Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 4


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Principles of Information Systems Sixth Edition, Written by Ralph Star, George Reynolds

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  • Software comprises an ever increasing proportion of total information systems costs; often 75% or more. This is largely due to the failure of software costs to decrease as rapidly as have hardware costs; the fact that software is far more complex and labor intensive to develop than is hardware; and the ongoing shortage of software developers, leading to high salaries as demand for developers increases.
  • Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 4

    1. 1. Software: Systems and Application Software Chapter 4
    2. 2. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>When selecting an operating system, you must consider the current and future needs for application software to meet the needs of the organization. In addition, your choice of a particular operating system must be consistent with your choice of hardware. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify & describe the functions of the 2 basic kinds of software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline the role of the operating system & identify the features of several popular operating systems. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Do not develop proprietary application software unless doing so will meet a compelling business need that can provide a competitive advantage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how applications software can support personal, workgroup, and enterprise business objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify 3 basic approaches to developing applications software and discuss the pros and cons of each. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Choose a programming language whose functional characteristics are appropriate to the task at hand, taking into consideration the skills and experience of the programming staff. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline the evolution of programming languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The software industry continues to undergo constant change; users need to be aware of recent trends and issues to be effective in their business and personal life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the five generations of programming languages. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. An Overview of Software <ul><li>Computer program - sequences of instructions for the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation - describes program functions </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software - coordinates the activities of hardware & programs </li></ul><ul><li>Applications software - helps users solve particular problems </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Importance of Software in Business
    7. 7. Supporting Individual, Group, and Organizational Goals
    8. 8. Operating Systems
    9. 9. Operating Systems <ul><li>Perform common hardware functions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Provide hardware independence </li></ul><ul><li>Manage system memory </li></ul><ul><li>Manage processing </li></ul><ul><li>Control access to system resources </li></ul><ul><li>Manage files </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Role of the Operating System
    11. 11. Common Hardware Functions <ul><li>Accept keyboard input </li></ul><ul><li>Store data on disks </li></ul><ul><li>Send data to output devices </li></ul>
    12. 12. User Interface <ul><li>Command-based interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hardware Independence
    14. 14. Memory Management
    15. 15. Processing Tasks <ul><li>Multitasking - more than one program can run at a time using a single processor </li></ul><ul><li>Time-sharing - multiple users can simultaneously use the resources of a single processor </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability - easy adaptation to more users or tasks </li></ul>
    16. 16. Access to System Resources <ul><li>Protection against unauthorized access </li></ul><ul><li>Logins and passwords </li></ul>
    17. 17. Personal Computer Operating Systems
    18. 18. Personal Computer Operating Systems
    19. 19. Workgroup Operating Systems <ul><li>Netware </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Server </li></ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Red Hat Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X Server </li></ul>
    20. 20. Enterprise Operating Systems <ul><li>IBM’s OS/390 </li></ul><ul><li>HP’s MPE/iX (Multiprogramming Executive with integrated POSIX) </li></ul><ul><li>IBM’s z/OS </li></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul>
    21. 21. Consumer Appliance Operating Systems <ul><li>Windows CE.NET </li></ul><ul><li>Mobil Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP Embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld PC </li></ul><ul><li>Pocket PC </li></ul><ul><li>Palm OS </li></ul>
    22. 22. Nokia 7650
    23. 23. Utility Programs
    24. 24. Types and Functions of Applications Software
    25. 25. Sources of Software
    26. 26. Comparison of Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software
    27. 27. Personal Application Software
    28. 28. Personal and Application Software
    29. 29. Personal and Application Software
    30. 30. TurboTax
    31. 31. Quicken
    32. 32. Word Processing
    33. 33. Spreadsheet Analysis
    34. 34. Database Applications
    35. 35. Graphics Programs
    36. 36. On-Line Information Systems
    37. 37. Software Suite
    38. 38. Major Components of Leading Software Suites
    39. 39. Workgroup Application Software <ul><li>Groupware </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative computing software </li></ul>
    40. 40. Group Scheduling
    41. 41. Examples of Enterprise Application Software
    42. 42. Enterprise Application Software
    43. 43. Selected Enterprise Resource Vendors
    44. 44. Programming Languages <ul><li>Commands and statements combined according to a particular syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Different languages have different characteristics </li></ul>
    45. 45. Programming Languages
    46. 46. First-Generation Languages <ul><li>Machine language </li></ul><ul><li>ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) </li></ul>
    47. 47. Second-Generation Languages <ul><li>Assembly languages </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblers </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic language </li></ul>
    48. 48. Third-Generation Languages
    49. 49. Fourth-Generation Languages <ul><li>4GLs </li></ul><ul><li>Programs tell the CPU the desired results, not how to get them </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: SQL, SAS </li></ul>
    50. 50. Fifth-Generation Languages <ul><li>5GLs </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a visual or graphical development interface to create source language </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Visual Basic, PC COBOL, and Visual C++ </li></ul>
    51. 51. Object-Oriented Programming Languages <ul><li>Objects - data and actions that can be performed on the data </li></ul><ul><li>Encapsulation - group items into an object </li></ul><ul><li>Polymorphism - one procedure can work with multiple objects </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance - an object in a particular class gets attributes of that class </li></ul>
    52. 52. Object-Oriented Programming Languages
    53. 53. Software Issues & Trends <ul><li>Software bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Open source software </li></ul><ul><li>Software licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Software upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>Global software support </li></ul><ul><li>Antitrust issues for software </li></ul>
    54. 54. How to Deal with Software Bugs
    55. 55. Summary <ul><li>Software - consists of programs that control the workings of the computer hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system - set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Application - software that applies the power of the computer to solve problems and perform specific tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Programming languages - provide instructions to a computer to perform some processing activity </li></ul>