Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 13


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Principles of Information Systems Sixth Edition, Written by Ralph Star, George Reynolds

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  • The design or acquisition, implementation, and maintenance of a system affect all an organization’s functioning. Users should understand the design, implementation, maintenance, and review stages of the SDLC covered in Chapter 13 so that they can participate in the development of good information systems in the organization. After studying this chapter, you should be able to address the objectives on the next 3 slides.
  • Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 13

    1. 1. Systems Design, Implementation, Maintenance, and Review Chapter 13
    2. 2. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Designing new systems or modifying existing ones should always be aimed at helping an organization achieve its goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State the purpose of systems design and discuss the differences between logical and physical systems design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline key steps taken during the design phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe some considerations and diagrams used during object-oriented design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the term RFP and discuss how this document is used to drive the acquisition of hardware and software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the techniques used to make systems selection evaluations. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>The primary emphasis of systems implementation is to make sure that the right information is delivered to the right person in the right format at the right time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State the purpose of systems implementation and discuss the various activities associated with this phase of systems development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the advantages and disadvantages of purchasing versus developing software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the software development process and some of the tools used in this process, including object-oriented program development tools. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Maintenance and review add to the useful life of a system but can consume large amounts of resources. These activities can benefit from the same rigorous methods and project management techniques applied to systems development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State the importance of systems and software maintenance and discuss the activities involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the systems review process. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Systems Design
    6. 6. Top Uses for New Systems in Various Industries
    7. 7. Logical Design <ul><li>Output design: types, format, content, frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Input design: types, format, content, frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Process design: calculations, comparisons, manipulations </li></ul><ul><li>File & database design: capabilities and organization </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications design: high-level network description </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures design: automated & manual </li></ul><ul><li>Controls & security design </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel & job design </li></ul>
    8. 8. Physical Design <ul><li>Hardware design </li></ul><ul><li>Software design </li></ul><ul><li>Database design </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications design </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel design </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures and controls design </li></ul>
    9. 9. Special System Design Considerations <ul><li>Procedures for signing on </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive processing </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive dialog </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing, detecting, and correcting errors </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Scope of Design
    11. 11. Procedures for Signing On
    12. 12. Interactive Processing
    13. 13. Emergency Alternate Procedures & Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Telecommunications backup </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel backup </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware backup </li></ul><ul><li>Software and database backup </li></ul>
    14. 14. Hardware Backup <ul><li>Disaster recovery plans </li></ul><ul><li>Hot site </li></ul><ul><li>Cold site </li></ul>
    15. 15. Software & Database Backup <ul><li>Selective backups </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental backups </li></ul><ul><li>Image log </li></ul>
    16. 16. Preventing, Detecting, and Correcting Errors
    17. 17. Object-Oriented Design
    18. 18. Systems Controls <ul><li>Deterrence controls </li></ul><ul><li>Input controls </li></ul><ul><li>Processing controls </li></ul><ul><li>Output controls </li></ul><ul><li>Database controls </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications controls </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel controls </li></ul>
    19. 19. Request for Proposal
    20. 20. Financial Options
    21. 21. Cost/Benefit Analysis
    22. 22. Cost/Benefit Analysis
    23. 23. Evaluation Techniques <ul><li>Group consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark tests </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/benefit analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Point evaluation </li></ul>
    24. 24. The Final Evaluation
    25. 25. Point Evaluation
    26. 26. Freezing Design Specifications
    27. 27. The Design Report
    28. 28. Systems Implementation
    29. 29. Systems Implementation
    30. 30. Acquiring Software: Make or Buy Software? <ul><li>Externally developed software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of installation </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Make or Buy Software <ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review needs, requirements, and costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modify or customize software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire software interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test and accept the software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain the software </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. In-House Developed Software <ul><li>Chief programmer teams </li></ul><ul><li>The programming life cycle </li></ul>
    33. 33. Chief Programmer Teams
    34. 34. The Programming Life Cycle
    35. 35. Tools & Techniques for Software Development <ul><li>Cross-platform development </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated development environments </li></ul><ul><li>CASE tools </li></ul><ul><li>Structured design </li></ul><ul><li>Structured programming </li></ul><ul><li>Structured walkthroughs </li></ul>
    36. 36. Characteristics of Structured Programming
    37. 37. Structured Design and Programming
    38. 38. Structured Design and Programming
    39. 39. Structured Walkthroughs
    40. 40. Additional Implementation Activities <ul><li>Acquiring database and telecommunication systems </li></ul><ul><li>User preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring and training IS personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Site preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Data preparation </li></ul>
    41. 41. Additional Implementation Activities <ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance testing </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Testing
    43. 43. Start-Up Approaches
    44. 44. Start-Up Approaches
    45. 45. Systems Maintenance
    46. 46. Reasons for Maintenance <ul><li>Changes in business processes </li></ul><ul><li>Requests from stakeholders, users, or managers </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in the program </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and hardware problems </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate mergers & acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the operating system or hardware </li></ul>
    47. 47. Types of Maintenance <ul><li>Slipstream upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Patch </li></ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul><ul><li>Version </li></ul>
    48. 48. The Financial Implications of Maintenance
    49. 49. The Relationship Between Maintenance and Design
    50. 50. Systems Review
    51. 51. Types of Review Procedures
    52. 52. Factors to Consider During Systems Review <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware/software </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>IS personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Response time </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul>
    53. 53. Summary <ul><li>Systems design - preparing detailed design needs for a new system or modifying an existing system </li></ul><ul><li>Systems implementation – installing the system and making everything, including users, ready for its operation </li></ul><ul><li>Software - can be purchased from vendors or developed in-house - a decision termed the make-or-buy </li></ul><ul><li>Systems maintenance - involves checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in obtaining user and organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>Systems review - the process of analyzing systems to make sure that they are operating as intended </li></ul>