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When a person’s O/I ratio differs from their referent’s O/I ratio
referent’s O/I ratio is greater than yours
experience anger or frustration
referent’s O/I ratio is less than yours
How People Perceive Inequity Are perceptions of equity culturally bound? 2.2
How People React to Perceived Inequity
Rationalize inputs or outcomes
Change the referent
Adding Equity Theory to Model 2.2
Motivating with Equity Theory
Look for and correct major inequities
Reduce employees’ inputs
Make sure decision-making processes are fair
2.3 Adapted from Exhibit 13.9
Expectancy Theory 3 Motivating with Expectancy Theory Components of Expectancy Theory
Components of Expectancy Theory 3 Valence Expectancy Instrumentality
Adding Expectancy Theory to Model 3
Increasing Expectancy One way to increase expectancy is to train employees. 3.1
Motivating with Expectancy Theory
Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs
Clearly link rewards to individual performance
Empower employees to make decisions which enhance expectancy perceptions
3.2 Adapted from Exhibit 13.11
How Rewards and Goals Affect Motivation After reading these sections, you should be able to:
explain how reinforcement theory works and how it can be used to motivate.
describe the components of goal-setting theory and how managers can use them to motivate workers.
discuss how the entire motivation model can be used to motivate workers.
Reinforcement Theory 4 Components of Reinforcement Theory Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Motivating with Reinforcement Theory
Reinforcement Theory 4 Reinforcement Theory A theory that states that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently.
Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement 4.2 Intermittent Continuous
Continuous Reinforcement Schedules 4.2 Continuous Reinforcement Schedules A schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior.
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules 4.2 Adapted from Exhibit 13.12 Variable Interval (Time) Fixed Ratio (Behavior) consequences follow behavior after a fixed time has elapsed Consequences follow behavior after different times that vary around an average time Consequences follow a specific number of behaviors Consequences follow a different number of behaviors that vary around an average number
Motivating with Reinforcement Theory
Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, and evaluate
Don’t reinforce the wrong behavior
Correctly administer punishment at the appropriate time
Choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement
4.3 Adapted from Exhibit 13.14
What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards Financial Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Overall 68% manufacturing 84% service 61% probability of success
What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards Nonfinancial Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Overall 58% manufacturing 87% service 54% probability of success
What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards Social Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 63 % Financial and Nonfinancial Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 62%
What Really Works 4.3 Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 52 % Nonfinancial and Social Rewards 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 61% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% probability of success 90% Financial and Social Rewards Financial, Nonfinancial, and Social Rewards
Goal-Setting Theory 5 Goal-Setting Theory relates to the basic model: desire to meet a goal prompts effort. Performance Effort Initiation Direction Persistence
the clarity of goals
how challenging goals are
how well goals are agreed to or understood
information on goal progress
JetBlue has what is perhaps the industry’s most aggressive goal relative to baggage handling: from plane’s hold to baggage claim in 20 minutes.
Adding Goal-Setting Theory to Model 5.1
Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory
Assign specific, challenging goals
Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals
Provide frequent, specific performance-related feedback
Motivating with the Integrated Model Motivating with the Basics 6 Motivating with Equity Theory Motivating with Expectancy Theory Motivating with Reinforcement Theory Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory