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Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint

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  • 1. Chapter 26 Animals
  • 2. 26 – 1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom
    • Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the most diverse in appearance
  • 3. What Is an Animal?
    • Animals are Multicelular
    • Animals are Eukaryotic heterotrophs
    • Animal cells lack cell walls
    • Animals belong to the kingdom Animalia
    • The bodies of most animals contain tissues
    • Ex.) epithelial, connective tissue (bone, blood) nervous tissue
    • Animals are informally grouped into 2 categories
  • 4. Invertebrates
    • Animals that don’t have a backbone
    • Over 95% percent of all animal species are grouped into this category
  • 5. Vertebrates
    • Animals that have a backbone
  • 6. What Animals Do To Survive
    • Animals carry out the following essential functions:
  • 7. 1. Feeding/Digesting
  • 8. Intracellular digestion
    • Process in which food is digested inside cells
  • 9. Extracellular digestion
    • Process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract
  • 10. 2. Respiration (gas exchange)
    • Ex.) skin, gills, lungs
  • 11. 3. Circulation
  • 12. Open circulation
    • System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels
  • 13. Closed circulation
    • System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
  • 14. 4. Excretion
  • 15. 5. Response
  • 16. 6. Movement/Support
  • 17. Hydrostatic skeletons
    • Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles that enable movement
    • Ex.) worms
  • 18. Exoskeleton
    • External skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates
    • Ex.) insects
  • 19. Endoskeleton
    • Structural support located inside the body
    • Ex.) sea stars, humans
  • 20. 7. Reproduction
    • Can be sexual or asexual
  • 21. Hermaphrodites
    • Individuals that have both male and female reproductive organs
  • 22. External fertilization
    • Eggs are fertilized outside the female
  • 23. Internal fertilization
    • Eggs are fertilized inside the female
  • 24. Oviparous
    • Eggs hatch outside the mother
  • 25. Ovoviviparous
    • Eggs hatch inside the mother
  • 26.  
  • 27. Viviparous
    • Babies are born live and get nourishment from the mother
  • 28. Trends in Animal Evolution
    • Complex animals tend to have high levels of cell specialization and internal body organization, bilateral body symmetry, a front end or head with sense organs and a body cavity
  • 29. Cell Specialization and Levels of Organization
    • As animals evolved, their cells have become specialized to carry out different functions
    • Ex.) Movement, digestion, nervous system
  • 30.
    • Large animals need greater efficiency in body processes than smaller animals
    • Groups of specialized cells form tissues , which join together to form organs and organ system - all of which work together to carry out a variety of complex functions
  • 31. Body Symmetry
    • Asymmetry – no symetry
    • Ex.) sponges
  • 32.  
  • 33. Radial symmetry
    • Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body
    • Ex.) jelly fish, sea star
  • 34.  
  • 35. Bilateral symmetry
    • Body plan in which only a single imaginary line can divide the body into 2 equal halves
    • Ex.) worms, insects, chordates
  • 36.  
  • 37. Cephalization
    • Most animals with bilateral symmetry also have a trend toward cephalization
  • 38. Cephalization
    • Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animals body
    • Organisms with cephalization can respond to the environment in more sophisticated ways than can simpler organisms
  • 39.  
  • 40. Body Cavity Formation
    • Most animals have a body cavity which is a fluid filled space that lies between the digestive tract and the body wall
    • A body cavity is important because it provides a space in which internal organs can be suspended so that they are not pressed on by muscle or twisted out of shape by body movements
    • Body cavities also allow for specialized regions to develop, and they provide room for internal organs to grow and expand
  • 41. Adaptive Radiation
    • Over the course of evolution, the appearance of new adaptations – such as jaws and paired appendages – has launched adaptive radiations in chordate groups
  • 42. Adaptive radiation
    • Rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms
  • 43. Convergent Evolution
    • Adaptive radiations sometimes produce species that are similar in appearance and behavior, even though they are not closely related. This trend is called convergent evolution
  • 44.  
  • 45. Kingdom Animalia Major Phyla
  • 46. Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
  • 47. Asymetrical
  • 48. Some specialized cells
  • 49. Phylum Cnidaria
  • 50. Radial Symmetry
  • 51. Stinging Cells
  • 52. Tentacles
  • 53. Nerve Net
  • 54. Two Body Forms
  • 55. Cnidarian Lifecycle
  • 56. Asexual Reproduction
  • 57. Coral
  • 58. Sea Anemones
  • 59. Box Jellyfish
  • 60. Portuguese Man-of-War
  • 61. Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms
  • 62. Flattened Body, one opening
  • 63. Bilateral Symmetry
  • 64. Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
  • 65. Budding
  • 66. Some are parasites
  • 67. Tape worm mouth parts
  • 68. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms
  • 69. Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
  • 70. Bilateral symmetry
  • 71. Heartworm
  • 72. Ascaris
  • 73. Trichinella
  • 74. Elephantitus
  • 75. Phylum Mollusca Mollusks
  • 76. One Shell
  • 77. Two Shell
  • 78. No Shells
  • 79. Nautilus
  • 80.  
  • 81. Squid
  • 82. Octopus
  • 83. Bilateral Symmetry
  • 84. Phylum Annelidia Segmented Worms
  • 85.  
  • 86. Leech
  • 87. Clamworm
  • 88. Feather dusters
  • 89. Phylum Arthropoda Arthropods
  • 90. Arthropod Traits
    • Segmented body, jointed legs, exoskeleton
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • Tissues and organs
      • Open circulatory system
      • Complete digestive tract
      • Simple excretory organs
      • Brain and nerve cords
    • Sexual reproduction (separate sexes)
  • 91. 5 Major Arthropod Classes
  • 92. Centipedes
  • 93. Millipedes
  • 94. Crustaceans
  • 95. Crustaceans
  • 96. Crustaceans
  • 97. Crustaceans
  • 98. Crustaceans
  • 99. Insects
  • 100. Insects
  • 101. Insects
  • 102. Arachnids
  • 103. Arachnids
  • 104. Arachnids
  • 105. Arachnids
  • 106. Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderms
  • 107. Echinodermata = Spiny Skin
  • 108. Water Vascular System
  • 109. Tube Feet
  • 110. Radial Symmetry
  • 111. Brittle Sea Star
  • 112. Sea Star
  • 113. Sand Dollar
  • 114. Sea Urchin
  • 115. Sea Cucumber
  • 116. Sea Star Eating
  • 117. Phylum Chordata Chordates
  • 118. Chordate Traits
    • Dorsal notochord at some time
    • Pharyngeal gill slits (or pouches) at some time
    • Dorsal hollow nerve cord at some time
    • Bilateral symmetry
  • 119. Chordate Traits
    • Tissues and organs of vertebrates
      • Backbone
      • Brain and nervous system
      • Closed circulatory system
      • Complete digestive tract
      • Paired kidneys
      • Gills or lungs
      • Paired image forming eyes
    • Sexual reproduction (separate sexes)
  • 120. Invertebrate Chordates 2 groups
  • 121. Tunicates
  • 122. Lancets
  • 123. Vertebrate Chordates 7 classes
  • 124. 1. Agnatha
  • 125. Lamprey
  • 126. 2. Chondrichthyes
  • 127. 2. Chondrichthyes
  • 128. 2. Chondrichthyes
  • 129. 3. Osteicthyes
  • 130. 3. Osteicthyes
  • 131. 3. Osteicthyes
  • 132. Swim Bladder
  • 133. 4. Amphibia
  • 134. 4. Amphibia
  • 135. 4. Amphibia
  • 136. Two Stage Life Cycle
  • 137. 5. Reptilia
  • 138. 5. Reptilia
  • 139. 5. Reptilia
  • 140. 6. Aves
  • 141. 6. Aves
  • 142. 6. Aves
  • 143. 6. Aves
  • 144. 7. Mammalia
  • 145. 7. Mammalia
  • 146. 7. Mammalia
  • 147. 7. Mammalia
  • 148. 7. Mammalia

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