Chapter 26 Animals
26 – 1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom <ul><li>Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the most diverse...
What Is an Animal? <ul><li>Animals are  Multicelular </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are  Eukaryotic heterotrophs </li></ul><ul>...
Invertebrates   <ul><li>Animals that don’t have a backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Over  95%  percent of all animal species are ...
Vertebrates  <ul><li>Animals that have a backbone </li></ul>
What Animals Do To Survive <ul><li>Animals carry out the following essential functions: </li></ul>
1. Feeding/Digesting
Intracellular digestion  <ul><li>Process in which food is digested inside cells </li></ul>
Extracellular digestion <ul><li>Process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract </li></ul>
2. Respiration (gas exchange) <ul><li>Ex.) skin, gills, lungs </li></ul>
3. Circulation
Open circulation  <ul><li>System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
Closed circulation  <ul><li>System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
4. Excretion
5. Response
6. Movement/Support
Hydrostatic skeletons  <ul><li>Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles that enable movement </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) wor...
Exoskeleton <ul><li>External skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates <...
Endoskeleton <ul><li>Structural support located inside the body </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) sea stars, humans </li></ul>
7. Reproduction <ul><li>Can be sexual or asexual </li></ul>
Hermaphrodites  <ul><li>Individuals that have both male and female reproductive organs </li></ul>
External fertilization  <ul><li>Eggs are fertilized outside the female </li></ul>
Internal fertilization <ul><li>Eggs are fertilized inside the female </li></ul>
Oviparous <ul><li>Eggs hatch outside the mother  </li></ul>
Ovoviviparous <ul><li>Eggs hatch inside the mother </li></ul>
 
Viviparous <ul><li>Babies are born live and get nourishment from the mother </li></ul>
Trends in Animal Evolution <ul><li>Complex animals tend to have high levels of cell specialization and internal body organ...
Cell Specialization and Levels of Organization <ul><li>As animals evolved, their cells have become specialized to carry ou...
<ul><li>Large animals need greater efficiency in body processes than smaller animals </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of specializ...
Body Symmetry <ul><li>Asymmetry – no symetry </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) sponges </li></ul>
 
Radial symmetry <ul><li>Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) jelly fi...
 
Bilateral symmetry <ul><li>Body plan in which only a single imaginary line can divide the body into 2 equal halves </li></...
 
Cephalization <ul><li>Most animals with bilateral symmetry also have a trend toward cephalization </li></ul>
Cephalization   <ul><li>Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animals body </li></ul><ul><li>Or...
 
Body Cavity Formation <ul><li>Most animals have a body cavity which is a fluid filled space that lies between the digestiv...
Adaptive Radiation <ul><li>Over the course of evolution, the appearance of new adaptations – such as jaws and paired appen...
Adaptive radiation  <ul><li>Rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms </li></ul>
Convergent Evolution <ul><li>Adaptive radiations sometimes produce species that are similar in appearance and behavior, ev...
 
Kingdom Animalia Major Phyla
Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
Asymetrical
Some specialized cells
Phylum Cnidaria
Radial Symmetry
Stinging Cells
Tentacles
Nerve Net
Two Body Forms
Cnidarian Lifecycle
Asexual Reproduction
Coral
Sea Anemones
Box Jellyfish
Portuguese Man-of-War
Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms
Flattened Body, one opening
Bilateral Symmetry
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
Budding
Some are parasites
Tape worm mouth parts
Phylum Nematoda Roundworms
Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
Bilateral symmetry
Heartworm
Ascaris
Trichinella
Elephantitus
Phylum Mollusca Mollusks
One Shell
Two Shell
No Shells
Nautilus
 
Squid
Octopus
Bilateral Symmetry
Phylum Annelidia Segmented Worms
 
Leech
Clamworm
Feather dusters
Phylum Arthropoda Arthropods
Arthropod Traits <ul><li>Segmented body, jointed legs, exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>...
5 Major Arthropod Classes
Centipedes
Millipedes
Crustaceans
Crustaceans
Crustaceans
Crustaceans
Crustaceans
Insects
Insects
Insects
Arachnids
Arachnids
Arachnids
Arachnids
Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderms
Echinodermata = Spiny Skin
Water Vascular System
Tube Feet
Radial Symmetry
Brittle Sea Star
Sea Star
Sand Dollar
Sea Urchin
Sea Cucumber
Sea Star Eating
Phylum Chordata Chordates
Chordate Traits <ul><li>Dorsal notochord at some time </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal gill slits (or pouches) at some time </...
Chordate Traits <ul><li>Tissues and organs of vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain ...
Invertebrate Chordates 2 groups
Tunicates
Lancets
Vertebrate Chordates 7 classes
1. Agnatha
Lamprey
2. Chondrichthyes
2. Chondrichthyes
2. Chondrichthyes
3. Osteicthyes
3. Osteicthyes
3. Osteicthyes
Swim Bladder
4. Amphibia
4. Amphibia
4. Amphibia
Two Stage Life Cycle
5. Reptilia
5. Reptilia
5. Reptilia
6. Aves
6. Aves
6. Aves
6. Aves
7. Mammalia
7. Mammalia
7. Mammalia
7. Mammalia
7. Mammalia
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Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 26 Animals
  2. 2. 26 – 1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom <ul><li>Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the most diverse in appearance </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is an Animal? <ul><li>Animals are Multicelular </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are Eukaryotic heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells lack cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Animals belong to the kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>The bodies of most animals contain tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) epithelial, connective tissue (bone, blood) nervous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are informally grouped into 2 categories </li></ul>
  4. 4. Invertebrates <ul><li>Animals that don’t have a backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Over 95% percent of all animal species are grouped into this category </li></ul>
  5. 5. Vertebrates <ul><li>Animals that have a backbone </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Animals Do To Survive <ul><li>Animals carry out the following essential functions: </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Feeding/Digesting
  8. 8. Intracellular digestion <ul><li>Process in which food is digested inside cells </li></ul>
  9. 9. Extracellular digestion <ul><li>Process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Respiration (gas exchange) <ul><li>Ex.) skin, gills, lungs </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3. Circulation
  12. 12. Open circulation <ul><li>System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
  13. 13. Closed circulation <ul><li>System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
  14. 14. 4. Excretion
  15. 15. 5. Response
  16. 16. 6. Movement/Support
  17. 17. Hydrostatic skeletons <ul><li>Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles that enable movement </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) worms </li></ul>
  18. 18. Exoskeleton <ul><li>External skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) insects </li></ul>
  19. 19. Endoskeleton <ul><li>Structural support located inside the body </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) sea stars, humans </li></ul>
  20. 20. 7. Reproduction <ul><li>Can be sexual or asexual </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hermaphrodites <ul><li>Individuals that have both male and female reproductive organs </li></ul>
  22. 22. External fertilization <ul><li>Eggs are fertilized outside the female </li></ul>
  23. 23. Internal fertilization <ul><li>Eggs are fertilized inside the female </li></ul>
  24. 24. Oviparous <ul><li>Eggs hatch outside the mother </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ovoviviparous <ul><li>Eggs hatch inside the mother </li></ul>
  26. 27. Viviparous <ul><li>Babies are born live and get nourishment from the mother </li></ul>
  27. 28. Trends in Animal Evolution <ul><li>Complex animals tend to have high levels of cell specialization and internal body organization, bilateral body symmetry, a front end or head with sense organs and a body cavity </li></ul>
  28. 29. Cell Specialization and Levels of Organization <ul><li>As animals evolved, their cells have become specialized to carry out different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Movement, digestion, nervous system </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Large animals need greater efficiency in body processes than smaller animals </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of specialized cells form tissues , which join together to form organs and organ system - all of which work together to carry out a variety of complex functions </li></ul>
  30. 31. Body Symmetry <ul><li>Asymmetry – no symetry </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) sponges </li></ul>
  31. 33. Radial symmetry <ul><li>Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) jelly fish, sea star </li></ul>
  32. 35. Bilateral symmetry <ul><li>Body plan in which only a single imaginary line can divide the body into 2 equal halves </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) worms, insects, chordates </li></ul>
  33. 37. Cephalization <ul><li>Most animals with bilateral symmetry also have a trend toward cephalization </li></ul>
  34. 38. Cephalization <ul><li>Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animals body </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms with cephalization can respond to the environment in more sophisticated ways than can simpler organisms </li></ul>
  35. 40. Body Cavity Formation <ul><li>Most animals have a body cavity which is a fluid filled space that lies between the digestive tract and the body wall </li></ul><ul><li>A body cavity is important because it provides a space in which internal organs can be suspended so that they are not pressed on by muscle or twisted out of shape by body movements </li></ul><ul><li>Body cavities also allow for specialized regions to develop, and they provide room for internal organs to grow and expand </li></ul>
  36. 41. Adaptive Radiation <ul><li>Over the course of evolution, the appearance of new adaptations – such as jaws and paired appendages – has launched adaptive radiations in chordate groups </li></ul>
  37. 42. Adaptive radiation <ul><li>Rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms </li></ul>
  38. 43. Convergent Evolution <ul><li>Adaptive radiations sometimes produce species that are similar in appearance and behavior, even though they are not closely related. This trend is called convergent evolution </li></ul>
  39. 45. Kingdom Animalia Major Phyla
  40. 46. Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
  41. 47. Asymetrical
  42. 48. Some specialized cells
  43. 49. Phylum Cnidaria
  44. 50. Radial Symmetry
  45. 51. Stinging Cells
  46. 52. Tentacles
  47. 53. Nerve Net
  48. 54. Two Body Forms
  49. 55. Cnidarian Lifecycle
  50. 56. Asexual Reproduction
  51. 57. Coral
  52. 58. Sea Anemones
  53. 59. Box Jellyfish
  54. 60. Portuguese Man-of-War
  55. 61. Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms
  56. 62. Flattened Body, one opening
  57. 63. Bilateral Symmetry
  58. 64. Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
  59. 65. Budding
  60. 66. Some are parasites
  61. 67. Tape worm mouth parts
  62. 68. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms
  63. 69. Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
  64. 70. Bilateral symmetry
  65. 71. Heartworm
  66. 72. Ascaris
  67. 73. Trichinella
  68. 74. Elephantitus
  69. 75. Phylum Mollusca Mollusks
  70. 76. One Shell
  71. 77. Two Shell
  72. 78. No Shells
  73. 79. Nautilus
  74. 81. Squid
  75. 82. Octopus
  76. 83. Bilateral Symmetry
  77. 84. Phylum Annelidia Segmented Worms
  78. 86. Leech
  79. 87. Clamworm
  80. 88. Feather dusters
  81. 89. Phylum Arthropoda Arthropods
  82. 90. Arthropod Traits <ul><li>Segmented body, jointed legs, exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues and organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple excretory organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and nerve cords </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction (separate sexes) </li></ul>
  83. 91. 5 Major Arthropod Classes
  84. 92. Centipedes
  85. 93. Millipedes
  86. 94. Crustaceans
  87. 95. Crustaceans
  88. 96. Crustaceans
  89. 97. Crustaceans
  90. 98. Crustaceans
  91. 99. Insects
  92. 100. Insects
  93. 101. Insects
  94. 102. Arachnids
  95. 103. Arachnids
  96. 104. Arachnids
  97. 105. Arachnids
  98. 106. Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderms
  99. 107. Echinodermata = Spiny Skin
  100. 108. Water Vascular System
  101. 109. Tube Feet
  102. 110. Radial Symmetry
  103. 111. Brittle Sea Star
  104. 112. Sea Star
  105. 113. Sand Dollar
  106. 114. Sea Urchin
  107. 115. Sea Cucumber
  108. 116. Sea Star Eating
  109. 117. Phylum Chordata Chordates
  110. 118. Chordate Traits <ul><li>Dorsal notochord at some time </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal gill slits (or pouches) at some time </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal hollow nerve cord at some time </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul>
  111. 119. Chordate Traits <ul><li>Tissues and organs of vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills or lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired image forming eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction (separate sexes) </li></ul>
  112. 120. Invertebrate Chordates 2 groups
  113. 121. Tunicates
  114. 122. Lancets
  115. 123. Vertebrate Chordates 7 classes
  116. 124. 1. Agnatha
  117. 125. Lamprey
  118. 126. 2. Chondrichthyes
  119. 127. 2. Chondrichthyes
  120. 128. 2. Chondrichthyes
  121. 129. 3. Osteicthyes
  122. 130. 3. Osteicthyes
  123. 131. 3. Osteicthyes
  124. 132. Swim Bladder
  125. 133. 4. Amphibia
  126. 134. 4. Amphibia
  127. 135. 4. Amphibia
  128. 136. Two Stage Life Cycle
  129. 137. 5. Reptilia
  130. 138. 5. Reptilia
  131. 139. 5. Reptilia
  132. 140. 6. Aves
  133. 141. 6. Aves
  134. 142. 6. Aves
  135. 143. 6. Aves
  136. 144. 7. Mammalia
  137. 145. 7. Mammalia
  138. 146. 7. Mammalia
  139. 147. 7. Mammalia
  140. 148. 7. Mammalia
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