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Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
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Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint

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  1. Chapter 26 Animals
  2. 26 – 1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom <ul><li>Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the most diverse in appearance </li></ul>
  3. What Is an Animal? <ul><li>Animals are Multicelular </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are Eukaryotic heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells lack cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Animals belong to the kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>The bodies of most animals contain tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) epithelial, connective tissue (bone, blood) nervous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are informally grouped into 2 categories </li></ul>
  4. Invertebrates <ul><li>Animals that don’t have a backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Over 95% percent of all animal species are grouped into this category </li></ul>
  5. Vertebrates <ul><li>Animals that have a backbone </li></ul>
  6. What Animals Do To Survive <ul><li>Animals carry out the following essential functions: </li></ul>
  7. 1. Feeding/Digesting
  8. Intracellular digestion <ul><li>Process in which food is digested inside cells </li></ul>
  9. Extracellular digestion <ul><li>Process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract </li></ul>
  10. 2. Respiration (gas exchange) <ul><li>Ex.) skin, gills, lungs </li></ul>
  11. 3. Circulation
  12. Open circulation <ul><li>System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
  13. Closed circulation <ul><li>System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
  14. 4. Excretion
  15. 5. Response
  16. 6. Movement/Support
  17. Hydrostatic skeletons <ul><li>Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles that enable movement </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) worms </li></ul>
  18. Exoskeleton <ul><li>External skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) insects </li></ul>
  19. Endoskeleton <ul><li>Structural support located inside the body </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) sea stars, humans </li></ul>
  20. 7. Reproduction <ul><li>Can be sexual or asexual </li></ul>
  21. Hermaphrodites <ul><li>Individuals that have both male and female reproductive organs </li></ul>
  22. External fertilization <ul><li>Eggs are fertilized outside the female </li></ul>
  23. Internal fertilization <ul><li>Eggs are fertilized inside the female </li></ul>
  24. Oviparous <ul><li>Eggs hatch outside the mother </li></ul>
  25. Ovoviviparous <ul><li>Eggs hatch inside the mother </li></ul>
  26.  
  27. Viviparous <ul><li>Babies are born live and get nourishment from the mother </li></ul>
  28. Trends in Animal Evolution <ul><li>Complex animals tend to have high levels of cell specialization and internal body organization, bilateral body symmetry, a front end or head with sense organs and a body cavity </li></ul>
  29. Cell Specialization and Levels of Organization <ul><li>As animals evolved, their cells have become specialized to carry out different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Movement, digestion, nervous system </li></ul>
  30. <ul><li>Large animals need greater efficiency in body processes than smaller animals </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of specialized cells form tissues , which join together to form organs and organ system - all of which work together to carry out a variety of complex functions </li></ul>
  31. Body Symmetry <ul><li>Asymmetry – no symetry </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) sponges </li></ul>
  32.  
  33. Radial symmetry <ul><li>Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) jelly fish, sea star </li></ul>
  34.  
  35. Bilateral symmetry <ul><li>Body plan in which only a single imaginary line can divide the body into 2 equal halves </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) worms, insects, chordates </li></ul>
  36.  
  37. Cephalization <ul><li>Most animals with bilateral symmetry also have a trend toward cephalization </li></ul>
  38. Cephalization <ul><li>Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animals body </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms with cephalization can respond to the environment in more sophisticated ways than can simpler organisms </li></ul>
  39.  
  40. Body Cavity Formation <ul><li>Most animals have a body cavity which is a fluid filled space that lies between the digestive tract and the body wall </li></ul><ul><li>A body cavity is important because it provides a space in which internal organs can be suspended so that they are not pressed on by muscle or twisted out of shape by body movements </li></ul><ul><li>Body cavities also allow for specialized regions to develop, and they provide room for internal organs to grow and expand </li></ul>
  41. Adaptive Radiation <ul><li>Over the course of evolution, the appearance of new adaptations – such as jaws and paired appendages – has launched adaptive radiations in chordate groups </li></ul>
  42. Adaptive radiation <ul><li>Rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms </li></ul>
  43. Convergent Evolution <ul><li>Adaptive radiations sometimes produce species that are similar in appearance and behavior, even though they are not closely related. This trend is called convergent evolution </li></ul>
  44.  
  45. Kingdom Animalia Major Phyla
  46. Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
  47. Asymetrical
  48. Some specialized cells
  49. Phylum Cnidaria
  50. Radial Symmetry
  51. Stinging Cells
  52. Tentacles
  53. Nerve Net
  54. Two Body Forms
  55. Cnidarian Lifecycle
  56. Asexual Reproduction
  57. Coral
  58. Sea Anemones
  59. Box Jellyfish
  60. Portuguese Man-of-War
  61. Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms
  62. Flattened Body, one opening
  63. Bilateral Symmetry
  64. Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
  65. Budding
  66. Some are parasites
  67. Tape worm mouth parts
  68. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms
  69. Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
  70. Bilateral symmetry
  71. Heartworm
  72. Ascaris
  73. Trichinella
  74. Elephantitus
  75. Phylum Mollusca Mollusks
  76. One Shell
  77. Two Shell
  78. No Shells
  79. Nautilus
  80.  
  81. Squid
  82. Octopus
  83. Bilateral Symmetry
  84. Phylum Annelidia Segmented Worms
  85.  
  86. Leech
  87. Clamworm
  88. Feather dusters
  89. Phylum Arthropoda Arthropods
  90. Arthropod Traits <ul><li>Segmented body, jointed legs, exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues and organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple excretory organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and nerve cords </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction (separate sexes) </li></ul>
  91. 5 Major Arthropod Classes
  92. Centipedes
  93. Millipedes
  94. Crustaceans
  95. Crustaceans
  96. Crustaceans
  97. Crustaceans
  98. Crustaceans
  99. Insects
  100. Insects
  101. Insects
  102. Arachnids
  103. Arachnids
  104. Arachnids
  105. Arachnids
  106. Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderms
  107. Echinodermata = Spiny Skin
  108. Water Vascular System
  109. Tube Feet
  110. Radial Symmetry
  111. Brittle Sea Star
  112. Sea Star
  113. Sand Dollar
  114. Sea Urchin
  115. Sea Cucumber
  116. Sea Star Eating
  117. Phylum Chordata Chordates
  118. Chordate Traits <ul><li>Dorsal notochord at some time </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal gill slits (or pouches) at some time </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal hollow nerve cord at some time </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul>
  119. Chordate Traits <ul><li>Tissues and organs of vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills or lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired image forming eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction (separate sexes) </li></ul>
  120. Invertebrate Chordates 2 groups
  121. Tunicates
  122. Lancets
  123. Vertebrate Chordates 7 classes
  124. 1. Agnatha
  125. Lamprey
  126. 2. Chondrichthyes
  127. 2. Chondrichthyes
  128. 2. Chondrichthyes
  129. 3. Osteicthyes
  130. 3. Osteicthyes
  131. 3. Osteicthyes
  132. Swim Bladder
  133. 4. Amphibia
  134. 4. Amphibia
  135. 4. Amphibia
  136. Two Stage Life Cycle
  137. 5. Reptilia
  138. 5. Reptilia
  139. 5. Reptilia
  140. 6. Aves
  141. 6. Aves
  142. 6. Aves
  143. 6. Aves
  144. 7. Mammalia
  145. 7. Mammalia
  146. 7. Mammalia
  147. 7. Mammalia
  148. 7. Mammalia

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