Chapter07: managing data resources

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Chapter07: managing data resources

  1. 1. 7 MANAGING DATA RESOURCES Chapter
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why do businesses have trouble finding the information they need in their information systems? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a database management system help businesses improve the organization of their information? </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources OBJECTIVES
  3. 3. <ul><li>How do the principal types of database models affect the way businesses can access and use information? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the managerial and organizational requirements of a data-base environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What new tools and technologies can make databases more accessible and useful? </li></ul>OBJECTIVES Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources
  4. 4. <ul><li>Organizational obstacles to a database environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/benefit considerations </li></ul>MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources
  5. 5. <ul><li>Bit: Smallest unit of data; binary digit (0,1) </li></ul><ul><li>Byte: Group of bits that represents a single character </li></ul><ul><li>Field: Group of words or a complete number </li></ul>File Organization Terms and Concepts Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  6. 6. <ul><li>Record: Group of related fields </li></ul><ul><li>File: Group of records of same type </li></ul><ul><li>Database: Group of related files </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources File Organization Terms and Concepts ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  7. 7. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Data Hierarchy in a Computer System ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Figure 7-1
  8. 8. <ul><li>Entity: Person, place, thing, event about which information is maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute: Description of a particular entity </li></ul><ul><li>Key field: Identifier field used to retrieve, update, sort a record </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources File Organization Terms and Concepts ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  9. 9. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Entitities and Attributes ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Figure 7-2
  10. 10. <ul><li>Data redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Program-Data dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Poor security </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of data-sharing and availability </li></ul>ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Problems with the Traditional File Environment
  11. 11. Traditional File Processing Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Figure 7-3
  12. 12. THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Creates and maintains databases </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates requirement for data definition statements </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as interface between application programs and physical data files </li></ul><ul><li>Separates logical and design views of data </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Database Management System (DBMS)
  13. 13. The Contemporary Database Environment Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Figure 7-4
  14. 14. Components of DBMS <ul><li>Data definition language: Specifies content and structure of database and defines each data element </li></ul><ul><li>Data manipulation language: </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulates data in a database </li></ul><ul><li>Data dictionary: Stores definitions of data elements, and data characteristics </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  15. 15. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Sample Data Dictionary Report THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Figure 7-5
  16. 16. Types of Databases <ul><li>Relational DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical and Network DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Object-Oriented Databases </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  17. 17. Relational DBMS Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources <ul><li>Represents data as two-dimensional tables called relations </li></ul><ul><li>Relates data across tables based on common data element </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: DB2, Oracle, MS SQL Server </li></ul>THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  18. 18. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Relational Data Model THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Figure 7-6
  19. 19. Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources <ul><li>Select: Creates subset of rows that meet specific criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Join: Combines relational tables to provide users with information </li></ul><ul><li>Project: Enables users to create new tables containing only relevant information </li></ul>THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  20. 20. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database Figure 7-7
  21. 21. Hierarchical and Network DBMS <ul><li>Hierarchical DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes data in a tree-like structure </li></ul><ul><li>Supports one-to-many parent-child relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalent in large legacy systems </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  22. 22. Hierarchical DBMS Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Figure 7-8
  23. 23. Hierarchical and Network DBMS <ul><li>Network DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts data logically as many-to-many relationships </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  24. 24. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Network DBMS THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Figure 7-9
  25. 25. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated </li></ul><ul><li>Less flexible compared to RDBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Lack support for ad-hoc and English language-like queries </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Hierarchical and Network DBMS THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  26. 26. <ul><li>Object-oriented DBMS: Stores data and procedures as objects that can be retrieved and shared automatically </li></ul><ul><li>Object-relational DBMS: Provides capabilities of both object-oriented and relational DBMS </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Object-Oriented databases THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  27. 27. <ul><li>Conceptual design: Abstract model of database from a business perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Physical design: Detailed description of business information needs </li></ul>CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Designing Databases
  28. 28. <ul><li>Entity-relationship diagram: Methodology for documenting databases illustrating relationships between database entities </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization: Process of creating small stable data structures from complex groups of data </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Designing Databases
  29. 29. An Entity-Relationship Diagram Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Figure 7-10
  30. 30. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT An Unnormalized Relation of ORDER Figure 7-11
  31. 31. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT An Normalized Relation of ORDER Figure 7-12
  32. 32. <ul><li>Centralized database </li></ul><ul><li>Used by single central processor or multiple processors in client/server network </li></ul>Distributing Databases Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT
  33. 33. <ul><li>Distributed database </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in more than one physical location </li></ul><ul><li>Partitioned database </li></ul><ul><li>Duplicated database </li></ul>Distributing Databases Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT
  34. 34. Distributed Databases Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Figure 7-13
  35. 35. <ul><li>Key elements in a database environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Data Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Data Planning and Modeling Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Database Technology and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul>Management Requirements for Database Systems Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT
  36. 36. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Management Requirements for Database Systems Figure 7-14
  37. 37. <ul><li>On-line analytical processing (OLAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Supports manipulation and analysis of large volumes of data from multiple dimensions/perspectives </li></ul>Multidimensional Data Analysis Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources DATABASE TRENDS
  38. 38. Multidimensional Data Model Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources DATABASE TRENDS Figure 7-15
  39. 39. <ul><li>Data warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Supports reporting and query tools </li></ul><ul><li>Stores current and historical data </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidates data for management analysis and decision making </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Data Warehousing and Datamining DATABASE TRENDS
  40. 40. Components of a Data Warehouse Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources DATABASE TRENDS Figure 7-16
  41. 41. <ul><li>Data mart </li></ul><ul><li>Subset of data warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Contains summarized or highly focused portion of data for a specified function or group of users </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Data Warehousing and Datamining DATABASE TRENDS
  42. 42. <ul><li>Datamining </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for analyzing large pools of data </li></ul><ul><li>Find hidden patterns and infer rules to predict trends </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Data Warehousing and Datamining DATABASE TRENDS
  43. 43. <ul><li>Improved and easy accessibility to information </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to model and remodel the data </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Benefits of Data Warehouses DATABASE TRENDS
  44. 44. Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Databases and the Web <ul><li>The Web and Hypermedia database </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes data as network of nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Links nodes in pattern specified by user </li></ul><ul><li>Supports text, graphic, sound, video and executable programs </li></ul>DATABASE TRENDS
  45. 45. A Hypermedia Database Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources DATABASE TRENDS Figure 7-17
  46. 46. <ul><li>Database server </li></ul><ul><li>Computer in a client/server environment runs a DBMS to process SQL statements and perform database management tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Application server </li></ul><ul><li>Software handling all application operations </li></ul>Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources Databases and the Web DATABASE TRENDS
  47. 47. Linking Internal Databases to the Web Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources DATABASE TRENDS Figure 7-18
  48. 48. 7 MANAGING DATA RESOURCES Chapter

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