Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices Chapter 3
Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Assembling an effective, efficient computer system requires an understanding of...
Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>When selecting computer devices, you also must consider the current and future ...
Hardware Components <ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage (main memory; memory) </li></u...
Hardware Components
Hardware Components in Action <ul><li>Step 1 : Fetch instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : Decode instruction </li></ul><...
Hardware Components in Action
Processing & Memory Devices
Processing Characteristics and Functions <ul><li>Machine cycle time is measured in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microseconds (1 ...
Processing Characteristics and Functions <ul><li>Clock speed : electronic pulses affecting machine cycle time </li></ul><u...
Clock Speed
Wordlength and Bus Line Width <ul><li>Bits ( B inary  D ig its ):  smallest form of data in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Physical Characteristics of the CPU <ul><li>Digital circuits on chips </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical current flows through s...
Physical Characteristics of the CPU <ul><li>Superconductivity  - property of certain metals that allows current to flow wi...
Moore’s Law
Complex and Reduced  Instruction Set Computing   <ul><li>Complex instruction set computing (CISC)  -  places as many micro...
Memory Characteristics and Functions
Storage Capacity
Types of Memory
Types of RAM <ul><li>EDO (Extended Data Out)  </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM (Dynamic RAM)  </li></ul><ul><li>SDRAM (Synchronous D...
Types of ROM <ul><li>ROM (read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>PROM (programmable read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM...
Cache Memory
Multiprocessing <ul><li>Speeds processing by linking hundreds and even thousands of processors to operate at the same time...
Massively Parallel Processing
Secondary Storage
Secondary Storage <ul><li>Offers the advantages of nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy </li></ul><ul><li>...
Secondary Storage
Access Methods <ul><li>Sequential : records must be retrieved in order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices used are called seque...
Devices <ul><li>Magnetic tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic disks </li></ul><ul><li>RAID </li></ul><ul><li>Storage area netw...
Types of Secondary Storage
Magnetic Disks
Storage Area Network
Digital Versatile Disk
Additional Devices and Media <ul><li>Memory cards </li></ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable storage </li...
Expandable Storage
Comparison of Secondary Storage Devices
Characteristics and Functionality   <ul><li>Data  - can be human or machine readable </li></ul><ul><li>Data entry  - conve...
Input and Output Devices
Input Devices <ul><li>Personal computer input devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li...
Digital Computer Cameras
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Device
Output Devices   <ul><li>Display monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Printers and plotters </li></ul><ul><li>Music devices </li></u...
Printers
Computer System Types
Computer System Types
Standards
Standards
Selecting and Upgrading Computer Systems <ul><li>Hard drive considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Main memory considerations <...
Price List
Summary <ul><li>Hardware  - includes any machinery that assists with the input, processing, and output activities of a CBI...
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Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 3

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Principles of Information Systems Sixth Edition, Written by Ralph Star, George Reynolds

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  • Chapter 3 discusses the technology used to input, process and output data. Hardware includes any machinery that participates in the input, output, processing, storage, or transmission activities of an information system. Most all hardware today consists of digital circuits. Hardware decisions are based in an understanding of how the hardware can be used to to support business goals.
  • Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 3

    1. 1. Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices Chapter 3
    2. 2. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Assembling an effective, efficient computer system requires an understanding of its relationship to the information system and the organization. The computer system objectives are subordinate to, but supportive of, the information system and the needs of the organization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how to select and organize computer system components to support information system objectives and business organization needs. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>When selecting computer devices, you also must consider the current and future needs of the information system and the organization.Your choice of a particular computer system device should always allow for later improvements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the power, speed, and capacity of central processing and memory devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the access methods, capacity, and portability of secondary storage devices . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the speed, functionality, and importance of input and output devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify popular classes of computer systems and discuss the role of each. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Hardware Components <ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage (main memory; memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Input devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output devices </li></ul>
    5. 5. Hardware Components
    6. 6. Hardware Components in Action <ul><li>Step 1 : Fetch instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : Decode instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 : Execute the instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 : Store results </li></ul>
    7. 7. Hardware Components in Action
    8. 8. Processing & Memory Devices
    9. 9. Processing Characteristics and Functions <ul><li>Machine cycle time is measured in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microseconds (1 millionth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanoseconds (1 billionth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picoseconds (1 trillionth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIPS (Millions of Instructions Processed per Second) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Processing Characteristics and Functions <ul><li>Clock speed : electronic pulses affecting machine cycle time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hertz: one cycle (pulse) per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per second </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microcode : internal, predefined elementary operations in a CPU </li></ul>
    11. 11. Clock Speed
    12. 12. Wordlength and Bus Line Width <ul><li>Bits ( B inary D ig its ): smallest form of data in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Word: number of bits that can be processed as a unit </li></ul><ul><li>Bus lines: electrical paths of data flow </li></ul>
    13. 13. Physical Characteristics of the CPU <ul><li>Digital circuits on chips </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical current flows through silicon </li></ul><ul><li>Moore’s Law - transistor density of chips will double every 18 months </li></ul>
    14. 14. Physical Characteristics of the CPU <ul><li>Superconductivity - property of certain metals that allows current to flow with minimal electrical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Optical processors - uses light waves instead of electrical current </li></ul>
    15. 15. Moore’s Law
    16. 16. Complex and Reduced Instruction Set Computing <ul><li>Complex instruction set computing (CISC) - places as many microcode instructions into the central processor as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) - involves reducing the number of microcode instructions built into a chip to an essential set of common microcode instructions </li></ul>
    17. 17. Memory Characteristics and Functions
    18. 18. Storage Capacity
    19. 19. Types of Memory
    20. 20. Types of RAM <ul><li>EDO (Extended Data Out) </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM (Dynamic RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Types of ROM <ul><li>ROM (read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>PROM (programmable read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Cache Memory
    23. 23. Multiprocessing <ul><li>Speeds processing by linking hundreds and even thousands of processors to operate at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Can coordinate large amounts of data and access them with greater speed </li></ul>
    24. 24. Massively Parallel Processing
    25. 25. Secondary Storage
    26. 26. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Offers the advantages of nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy </li></ul><ul><li>Access methods, storage capacities, and portability required are determined by the information system’s objectives </li></ul>
    27. 27. Secondary Storage
    28. 28. Access Methods <ul><li>Sequential : records must be retrieved in order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices used are called sequential access storage devices (SASD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct : records can be retrieved in any order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices used are called direct access storage devices (DASDs) </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Devices <ul><li>Magnetic tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic disks </li></ul><ul><li>RAID </li></ul><ul><li>Storage area networks (SAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disks </li></ul><ul><li>Magneto-optical (MO) disks </li></ul><ul><li>Digital versatile disks (DVDs) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Types of Secondary Storage
    31. 31. Magnetic Disks
    32. 32. Storage Area Network
    33. 33. Digital Versatile Disk
    34. 34. Additional Devices and Media <ul><li>Memory cards </li></ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable storage </li></ul>
    35. 35. Expandable Storage
    36. 36. Comparison of Secondary Storage Devices
    37. 37. Characteristics and Functionality <ul><li>Data - can be human or machine readable </li></ul><ul><li>Data entry - converts human readable data into machine-readable form </li></ul><ul><li>Data input - transfers machine-readable data into the system </li></ul><ul><li>Source data automation - capturing and editing data at its source </li></ul>
    38. 38. Input and Output Devices
    39. 39. Input Devices <ul><li>Personal computer input devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice-recognition devices </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Terminals </li></ul>
    40. 40. Digital Computer Cameras
    41. 41. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Device
    42. 42. Output Devices <ul><li>Display monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Printers and plotters </li></ul><ul><li>Music devices </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive matrix </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Printers
    44. 44. Computer System Types
    45. 45. Computer System Types
    46. 46. Standards
    47. 47. Standards
    48. 48. Selecting and Upgrading Computer Systems <ul><li>Hard drive considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Main memory considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Printer considerations </li></ul>
    49. 49. Price List
    50. 50. Summary <ul><li>Hardware - includes any machinery that assists with the input, processing, and output activities of a CBIS </li></ul><ul><li>Processing speed - often measured by the time it takes to complete one machine cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage (memory) - provides working storage for program instructions and data </li></ul><ul><li>Common forms of secondary storage - magnetic tape, magnetic disk, compact disk, digital video disk, and optical disk storage </li></ul>
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