Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 11


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Principles of Information Systems Sixth Edition, Written by Ralph Star, George Reynolds

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  • Chapter 11 discusses specialized information systems used in business, including artificial intelligence, or AI, expert systems, and virtual reality. After studying this chapter, you should be able to address the objectives on the next 3 slides.
  • Principles of Information Systems - Chapter 11

    1. 1. Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 11
    2. 2. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify at least three factors to consider in evaluating the development of an expert system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems . </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Principles and Learning Objectives <ul><li>Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information creatively. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special-purpose systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss examples of special-purpose systems for organizational and individual use. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. An Overview of Artificial Intelligence
    6. 6. The Nature of Intelligence <ul><li>Learn from experience & apply the knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Handle complex situations </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems when important information is missing </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what is important </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Nature of Intelligence <ul><li>React quickly & correctly to new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Understand visual images </li></ul><ul><li>Process & manipulate symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative & imaginative </li></ul><ul><li>Use heuristics </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Difference Between Natural and Artificial Intelligence
    9. 9. The Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence
    10. 10. An Overview of Expert Systems
    11. 11. Characteristics of an Expert System <ul><li>Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Can display “intelligent” behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Can draw conclusions from complex relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide portable knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Can deal with uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Not widely used or tested </li></ul>
    12. 12. Characteristics of an Expert System <ul><li>Limited to relatively narrow problems </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of error </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot refine its own knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>May have high development costs </li></ul><ul><li>Raise legal and ethical concerns </li></ul>
    13. 13. Capabilities of an Expert Systems <ul><li>Strategic goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control and monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul>
    14. 14. Capabilities of Expert Systems
    15. 15. When to Use Expert Systems <ul><li>High payoff </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve scarce expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Provide more consistency than humans </li></ul><ul><li>Faster solutions than humans </li></ul><ul><li>Training expertise </li></ul>
    16. 16. Components of an Expert System
    17. 17. Knowledge Base <ul><li>Assembling human experts </li></ul><ul><li>The use of fuzzy logic </li></ul><ul><li>The use of rules </li></ul><ul><li>The use of cases </li></ul>
    18. 18. Knowledge Base
    19. 19. Inference Engine <ul><li>Backward chaining </li></ul><ul><li>Forward chaining </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of backward and forward chaining </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Use of Rules
    21. 21. The Knowledge Acquisition Facility
    22. 22. Components of an Expert System <ul><li>The explanation facility </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge acquisition facility </li></ul><ul><li>The user interface </li></ul>
    23. 23. Expert Systems Development
    24. 24. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems <ul><li>Domain expert </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge user </li></ul>
    25. 25. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems
    26. 26. Domain Experts <ul><li>Recognize the real problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a general framework for problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate theories about the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and use general rules to solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Know when to break the rules or general principles </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems quickly and efficiently </li></ul>
    27. 27. Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques
    28. 28. Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques
    29. 29. Expert Systems Development Alternatives
    30. 30. Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Credit granting and loan analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Stock picking </li></ul><ul><li>Catching cheats and terrorists </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting </li></ul>
    31. 31. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Information management and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Virus detection </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals and medical facilities </li></ul>
    32. 32. Virtual Reality
    33. 33. Virtual Reality <ul><li>Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment </li></ul><ul><li>Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment </li></ul>
    34. 34. Segway
    35. 35. Interface Devices <ul><li>Head-mounted display (HMD) </li></ul><ul><li>Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) </li></ul><ul><li>CAVE </li></ul><ul><li>Haptic interface </li></ul>
    36. 36. Forms of Virtual Reality <ul><li>Mouse-controlled navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo projection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses </li></ul>
    37. 37. Useful Applications <ul><li>Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Useful Applications <ul><li>Real Estate Marketing and Tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to increase real estate sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual reality tour of the White House </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Other Specialized Systems <ul><li>Segway Personal Transporter </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive brain interface technology </li></ul><ul><li>Personal awareness assistant (PAA) </li></ul>
    40. 40. Summary <ul><li>Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual reality systems - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment </li></ul><ul><li>Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways. For example, Segway </li></ul>