History of Medicine Factual Knowledge sheetHEALTH WARNING: this is the basics. If you want better marks, you need to go further than this!Industrial medicine (1700-1900)What people believed caused illness1. Miasmas. Poisoned air breathed in, created by the filth in the cities. Particularly made sense asindustrialisation polluted the air a great deal and they could see ‘bad’ air.2. Spontaneous generation. Germs appeared on things spontaneously and made them rot/go bad.People got ill when this happened to them.3. Germ Theory (1861/1864). Pasteur’s proof that germs were carried in the air and upon enteringthe blood stream made people ill. Spontaneous generation abandoned soon after, miasmas tooklonger to be abandoned.What treatments people used1. Herbal remedies passed through the generations.2. Patent medicines. Companies creating concoctions to ‘cure all’.3. Some prayer and magic still lingering.4. At end of 19thcentury, aspirin had been invented.Doctors, nurses and hospitals1. Doctors becoming more professional. University training included dissections, shadowing doctorsin hospital, new books and findings by leading doctors like John Hunter. Had to be registered sopeople knew they could be trusted. Expensive. Women were allowed by law to be doctors after1876.2. Nurses had emerged due to Florence Nightingale’s training schools and books. Capable andcommitted to cleanliness. Worked in hospitals.3. Hospitals had been changed dramatically. Nightingale had rewritten the rules: hospitals werelarge, well aired, spotless, staffed by nurses, efficient. Run by local councils, charities and thereforewere built randomly.Key people to know about1. Edward Jenner. English doctor who created vaccination (1796) after observing dairy maids withcowpox didn’t get small pox. Opposition to vaccination for years afterwards as it clashed with somany prevailing social attitudes and couldn’t be explained.2. Louis Pasteur. French chemist and discoverer of Germ Theory (1861) which transformedunderstanding of illness. Also explained how vaccination worked (1880) and developedvaccinations for anthrax and rabies.3. Robert Koch. German doctor who discovered how to identify individual germs. Great rivalry withPasteur.4. Florence Nightingale. Worked as nurse in Crimean War and then undertook to transform nursingand hospitals in the UK. Wrote Notes on Nursing (1859) and Notes on Hospitals (1863) and set up atraining school for nurses at St Thomas’s in London (1860).
5. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. First female doctor in the UK. Took on the system and gotgovernment to pass law allowing women to be doctors in 1876. Set up hospital for women run bywomen: New Hospital, London (1872).Factors pushing medicine on or holding it back1. Genius. Jenner, Pasteur, Koch.2. Scientific knowledge. Germ theory, identification of germs.3. Social attitudes. People more open to scientific ideas and less cautious about accepting GT.4. Luck. Vaccination, explaining how vaccination works.5. Communication. Books, telephone, telegram.6. Competition. Pasteur vs. Koch.7. Teamwork. Both P and K had large teams helping them with their work.8. Government. Grant to Jenner to develop vaccination, funding for P and K to develop their work.Exam board specifications highlight:Work of Pasteur and Koch, Germ Theory, importance of research teams, smallpox, Jenner andvaccination, improvements in hospitals, professionalization of doctors/nurses/midwives, FlorenceNightingale, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, patent medicines, improved communications andtechnology helping medical research.