Chapter 13 Motivation


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Management 4th Edition written by Chuck Williams

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Chapter 13 Motivation

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Prepared by Deborah Baker Texas Christian University Motivation Management 4th Edition Chuck Williams
  2. 2. What Would You Do? <ul><li>Wegmans is feeling the pressure from Wal-Mart </li></ul><ul><li>How can Wegmans differentiate themselves in the highly competitive grocery business? </li></ul><ul><li>Wegmans can’t compete on price, so outstanding customer service is key </li></ul>Wegmans’ Headquarters, Rochester, New York. How can you motivate people to work at Wegmans? How do you motivate them to give exceptional service and make a career there?
  3. 3. What Is Motivation? After reading this section, you should be able to: <ul><li>explain the basics of motivation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation Initiation Persistence Direction Motivation
  5. 5. Basics of Motivation 1 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Motivating People Effort and Performance Need Satisfaction
  6. 6. Effort and Performance 1.1 Performance Effort <ul><li>Initiation </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effort and Performance <ul><li>Job performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how well someone performs the job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effort put forth on the job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capability to do the job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external factors affecting performance </li></ul></ul>Job Performance = Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints 1.1
  8. 8. Doing the Right Thing <ul><li>Faking It, Not Making It </li></ul><ul><li>With technology, you may be tempted to look like you’re working hard when you aren’t </li></ul><ul><li>But, you’re usually leaving “tracks” and “footprints” along the way </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is all about effort. Work hard for your company, your customers, and yourself. </li></ul>DOING THE RIGHT THING
  9. 9. Need Satisfaction <ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or psychological requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must be met to ensure survival and well being </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unmet needs motivate people </li></ul><ul><li>Three approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ERG Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory </li></ul></ul>1.2
  10. 10. Adding Needs Satisfaction to the Model 1.2
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1.2 Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Self-Actualization
  12. 12. Aldefer’s ERG Theory 1.2 Relatedness Existence Growth
  13. 13. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory 1.2 Achievement Affiliation Power
  14. 14. Needs Classification Adapted From Exhibit 13.4 1.2 McClelland’s Learned Needs Alderfer’s ERG Maslow’s Hierarchy Higher-Order Needs Lower-Order Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence Power Achievement Affiliation
  15. 15. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards <ul><li>Extrinsic Rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tangible and visible to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>given contingent on performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>natural rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>associated with performing the task for its own sake </li></ul></ul>1.3
  16. 16. Extrinsic Rewards <ul><li>Extrinsic Rewards motivate people to: </li></ul><ul><li>Join the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly attend their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Perform their jobs well </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with the organization </li></ul>1.3
  17. 17. Intrinsic Rewards <ul><li>Intrinsic Rewards include: </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Chance to learn something new </li></ul><ul><li>The fun that comes from performing an interesting, challenging, and engaging task </li></ul>1.3
  18. 18. The Most Important Rewards <ul><li>Good benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Health insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Vacation time </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting work </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Independent work situations </li></ul>1.3 Extrinsic Intrinsic
  19. 19. Adding Rewards to the Model 1.3
  20. 20. Motivating with the Basics <ul><li>Ask people what their needs are </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy lower-order needs first </li></ul><ul><li>Expect people’s needs to change </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy higher order needs by looking for ways to allow employees to experience intrinsic rewards </li></ul>1.4 Adapted from Exhibit 13.6
  21. 21. How Perceptions and Expectations Affect Motivation After reading these sections, you should be able to: <ul><li>use equity theory to explain how employees’ perceptions of fairness affect motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>use expectancy theory to describe how workers’ expectations about rewards, effort, and the link between rewards and performance influence motivation. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Equity Theory Components of Equity Theory Reaction to Perceived Inequity Motivating People Using Equity Theory 2
  23. 23. Components of Equity Theory <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employee contributions to the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rewards employees receive from the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comparison others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome/input (O/I) ratio </li></ul>2.1 Outcomes self Inputs self Outcomes referent Inputs referent =
  24. 24. Inequity <ul><li>When a person’s O/I ratio differs from their referent’s O/I ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Underreward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>referent’s O/I ratio is greater than yours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experience anger or frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overreward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>referent’s O/I ratio is less than yours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experience guilt </li></ul></ul>2.1
  25. 25. How People Perceive Inequity Are perceptions of equity culturally bound? 2.2
  26. 26. How People React to Perceived Inequity <ul><li>Reduce inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalize inputs or outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Change the referent </li></ul><ul><li>Leave </li></ul>2.2
  27. 27. Adding Equity Theory to Model 2.2
  28. 28. Motivating with Equity Theory <ul><li>Look for and correct major inequities </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce employees’ inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure decision-making processes are fair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distributive justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procedural justice </li></ul></ul>2.3 Adapted from Exhibit 13.9
  29. 29. Expectancy Theory 3 Motivating with Expectancy Theory Components of Expectancy Theory
  30. 30. Components of Expectancy Theory 3 Valence Expectancy Instrumentality
  31. 31. Adding Expectancy Theory to Model 3
  32. 32. Increasing Expectancy One way to increase expectancy is to train employees. 3.1
  33. 33. Motivating with Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly link rewards to individual performance </li></ul><ul><li>Empower employees to make decisions which enhance expectancy perceptions </li></ul>3.2 Adapted from Exhibit 13.11
  34. 34. How Rewards and Goals Affect Motivation After reading these sections, you should be able to: <ul><li>explain how reinforcement theory works and how it can be used to motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>describe the components of goal-setting theory and how managers can use them to motivate workers. </li></ul><ul><li>discuss how the entire motivation model can be used to motivate workers. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Reinforcement Theory 4 Components of Reinforcement Theory Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Motivating with Reinforcement Theory
  36. 36. Reinforcement Theory 4 Reinforcement Theory A theory that states that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently.
  37. 37. Reinforcement Contingencies <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desirable consequence strengthens behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>withholding unpleasant consequence strengthens behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unpleasant consequence weakens behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no consequence weakens behavior </li></ul></ul>4.1
  38. 38. Adding Reinforcement Theory to Model 4.1
  39. 39. Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement 4.2 Intermittent Continuous
  40. 40. Continuous Reinforcement Schedules 4.2 Continuous Reinforcement Schedules A schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior.
  41. 41. Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules 4.2 Adapted from Exhibit 13.12 Variable Interval (Time) Fixed Ratio (Behavior) consequences follow behavior after a fixed time has elapsed Consequences follow behavior after different times that vary around an average time Consequences follow a specific number of behaviors Consequences follow a different number of behaviors that vary around an average number
  42. 42. Motivating with Reinforcement Theory <ul><li>Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, and evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t reinforce the wrong behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly administer punishment at the appropriate time </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement </li></ul>4.3 Adapted from Exhibit 13.14
  43. 43. What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards Financial Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Overall 68% manufacturing 84% service 61% probability of success
  44. 44. What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards Nonfinancial Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Overall 58% manufacturing 87% service 54% probability of success
  45. 45. What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards Social Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 63 % Financial and Nonfinancial Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 62%
  46. 46. What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 52 % Nonfinancial and Social Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 61% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 90% Financial and Social Rewards Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards
  47. 47. Goal-Setting Theory 5 Goal-Setting Theory relates to the basic model: desire to meet a goal prompts effort. Performance Effort Initiation Direction Persistence
  48. 48. Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Goal Specificity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the clarity of goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal Difficulty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how challenging goals are </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal Acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how well goals are agreed to or understood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information on goal progress </li></ul></ul>5.1
  49. 49. Setting Goals <ul><li>JetBlue has what is perhaps the industry’s most aggressive goal relative to baggage handling: from plane’s hold to baggage claim in 20 minutes. </li></ul>5.1
  50. 50. Adding Goal-Setting Theory to Model 5.1
  51. 51. Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Assign specific, challenging goals </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent, specific performance-related feedback </li></ul>5.2
  52. 52. Motivating with the Integrated Model Motivating with the Basics 6 Motivating with Equity Theory Motivating with Expectancy Theory Motivating with Reinforcement Theory Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory
  53. 53. Motivating with the Integrated Model 6