribosomes </li></ul>
  96. 126. Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Generate force </li></ul><ul><li>Packed with mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Overdeveloped cytoskeleton </li></ul>
  97. 127. Nerve Cell <ul><li>Send messages </li></ul>
  98. 128. Guard Cells <ul><li>Open and close the stomata </li></ul>
  99. 129. Levels of Organization Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems
  100. 130. Tissues <ul><li>Group of similar cells that perform specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) smooth muscle </li></ul>
  101. 131. Organ <ul><li>Group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) stomach </li></ul>
  102. 132. Organ System <ul><li>Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>This organization creates a division of labor that makes multicellular life possible </li></ul>
  103. 133. Biological organization