video recorder, handheld calculator, computer mouse
compact disc, gene splicing, laser printer
MS-DOS, space shuttle, CD-ROM
taxol, Pentium processor, Java
mapping of human genome, first cloning of human embryo
Adapted from Exhibit 7.1 1
Technology Cycles 1.1 Technology Cycle A cycle that begins with the “birth” of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and is replaced by a newer, better technology.
S-Curves and Technological Innovation Adapted from Exhibit 7.2 1.1 Effort Performance Discontinuity New Technology A B C
Innovation Streams 1.2 Innovation Streams Patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage. Technological Discontinuity A scientific advance or unique combination of existing technologies that creates a significant breakthrough in performance or function.
Innovation Streams: Technology Cycles over Time Adapted from Exhibit 7.4 1.2 Era of Ferment (1) Variation Selection Technological Discontinuity (1) Dominant Design (1) Era of Incremental Change (2) Era of Ferment (2) Variation Selection Technological Discontinuity (2) Dominant Design (2) Technological Substitution Era of Incremental Change (1)
Managing Innovation 2 Managing Sources of innovation Managing During Discontinuous Change Managing During Incremental Change
Managing Sources of Innovation 2.1 Creative work environments Workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are encouraged Flow The psychological state of effortlessness in which you become absorbed in your work and time seems to pass quickly
Components of Creative Work Environments 2.1 Adapted from Exhibit 7.5 Creative Work Environments Challenging Work Work Group Encouragement Lack of Organiz. Impediments Supervisory Encouragement Organizational Encouragement Freedom Flow
Managing Change Managing resistance to change 4 What not to do when leading change Different change tools and techniques
Managing Resistance to Change Unfreezing Change Intervention Refreezing
Top management support
Managing Resistance to Change 4.1 Education and Communication Participation Negotiation Managerial Support Coercion
Errors Made when Leading Change 4.2 Adapted from Exhibit 7.8 Unfreezing
Not establishing a great enough sense of urgency.
2. Not creating a powerful enough guiding coalition. Change 3. Lacking a vision. 4. Undercommunicating the vision by a factor of 10. 5. Not removing obstacles to the new vision. 6. Not systematically planning for and creating short-term wins. Refreezing 7. Declaring victory too soon. 8. Not anchoring changes in the corporation’s culture.
Change Tools and Techniques 4.3 Results-Driven Change General Electric Workout Transition Management Teams Organizational Development
Results-Driven Change Adapted from Exhibit 7.9 4.3
Create measurable short-term goals to improve performance
2. Use action steps only if likely to improve performance
Stress the importance of immediate improvements
4. Consultants and staffers should help managers achieve quick improvements in performance
Test action steps to see if they yield improvements
It takes few resources to get results-driven change started
Adapted from Exhibit 7.11 General Steps for Organizational Development Interventions 4.3
Kinds of OD Interventions Adapted from Exhibit 7.12 4.3 LARGE SYSTEM INTERVENTIONS Sociotechnical systems Survey feedback SMALL GROUP INTERVENTIONS Team building Unit goal setting PERSON-FOCUSED INTERVENTIONS Counseling/Coaching Training
What Really Works Change the Work Setting or Change the People? Changing the Work Setting 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 55% Changing the People 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 57% Changing Individual Behavior & Organizational Performance 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 76%