Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 12


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Principles of Information Systems Sixth Edition, Written by Ralph Star, George Reynolds

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  • Systems development involves creating new systems or modifying existing business systems. After studying this chapter, you should be able to address the objectives on the next 3 slides.
  • Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 12

    1. 1. Systems Investigation and Analysis Chapter 12
    2. 2. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Effective systems development requires a team effort of stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel, and it starts with careful planning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the key participants in the systems development process and discuss their roles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the term information systems planning and list several reasons for initiating a systems project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify important system performance requirements for applications that run on the Internet or a corporate intranet or extranet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss three trends that illustrate the impact of enterprise resource planning software packages on systems development. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Systems development often uses tools to select, implement, and monitor projects, including net present value (NPV), prototyping, rapid application development, CASE tools, and object-oriented development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, and end-user systems development life cycles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify several factors that influence the success or failure of a systems development project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the use of CASE tools and the object-oriented approach to systems development. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Systems development starts with investigation and analysis of existing systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State the purpose of systems investigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the importance of performance and cost objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the purpose of systems analysis and discuss some of the tools and techniques used in this phase of systems development. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. An Overview of Systems Development
    6. 6. Participants in Systems Development
    7. 7. Initiating Systems Development
    8. 8. Information Systems Planning
    9. 9. Aligning Corporate and IS Goals
    10. 10. Developing a Competitive Advantage <ul><li>Creative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Critical analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Going beyond automating manual systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and resolve conflicting objectives </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Establishing Objectives for Systems Development <ul><li>Performance objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Output quality or usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output format quality or usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed at which output is produced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing operating costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniqueness costs </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Systems Development and E-Commerce <ul><li>Internet technology - enables companies to extend their information systems beyond their boundaries to reach their customers, suppliers, and partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Core Business Application that runs over the Web - must be reliable and fault tolerant, providing continuous availability while processing all transactions accurately. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Trends in Systems Development and ERP <ul><li>ERP vendor as one-stop provider </li></ul><ul><li>Applications to integrate with ERP systems </li></ul><ul><li>External consulting </li></ul>
    14. 14. Systems Development Life Cycles
    15. 15. Systems Development Life Cycles
    16. 16. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
    17. 17. Advantages and Disadvantages of Traditional SDLC
    18. 18. Prototyping
    19. 19. Prototyping
    20. 20. Advantages and Disadvantages of Prototyping
    21. 21. Rapid Application Development (RAD)
    22. 22. Reasons for Outsourcing
    23. 23. Factors Affecting Systems Development Success <ul><li>Degree of Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Improvement versus Reengineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing change </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Factors Affecting Systems Development Success
    25. 25. Quality and Standards
    26. 26. The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
    27. 27. Project Management <ul><li>Project schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Project milestone </li></ul><ul><li>Project deadline </li></ul><ul><li>Critical path </li></ul>
    28. 28. Use of Project Management Tools
    29. 29. Use of Project Management Tools
    30. 30. Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools <ul><li>Automate many of the tasks required in a systems development effort and enforce adherence to the SDLC, thus instilling a high degree of rigor and standardization to the entire systems development process </li></ul><ul><li>Upper-CASE tools - CASE packages that focus on activities associated with the early stages of systems development. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower-CASE tools - focus on the later stages of systems development and are capable of automatically generating structured program code. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated-CASE tools - provide links between upper- and lower-CASE packages. </li></ul>
    31. 31. CASE Tools
    32. 32. Object-Oriented Systems Development <ul><li>Object-oriented systems development typically involves: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying potential problems and opportunities within the organization that would be appropriate for the OO approach </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the kind of system users require </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the system </li></ul><ul><li>Programming or modifying modules </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation by users </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic review and modification </li></ul>
    33. 33. Systems Investigation <ul><li>In general, systems investigation attempts to uncover answers to the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are required in a new system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the associated risks? </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Participants in Systems Investigation
    35. 35. Feasibility Analysis
    36. 36. Sample Net Present Value Calculation
    37. 37. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation
    38. 38. The Systems Investigation Report
    39. 39. Systems Analysis
    40. 40. Identifying Sources of Data
    41. 41. Collecting Data
    42. 42. Data Analysis <ul><li>Data modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Activity modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Application flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>Grid charts </li></ul><ul><li>CASE tools </li></ul>
    43. 43. Data and Activity Modeling
    44. 44. Application Flowcharts
    45. 45. Grid Charts
    46. 46. Requirements Analysis <ul><li>Asking directly </li></ul><ul><li>Critical success factors (CSFs) </li></ul><ul><li>The IS plan </li></ul><ul><li>Screen and report layout </li></ul>
    47. 47. The IS Plan
    48. 48. Screen and Report Layout
    49. 49. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
    50. 50. The Systems Analysis Report
    51. 51. Summary <ul><li>Systems development team - of stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Five phases of the traditional SDLC - investigation, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance and review </li></ul><ul><li>Systems investigation participants - stakeholders, users, managers, employees, analysts, and programmers </li></ul>