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    Computer fundamentals brr Computer fundamentals brr Presentation Transcript

    • Computer Fundamentals Miss. Bajpai R. R.
    • Evolution of computers : 1. Abacus • counting frame • 3000 BC - china
    • 2. Blaise Pascal’s Adder • In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at age 19, invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. • high cost • low accuracy
    • 3. Charles Babbage :difference engine • By 1822 was proposed a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room, which he called the Difference Engine. • Expensive • difficult
    • MARK - I • IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called the Mark I by Harvard University • electro-mechanical computer • devised by Howard H. Aiken in February 1944 • built from switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches • 51 feet (16 m) in length, eight feet (2.4 m) in height • weight of about 10,000 pounds (4500 kg).
    • ABC - 1942 • Atanasoff–Berry Computer - electronic digital computing device • Inventor : John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry • was not programmable • designed only to solve systems of linear equations • card writer/reader was unreliable
    • Eniac- Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer • ENIAC was conceived and designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania. • Capable of being reprogrammed • Relatively fast • 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors
    • EDVAC :Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer • • • • Developed by John von Neumann It was binary rather than decimal was a stored program computer EDVAC was built for the U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory
    • EDSAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator • Earlier British computer • Was constructed by Maurice Wilkes • First commercially applied computer
    • UNIVAC : (UNIVersal Automatic Computer • second commercial computer produced in the United States • It was designed principally by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly • was accepted by the United States Census Bureau on March 31, 1951
    • Generations of computers
    • First generations - (19421955) • Processing device : vacuum tube: fragile glass device which use filaments ; could control and amplify electronic signals. • Memory : electromagnetic relays : punched cards • Programming languages : Machine and assembly language
    • Characteristics : • Fast • Bulky in size • Thousands of vacuum tubes that emits large amount of heat and burnt out • High Power consumption • Frequently hardware failure due to filaments • Difficult to build and Costly • Limited use
    • Second generations : (19551964) • Processing : Transistors invented by John bardeen , william shockley and walter brattain at Bell lab in 1947. • Memory : magnetic cores main memory , magnetic disk ,tapes • PL : FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, SNOBOL • Batch operating systems • Used in business and industry for commercials data processing(payroll, marketing , inventory control, )
    • Charateristics : • More rugged and easier to handle : made of semiconductor (germanium)material rather than glass • Highly reliable : doesn’t have filament part • Faster • Low power consumption • Small in size • Cheap • Large memory capacity • Easier to program
    • Third generations : (19641975) • Processing : integrated chips (IC’s) developed by Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce • Microelectronics • Made by silicon • SSI :- 10- 20 • MSI:- 100 • LSI :- some thousands • VLSI :- millions of components • Memory capacity : RAM can store less than 5 MB, disk space upto 10 MB
    • • • • • PL : ANSI FORTRAN , COBOL Time sharing , multiuser online systems Software was initially free. Give rise to s/w industry Mainframe to minicomputers(PDP-8)
    • Characteristics : • • • • • • • 1 million instructions per second Smaller Faster Scientific and commercials Don’t need manual assembly of circuits Portable Time sharing system allows interactive usage and simultaneous use of multiple users • Smaller can afford these computers.
    • Fourth generations: (19751989) • • • • • • • • • Microprocessors Hard disk Portable magnetic tapes and floppy disks Personal computers Super computers High speed Computer Networks Operating systems with GUI Multiprocessing OS with Concurrent executions UNIX OS
    • characteristics • • • • • • • Small Affordable More powerful and reliable mainframe systems General purpose machines Easier to produce commercially Rapid software development Ex : TRS- 80, Cray-1 ,Cray-2, Cray-X/MP, Apple II, IBM PC , VAX 9000
    • Fifth generations : (1989 present) • • • • • • • • Hardware technology : ULSI RAID Optical disks Notebooks , more powerful PC’s Powerful Servers and supercomputer Internet Cluster computing
    • • • • • • Software technology : Micro kernel based, multithreading, distributed OS Parallel programming Java WWW
    • Characteristics : • • • • Portable Cheaper More powerful Ex: IBM notebooks , Pentium PC’s, SUN workstations, PARAM 10000
    • Basic computer organization
    • INPUT UNIT
    • OUTPUT UNIT
    • STORAGE UNIT
    • TYPES OF STORAGE
    • CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
    • Types of computers • • • • • • • Supercomputer Mainframe computer Minicomputer Micro computer /Personal computer Laptop Notebook Palmtop
    • REFERENCE: • FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS: By, P. K. Sinha.