Biology - Chp 17 - How Life May Have Begun On Earth - PowerPoint
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Biology - Chp 17 - How Life May Have Begun On Earth - PowerPoint

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Biology - Chp 17 - How Life May Have Begun On Earth - PowerPoint Biology - Chp 17 - How Life May Have Begun On Earth - PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

  • How Life May Have Begun on Earth
  • Cell Theory
    • All living things are composed of cells
    • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
    • New cells are produced only from existing cells
  • Q: How were the first cells developed?
  • Heterotroph hypothesis
    • An explanation for how early life forms may have developed on the primitive Earth
  • Assumptions
    • Earth was hot
    • Lots of inorganic substances
      • Hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, water
    • Lots of energy
  •  
    • Energy from the Earths environment helped create chemical bonds among particles in the seas
    • This made the first organic molecules like sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides
  •  
  • Testing the Heterotroph Hypothesis
    • Stanley Miller & Harold Urey built the “Miller Urey apparatus”
    • This apparatus simulated the primitive environment
  • Miller Urey apparatus
  • More Testing of the Heterotroph Hypothesis
    • Sidney Fox conducted further experiments that joined these organic compounds into aggregates, similar to “cell-like” structures
  • It is hypothesized that…
    • Some of the large complex molecules formed aggregates which probably incorporated molecules from the seas as “food”
  • Q: What kind of nutrition is this?
    • A: Heterotroph
    • In time, these aggregates became increasingly complex and organized
    • These aggregates are considered to be “alive” when they develop the ability to reproduce
  • How modern day Earth conditions were thought to be created
    • It is thought that these heterotrophs evolved a pattern of respiration similar to the anerobic process of fermentation
  • Fermentation Pyruvic Acid + NADH alcohol + CO 2 NAD+
  •  
  • How modern day Earth conditions were thought to be created
    • Some heterotrophs evolved a means of using carbon dioxide to synthesize organic compounds
    CO 2 + H 2 O + C 6 H 12 O 6 O 2 light (Carbon Dioxide) (Water) (Sun) (Glucose) (Oxygen)
  • Q: What kind of nutrition is this?
    • A: Autotroph
  • With a Partner
    • Do questions 5, 11, 21, 34, 35, 36 in your review books