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Chap013 cb Chap013 cb Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER THIRTEEN Situational Influences McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Consumer Decision Process Ch. 14 - Problem Recognition Ch. 15 - Information Search Ch. 16 - Alternative Evaluation & Selection Ch. 17 - Outlet Selection & Purchases Ch. 18 - Postpurchase Processes Ch. 13 - Situational Influences SITUATIONS Problem Recognition Information Search Alternative Evaluation and Selection Outlet Selection and Purchases Postpurchase Processes SITUATIONS
  • The Role of the Situation…
  • The Nature of Situational Influence
    • Communication Situation
      • What you hear
    • Purchase Situation
      • When and Where
    • Usage Situation
      • How
    • Disposition Situation
      • What now
    • 1. Physical surroundings include geographical and institutional location, decor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and visible configurations of merchandise or other material surrounding the stimulus object.
    • 2. Social surroundings considers examples like other persons present, their characteristics, their apparent roles, and interpersonal interactions occurring.
    • 3. Temporal perspective may be specified in units ranging from time of day to seasons of the year.
    • 4. Task definition includes an intent or requirement to select, shop for, or obtain information about a general or specific purchase.
    • 5. Antecedent states are momentary moods or momentary conditions
    Five Classes of Situational Influence
  • The Impact of Physical Density Physical situation Shopper perceptions Adaptive strategies Postpurchase responses Increased physical density Source: Adapted from G. Harrell, M. Hutt, and J. Anderson, “Path Analysis of Buyer Behavior under Conditions of Crowding,” Journal of Marketing Research, February 1980, pp.45-51. Shorten planned purchases Reduce shopping time Alter use of in-store information Reduced confidence in purchases Unpleasant experience Store dissatisfaction Crowded feeling Confined, closed-in feeling
  • Typology of Service Encounters
  • Impact of Background Music Variables Slow Music Fast Music
  • Impact of Social Situations on Dessert Choices Attribute Importance Source: J. B. Palmer and R. H. Cropnick, “New Dimension Added to Conjoint Analysis,” Marketing News, January 3, 1986, p. 62.
  • Temporal Perspectives and Fruit Preferences Preference As a part of your breakfast Most preferred Least preferred Peach Banana Straw- Orange Plum Apple Kiwi Grape berry #2 #3
    • Based on the students surveyed in this study:
    • Peaches were most preferred, particularly with breakfast and as a snack.
    • Strawberries were most preferred as a supper dessert, and number three overall as a part of breakfast.
    • Oranges and grapes were rated two and three, respectively, as a snack.
    Source: Adapted from P. Dickson, “Person-Situation: Segmentation’s Missing Link,” Journal of Marketing , Fall 1982, pp. 56-64.
  • Temporal Perspectives and Fruit Preferences Source: Adapted from P. Dickson, “Person-Situation: Segmentation’s Missing Link,” Journal of Marketing , Fall 1982, pp. 56-64. Preference As a snack during the day Most preferred Least preferred Peach Banana Straw- Orange Plum Apple Kiwi Grape berry #2 #3
    • Based on the students surveyed in this study:
    • Peaches were most preferred, particularly with breakfast and as a snack.
    • Strawberries were most preferred as a supper dessert, and number three overall as a part of breakfast.
    • Oranges and grapes were rated two and three, respectively, as a snack.
  • Temporal Perspectives and Fruit Preferences
    • Based on the students surveyed in this study:
    • Peaches were most preferred, particularly with breakfast and as a snack.
    • Strawberries were most preferred as a supper dessert, and number three overall as a part of breakfast.
    • Oranges and grapes were rated two and three, respectively, as a snack.
    Preference As a supper dessert Most preferred Least preferred Peach Banana Straw- Orange Plum Apple Kiwi Grape berry #2 #3 Source: Adapted from P. Dickson, “Person-Situation: Segmentation’s Missing Link,” Journal of Marketing , Fall 1982, pp. 56-64.
    • Benefits “Sought” by Purchaser
    • Birthday Wedding
    • Enjoyability Durability
    • Uniqueness Usefulness
    • Durability Receiver’s need for product
    • High performance High performance
    • Usefulness Enjoyability
    • Innovativeness Uniqueness
    • Imaginativeness Presence of warranty
    • Receiver’s need for product Tangibility
    • Novelty Innovativeness
    • Allows receiver creativity Prettiness
    Task Definition: Evaluative Criteria in Gift-Giving Source: S. DeVere, C. Scott, and W. Shulby, “Consumer Perceptions of Gift-Giving Occasions: Attribute Sales and Structure,” in Advances in Consumer Research X , ed. R. P. Bagozzi and A. M. Tybout (Chicago: Association for Consumer Research, 1983), pp. 185-90.
    • Benefits “Avoided” by Purchaser
    • Birthday Wedding Low quality Low quality
    • Unreliability Lack of receiver desire for product
    • Lack of receiver desire for product Lack of thoughtfulness
    • Lack of thoughtfulness Gaudiness
    • Gaudiness Lack of style
    • No reflection on receiver’s personality Unreliability
    • Lack of tastefulness Lack of tastefulness
    • Disliked by friends and family Disliked by friends and family
    • Lack of style Inconvenience
    • Inconvenience Inappropriate for occasion
    Task Definition: Evaluative Criteria in Gift-Giving
  • Ritual Situations
    • A socially defined occasion that triggers a set of interrelated behaviors that occur in a structured format and that have symbolic meaning
    • Some examples:
      • Social events
      • Holidays
      • Injurious consumption (Consumer Insight 13-1)
  • How Situations Might Influence Choice of a Restaurant Situational Description of Type of Influence the Situation Restaurant Chosen 1. Physical It is very hot and your air conditioning isn’t working 2. Physical You’re downtown Christmas shopping and the stores and streets are very crowded. 3. Social Your fiancée's parents are going to take you out for dinner and ask you to pick the restaurant. 4. Social Your neighbor comes over to visit, you are having a pleasant chat, and you discover it is time for lunch. 5. Temporal You plan to go to a show at 7:30 p.m. It is 6:30 p.m. now.
  • How Situations Might Influence Choice of a Restaurant
    • Situational Description of Type of Influence the Situation Restaurant Chosen
    • 6. Temporal You want to have an evening meal with the family when not rushed for time.
    • 7. Task It’s your parents’ 25th wedding anniversary and you want to take them out to dinner.
    • 8. Task Your spouse won’t be home for dinner and you are wondering what to feed the children.
    • 9. Antecedent You are too tired to cook dinner because you have had a very fatiguing day at the office.
    • 10.Antecedent You have just finished a tough semester and you’re in the mood to really reward yourself.
  • Consumer Insight 13-1
    • Do you agree that binge drinking by college students is a form of ritual behavior?
    • Utilizing the “fact” that binge drinking among college students is a ritual behavior, develop a commercial minimizing the negative aspects of the behavior.
  • Use Situations and Product Positioning
  • Person-Situation Segments for Suntan Lotions