Computer
Fundamentals
Miss. Bajpai R. R.
Evolution of computers :
1. Abacus
• counting frame
• 3000 BC - china
2. Blaise Pascal’s Adder
• In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at age 19, invented the Pascaline as an
aid for his father who was a tax...
3. Charles Babbage
:difference engine
• By 1822 was proposed a steam driven calculating machine the
size of a room, which ...
MARK - I
• IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called
the Mark I by Harvard University
• electro-mechanic...
ABC - 1942
• Atanasoff–Berry Computer - electronic digital computing
device
• Inventor : John Vincent Atanasoff and Cliffo...
Eniac- Electronic Numerical
Integrator And Computer
• ENIAC was conceived and designed by John Mauchly and J.
Presper Ecke...
EDVAC :Electronic Discrete
Variable Automatic Computer
•
•
•
•

Developed by John von Neumann
It was binary rather than de...
EDSAC - Electronic Delay
Storage Automatic Calculator
• Earlier British computer
• Was constructed by Maurice Wilkes
• Fir...
UNIVAC : (UNIVersal
Automatic Computer
• second commercial computer produced in the United States
• It was designed princi...
Generations of computers
First generations - (19421955)
• Processing device :
vacuum tube: fragile glass device which use filaments ; could
control...
Characteristics :
• Fast
• Bulky in size
• Thousands of vacuum tubes that emits large amount of heat and
burnt out
• High ...
Second generations : (19551964)
• Processing : Transistors invented by John bardeen , william
shockley and walter brattain...
Charateristics :
• More rugged and easier to handle : made of semiconductor
(germanium)material rather than glass
• Highly...
Third generations : (19641975)
• Processing : integrated chips (IC’s) developed by Jack St. Clair Kilby
and Robert Noyce
•...
•
•
•
•

PL : ANSI FORTRAN , COBOL
Time sharing , multiuser online systems
Software was initially free. Give rise to s/w i...
Characteristics :
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1 million instructions per second
Smaller
Faster
Scientific and commercials
Don’t need ma...
Fourth generations: (19751989)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Microprocessors
Hard disk
Portable magnetic tapes and floppy disks
Perso...
characteristics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Small
Affordable
More powerful and reliable mainframe systems
General purpose machines
Easi...
Fifth generations : (1989 present)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Hardware technology :
ULSI
RAID
Optical disks
Notebooks , more powerfu...
•
•
•
•
•

Software technology :
Micro kernel based, multithreading, distributed OS
Parallel programming
Java
WWW
Characteristics :
•
•
•
•

Portable
Cheaper
More powerful
Ex: IBM notebooks , Pentium PC’s, SUN workstations, PARAM
10000
Basic computer organization
INPUT UNIT
OUTPUT UNIT
STORAGE UNIT
TYPES OF STORAGE
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
Types of computers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Supercomputer
Mainframe computer
Minicomputer
Micro computer /Personal computer
Laptop
N...
REFERENCE:
• FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS:

By, P. K. Sinha.
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
Computer fundamentals brr
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Computer fundamentals brr

  1. 1. Computer Fundamentals Miss. Bajpai R. R.
  2. 2. Evolution of computers : 1. Abacus • counting frame • 3000 BC - china
  3. 3. 2. Blaise Pascal’s Adder • In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at age 19, invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. • high cost • low accuracy
  4. 4. 3. Charles Babbage :difference engine • By 1822 was proposed a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room, which he called the Difference Engine. • Expensive • difficult
  5. 5. MARK - I • IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called the Mark I by Harvard University • electro-mechanical computer • devised by Howard H. Aiken in February 1944 • built from switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches • 51 feet (16 m) in length, eight feet (2.4 m) in height • weight of about 10,000 pounds (4500 kg).
  6. 6. ABC - 1942 • Atanasoff–Berry Computer - electronic digital computing device • Inventor : John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry • was not programmable • designed only to solve systems of linear equations • card writer/reader was unreliable
  7. 7. Eniac- Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer • ENIAC was conceived and designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania. • Capable of being reprogrammed • Relatively fast • 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors
  8. 8. EDVAC :Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer • • • • Developed by John von Neumann It was binary rather than decimal was a stored program computer EDVAC was built for the U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory
  9. 9. EDSAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator • Earlier British computer • Was constructed by Maurice Wilkes • First commercially applied computer
  10. 10. UNIVAC : (UNIVersal Automatic Computer • second commercial computer produced in the United States • It was designed principally by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly • was accepted by the United States Census Bureau on March 31, 1951
  11. 11. Generations of computers
  12. 12. First generations - (19421955) • Processing device : vacuum tube: fragile glass device which use filaments ; could control and amplify electronic signals. • Memory : electromagnetic relays : punched cards • Programming languages : Machine and assembly language
  13. 13. Characteristics : • Fast • Bulky in size • Thousands of vacuum tubes that emits large amount of heat and burnt out • High Power consumption • Frequently hardware failure due to filaments • Difficult to build and Costly • Limited use
  14. 14. Second generations : (19551964) • Processing : Transistors invented by John bardeen , william shockley and walter brattain at Bell lab in 1947. • Memory : magnetic cores main memory , magnetic disk ,tapes • PL : FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, SNOBOL • Batch operating systems • Used in business and industry for commercials data processing(payroll, marketing , inventory control, )
  15. 15. Charateristics : • More rugged and easier to handle : made of semiconductor (germanium)material rather than glass • Highly reliable : doesn’t have filament part • Faster • Low power consumption • Small in size • Cheap • Large memory capacity • Easier to program
  16. 16. Third generations : (19641975) • Processing : integrated chips (IC’s) developed by Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce • Microelectronics • Made by silicon • SSI :- 10- 20 • MSI:- 100 • LSI :- some thousands • VLSI :- millions of components • Memory capacity : RAM can store less than 5 MB, disk space upto 10 MB
  17. 17. • • • • PL : ANSI FORTRAN , COBOL Time sharing , multiuser online systems Software was initially free. Give rise to s/w industry Mainframe to minicomputers(PDP-8)
  18. 18. Characteristics : • • • • • • • 1 million instructions per second Smaller Faster Scientific and commercials Don’t need manual assembly of circuits Portable Time sharing system allows interactive usage and simultaneous use of multiple users • Smaller can afford these computers.
  19. 19. Fourth generations: (19751989) • • • • • • • • • Microprocessors Hard disk Portable magnetic tapes and floppy disks Personal computers Super computers High speed Computer Networks Operating systems with GUI Multiprocessing OS with Concurrent executions UNIX OS
  20. 20. characteristics • • • • • • • Small Affordable More powerful and reliable mainframe systems General purpose machines Easier to produce commercially Rapid software development Ex : TRS- 80, Cray-1 ,Cray-2, Cray-X/MP, Apple II, IBM PC , VAX 9000
  21. 21. Fifth generations : (1989 present) • • • • • • • • Hardware technology : ULSI RAID Optical disks Notebooks , more powerful PC’s Powerful Servers and supercomputer Internet Cluster computing
  22. 22. • • • • • Software technology : Micro kernel based, multithreading, distributed OS Parallel programming Java WWW
  23. 23. Characteristics : • • • • Portable Cheaper More powerful Ex: IBM notebooks , Pentium PC’s, SUN workstations, PARAM 10000
  24. 24. Basic computer organization
  25. 25. INPUT UNIT
  26. 26. OUTPUT UNIT
  27. 27. STORAGE UNIT
  28. 28. TYPES OF STORAGE
  29. 29. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
  30. 30. Types of computers • • • • • • • Supercomputer Mainframe computer Minicomputer Micro computer /Personal computer Laptop Notebook Palmtop
  31. 31. REFERENCE: • FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS: By, P. K. Sinha.
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