CHAPTER 8 E-MARKETING
Learning outcomes <ul><li>Assess the need for separate e-business and e-marketing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Create an o...
Management issues <ul><li>How do we integrate traditional marketing approaches with e-marketing? </li></ul><ul><li>How can...
Marketing <ul><li>The definition of marketing by the Chartered Institute of Marketing ( http://www.cim.co.uk/ ) is: ‘ Mark...
How do e-tools support marketing? <ul><li>Identifying – how can the Internet be used for marketing research to find out cu...
Figure 8.1   The e-marketing plan in the context of other plans
E-marketing defined <ul><li>Achieving marketing objectives through use of electronic communications technology </li></ul><...
E-marketing planning <ul><li>A e-marketing plan is needed to detail the specific objectives of the e-business strategy thr...
Figure 8.2   SOSTAC™ – a generic framework for e-marketing planning
SOSTAC <ul><li>Developed by Paul Smith (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizes the different stages that should be involved in...
Is a separate e-marketing plan required? <ul><li>Customer demand will be underestimated </li></ul><ul><li>Existing and sta...
Figure 8.3   Usage of detailed e-marketing plans in UK e-commerce organizations Source : E-consultancy (2005)
Figure 8.4   Inputs to the e-marketing plan from situation analysis
Situation Analysis <ul><li>To understand the current and future environment in which the company operates </li></ul><ul><l...
Demand analysis <ul><li>What percentage of customer businesses have access to the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>What percent...
Figure 8.5   Customer demand analysis for the car market
Competitor Analysis <ul><li>The monitoring of competitor use of e-commerce to acquire and retain customer </li></ul><ul><l...
Benchmarking solutions <ul><li>Financial performance </li></ul><ul><li>Marketplace performance  – market share and sales t...
Intermediary analysis <ul><li>Identifying relevant intermediaries for a particular marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ...
Internal marketing audit <ul><li>Business effectiveness:  Contribution of site to revenue (see objective setting), profita...
OBJECTIVE SETTING
SMART e-marketing objectives <ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Achievable </li></ul><ul><li>...
Examples of SMART e-marketing objectives <ul><li>Start-ups – acquiring a specific number of new customers or to sell adver...
Figure 8.6   Assessment of the future online promotion contribution and online revenue for The B2B Company, for Product A,...
The Online Revenue Contribution <ul><li>A measure of extent to which a company’s online presence directly impacts on the s...
STRATEGY
De Kare Silvers ES test <ul><li>1. Product characteristics . Does the product need to be physically tried or touched befor...
ES Test results Product 1. Product characteristics (10) 2. Familiarity and confidence (10) 3. Consumer attributes (30)  To...
Figure 8.8   Stages in target marketing strategy development
Target market strategies <ul><li>Evaluation and selection of appropriate segments and the development of appropriate offer...
Characteristics of new-media marketing communications <ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><...
Figure 8.9   Summary of communication models for (a) traditional media, (b) new media
Intelligence
Figure 8.10   Summary of degree of individualization for (a) traditional media (same message), (b) new media (unique messa...
Individualization
Figure 8.11   Channels requiring integration as part of integrated e-marketing strategy
Integration
www.dell.com.my
Examples of integrated communication tools <ul><li>The internet can be used as a direct-response tool enabling customers t...
Figure 8.12   Channel integration required for e-marketing and mixed-mode buying
TACTICS
Online value proposition <ul><li>A clear differentiation of the proposition from competitors based on product features or ...
Example OVPs <ul><li>‘ Compare. Buy. Save ’. Kelkoo ( www.kelkoo.com )  </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Earth’s biggest selection ’. A...
Issues with varying the mix online <ul><li>Do we vary the mix online or replicate offline? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the offer ...
Figure 8.13   The elements of the marketing mix The Marketing Mix
Product  <ul><li>Extend range (Tesco) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow range (WH Smith iDTV) </li></ul><ul><li>Online-only product...
Product
Price <ul><li>Differential pricing: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce online prices due to price transparency and competiti...
Implications for price <ul><li>Increased price transparency  </li></ul><ul><li>Downward pressure on price </li></ul><ul><l...
Place <ul><li>Place = avoiding channel conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disintermediation – sell direct  </li></ul></ul><ul...
Implications on place <ul><li>Place of purchase </li></ul><ul><li>New channel structures </li></ul><ul><li>Channel conflic...
Promotion <ul><li>Selective use of new online tools for different stages of the buying process and customer lifecycle </li...
Figure 8.14   Options for the online vs offline communications mix (a) online > offline, (b) similar online and offline, (...
Service <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate – use web self-service,  offer customer choice </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Branding <ul><li>Malcolm McDonald in their classic 1992 book,  Creating Powerful Brands  as  an identifiable product or se...
Options for changing brand identity online <ul><li>Transfer traditional brand online </li></ul><ul><li>Extend traditional ...
Figure 8.15   Percent of marketing communications budget spent on e-communications (n = 76) Source : E-consultancy (2005)
Figure 8.16   Changes to brand perception and behaviour as a result of using the Internet for research Source : BrandNewWo...
Figure 8.17   The influence of brand knowledge on purchase. Matrix for question ‘I will buy a product if …’ Source : Brand...
Actions <ul><li>What level of investment in the Internet channel is sufficient to deliver services? </li></ul><ul><li>What...
Control <ul><li>Conduct marketing research  </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of web-server log files  </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet...
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Chap 08: E-marketing

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"E-BUSINESS and E-COMMERCE MANAGEMENT" Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007

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Chap 08: E-marketing

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8 E-MARKETING
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Assess the need for separate e-business and e-marketing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Create an outline e-marketing plan intended to implement the e-marketing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between marketing communication characteristics of traditional and new media. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Management issues <ul><li>How do we integrate traditional marketing approaches with e-marketing? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we use electronic communications to differentiate our products and services? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we redefine our marketing and communications mixes to incorporate new media? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Marketing <ul><li>The definition of marketing by the Chartered Institute of Marketing ( http://www.cim.co.uk/ ) is: ‘ Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably’ </li></ul><ul><li>Which e-marketing tools can assist? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web, e-mail, databases, wireless and digital television. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How do e-tools support marketing? <ul><li>Identifying – how can the Internet be used for marketing research to find out customers’ needs and wants </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipating – anticipating the demand for digital services </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfying – how to achieve customer satisfaction through the electronic channel </li></ul><ul><li>Profitably </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 8.1 The e-marketing plan in the context of other plans
  7. 7. E-marketing defined <ul><li>Achieving marketing objectives through use of electronic communications technology </li></ul><ul><li>Another similar term is digital marketing </li></ul>
  8. 8. E-marketing planning <ul><li>A e-marketing plan is needed to detail the specific objectives of the e-business strategy through marketing activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 8.2 SOSTAC™ – a generic framework for e-marketing planning
  10. 10. SOSTAC <ul><li>Developed by Paul Smith (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizes the different stages that should be involved in a marketing strategy from strategy development to implementation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Is a separate e-marketing plan required? <ul><li>Customer demand will be underestimated </li></ul><ul><li>Existing and start-up competitors will gain market share </li></ul><ul><li>Duplication of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient resources will be devoted to planning </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient customer data are collected </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiencies available through online marketing will be missed </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 8.3 Usage of detailed e-marketing plans in UK e-commerce organizations Source : E-consultancy (2005)
  13. 13. Figure 8.4 Inputs to the e-marketing plan from situation analysis
  14. 14. Situation Analysis <ul><li>To understand the current and future environment in which the company operates </li></ul><ul><li>Involves consideration of all of these factors and will form the basis for defining objectives, strategies and tactics </li></ul>
  15. 15. Demand analysis <ul><li>What percentage of customer businesses have access to the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>What percentage of members of the buying unit in these businesses have access to the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>What percentage of customers are prepared to purchase your particular product online? </li></ul><ul><li>What percentage of customers with access to the Internet are not prepared to purchase online, but are influenced by web-based information to buy products offline? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the barriers to adoption amongst customers and how can we encourage adoption? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 8.5 Customer demand analysis for the car market
  17. 17. Competitor Analysis <ul><li>The monitoring of competitor use of e-commerce to acquire and retain customer </li></ul><ul><li>Companies should review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-known competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-known international competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Internet companies locally and worldwide </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Benchmarking solutions <ul><li>Financial performance </li></ul><ul><li>Marketplace performance – market share and sales trends and significantly the proportion of sales achieved through the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Business and revenue models – do these differ from other marketplace players? </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing communications techniques – is the customer value proposition of the site clear? Does the site support all stages of the buying decision from customers who are unfamiliar with the company through to existing customers, are special promotions used on a monthly or periodic basic? Beyond the competitor’s site, how do they make use of intermediary sites to promote and deliver their services? </li></ul><ul><li>Services offered – what is offered beyond brochureware? Is online purchase possible, what is the level of online customer support and how much technical information is available? </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of services – these are the practical features of site design such as aesthetics, ease of use, personalization, navigation and speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The 7Ps. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Intermediary analysis <ul><li>Identifying relevant intermediaries for a particular marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Identify strategic partners when executing an online advertising campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>To consider the way the marketplace is operating </li></ul>
  20. 20. Internal marketing audit <ul><li>Business effectiveness: Contribution of site to revenue (see objective setting), profitability and any indications of the corporate mission for the site. The costs of producing and updating the site will also be reviewed, i.e. cost-benefit analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing effectiveness . These measures may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leads; sales; retention; market share; brand enhancement and loyalty; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer service. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These measures will be assessed for each of the different product lines delivered through the web site. The way in which the elements of the marketing mix are utilized will also be reviewed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet effectiveness: These are specific measures that are used to assess the way in which the web site is used, and the characteristics of the audience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such measures include specialist terms such as hits and page impressions that are collected from the log file, and also more typical techniques such as focus groups and questionnaires to existing customers. From a marketing point of view, how clear the value proposition of the site for the customer, is should be noted. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. OBJECTIVE SETTING
  22. 22. SMART e-marketing objectives <ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Achievable </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Time-constrained </li></ul>
  23. 23. Examples of SMART e-marketing objectives <ul><li>Start-ups – acquiring a specific number of new customers or to sell advertising space to generate a specified revenue that will hopefully exceed investment in site creation and promotion! </li></ul><ul><li>Established mobile-phone operator – increase customer retention by reducing churn from 25 per cent to 20 per cent. </li></ul><ul><li>Established media company – increase online revenue, target of 20 per cent online contribution to revenue by offering new online services and media sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Established business-to-business engineering company – increase overall revenue by 5 per cent, through targeting sales in new international markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce costs of routine customer service by 10 per cent to enable focus on delivery of specialized customer service. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Figure 8.6 Assessment of the future online promotion contribution and online revenue for The B2B Company, for Product A, Europe
  25. 25. The Online Revenue Contribution <ul><li>A measure of extent to which a company’s online presence directly impacts on the sales revenue of the organization </li></ul>
  26. 26. STRATEGY
  27. 27. De Kare Silvers ES test <ul><li>1. Product characteristics . Does the product need to be physically tried or touched before it is bought? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Familiarity and confidence . Considers the degree the consumer recognizes and trusts the product and brand. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consumer attributes . These shape the buyer’s behaviour – are they amenable to online purchases in terms of access to the technology skills available and do they no longer wish to shop for a product in a traditional retail environment? </li></ul>
  28. 28. ES Test results Product 1. Product characteristics (10) 2. Familiarity and confidence (10) 3. Consumer attributes (30) Total 1. Groceries   4 8 15 27 2. Mortgages 10 1   4 15 3. Travel 10 6 15 31 4. Books   8 7 23 38
  29. 29. Figure 8.8 Stages in target marketing strategy development
  30. 30. Target market strategies <ul><li>Evaluation and selection of appropriate segments and the development of appropriate offers </li></ul><ul><li>5 questions when developing strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are our customers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are their needs changing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which do we target? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we add value? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we become first choice? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Characteristics of new-media marketing communications <ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Industry restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>Independence of location </li></ul>
  32. 32. Figure 8.9 Summary of communication models for (a) traditional media, (b) new media
  33. 33. Intelligence
  34. 34. Figure 8.10 Summary of degree of individualization for (a) traditional media (same message), (b) new media (unique messages and more information exchange between customers)
  35. 35. Individualization
  36. 36. Figure 8.11 Channels requiring integration as part of integrated e-marketing strategy
  37. 37. Integration
  38. 38. www.dell.com.my
  39. 39. Examples of integrated communication tools <ul><li>The internet can be used as a direct-response tool enabling customers to respond to offers and promotions publicized in other media </li></ul><ul><li>The web site can have a direct response or callback facility built into it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet can be used to support the buying decision even if the purchase does not occur via web site. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Figure 8.12 Channel integration required for e-marketing and mixed-mode buying
  41. 41. TACTICS
  42. 42. Online value proposition <ul><li>A clear differentiation of the proposition from competitors based on product features or service quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Target market segment(s) that the proposition will appeal to. </li></ul><ul><li>How the proposition will be communicated to site visitors and in all marketing communications. Developing a tag line can help this. </li></ul><ul><li>How the proposition is delivered across different parts of the buying process </li></ul><ul><li>How the proposition will be delivered and supported by resources – is the proposition genuine? Will resources be internal or external? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Example OVPs <ul><li>‘ Compare. Buy. Save ’. Kelkoo ( www.kelkoo.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Earth’s biggest selection ’. Amazon ( www.amazon.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Search the largest inventory of cars and trucks on the Internet. More than 1.5 million listings, updated daily ’ ( www.autotrader.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Citibank site design ( www.citibank.com ) uses a range of techniques to illustrate its core proposition and OVP. The main messages are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welcome to Citibank: The one-stop solution for all your financial needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for a product or service; Learn about a financial product; Find a location . </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Issues with varying the mix online <ul><li>Do we vary the mix online or replicate offline? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the offer clear – brand proposition, online offer </li></ul><ul><li>Is online differentiation defined? </li></ul><ul><li>Is online differentiation communicated? </li></ul><ul><li>Key online mix variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service: People, Process, Physical evidence </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Figure 8.13 The elements of the marketing mix The Marketing Mix
  46. 46. Product <ul><li>Extend range (Tesco) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow range (WH Smith iDTV) </li></ul><ul><li>Online-only products (banks) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new brand (Egg) </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate existing brand (HSBC) </li></ul><ul><li>Partner with online brand (Waterstones and Amazon). </li></ul>
  47. 47. Product
  48. 48. Price <ul><li>Differential pricing: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce online prices due to price transparency and competition (easyJet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain price to avoid cannibalisation of offline sales (Dixon) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>New pricing options (software, music): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rental </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay per use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse auctions (B2B) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic pricing (Concert tickets). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Implications for price <ul><li>Increased price transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Downward pressure on price </li></ul><ul><li>New pricing approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative pricing structure or policies </li></ul>
  50. 50. Place <ul><li>Place = avoiding channel conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disintermediation – sell direct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reintermediation – partner with new intermediaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countermediation: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form new intermediaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partner with existing intermediaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from intermediaries. (Abbey National) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Implications on place <ul><li>Place of purchase </li></ul><ul><li>New channel structures </li></ul><ul><li>Channel conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual organizations </li></ul>
  52. 52. Promotion <ul><li>Selective use of new online tools for different stages of the buying process and customer lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Online only campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated campaigns – incorporating online tools into communications mix. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Figure 8.14 Options for the online vs offline communications mix (a) online > offline, (b) similar online and offline, (c) offline > online
  54. 54. Service <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate – use web self-service, offer customer choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change process for service – contact strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site design – differentiate or support brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfillment quality. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Branding <ul><li>Malcolm McDonald in their classic 1992 book, Creating Powerful Brands as an identifiable product or service augmented in such a way that the buyer or user perceives relevant unique added values which match their needs most closely. Furthermore, its success results from being able to sustain these added values in the face of competition . </li></ul>
  56. 56. Options for changing brand identity online <ul><li>Transfer traditional brand online </li></ul><ul><li>Extend traditional brand </li></ul><ul><li>Partner with existing digital brand </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new digital brand </li></ul>
  57. 57. Figure 8.15 Percent of marketing communications budget spent on e-communications (n = 76) Source : E-consultancy (2005)
  58. 58. Figure 8.16 Changes to brand perception and behaviour as a result of using the Internet for research Source : BrandNewWorld: AOL UK/Anne Molen (Cranfield School of Management)/Henley Centre, 2004
  59. 59. Figure 8.17 The influence of brand knowledge on purchase. Matrix for question ‘I will buy a product if …’ Source : BrandNewWorld: AOL UK/Anne Molen (Cranfield School of Management)/Henley Centre, 2004
  60. 60. Actions <ul><li>What level of investment in the Internet channel is sufficient to deliver services? </li></ul><ul><li>What training of staff is required? </li></ul><ul><li>What new responsibilities are required for effective Internet marketing? </li></ul><ul><li>Are changes in organizational restructuring required? </li></ul><ul><li>What activities are involved in creating and maintaining the web site? </li></ul>
  61. 61. Control <ul><li>Conduct marketing research </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of web-server log files </li></ul><ul><li>Intranets can be used to share information </li></ul>
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