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TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY
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TITANIC'S ETHICAL CASE STUDY

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TITANIC ETHICAL CASE STUDY, IT PROVIDES THE UN-ETHICAL ACTS AND ISSUES THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE WRECK OF TITANIC

TITANIC ETHICAL CASE STUDY, IT PROVIDES THE UN-ETHICAL ACTS AND ISSUES THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE WRECK OF TITANIC

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  • 1. ABSTRACT
  • 2. THE TITANIC *The Titanic began its maiden voyage to New York just before noon on April 10, 1912, from Southampton, England. *Two days later at 11:40 P.M, Greenland time, it struck an iceberg that was three to six times larger than its own mass, damaging the hull. * so that the six forward compartments were ruptured. *The flooding of these compartments Was sufficient to cause the ship to sink within two hours and 40 minutes *With a loss of more than 1,500 lives.
  • 3. 11:35 p.m. Lookouts spot the iceberg 1/4 mile ahead. 11:40 The Titanic sideswipes the iceberg, damaging nearly 300 feet of the hull. Midnight Watertight compartments are filling; water begins to spill over the tops of the transverse bulkheads. 1:20 a.m. The bow pitches; water floods through anchor-chain holes. 2:00 The bow continues to submerge; propellers lift out of the water. 2:10 The Titanic tilts 45 degrees or more; the upper structure steel disintegrates. 2:12 The stern raises up out of the water; the bow, filling with water, grows heavier. 2:18 Weighing 16,000 tons, the bow rips loose; the stern rises to almost vertical. 2:20 The stern slips beneath the surface. 2:29 Coasting at about 13 mph, the bow strikes the ocean floor. 2:56 Falling at about 4 mph, the stern strikes the ocean floor.
  • 4. WHY DID TITANIC SANK?
  • 5. THE MANAGING CREW TITANICS ENGINEERING FLAWS
  • 6.  This was Captain E.J. Smith's retirement trip. All he had to do was get to New York in record time.  Captain E.J. Smith said years before the Titanic's voyage, "I cannot imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder. Modern shipbuilding has gone beyond that.”
  • 7.  Captain Smith ignored seven iceberg warnings from his crew and other ships. If he had called for the ship to slow down then maybe the Titanic disaster would not have happened.
  • 8. It was Bruce Ismay’s fault Bruce Ismay was the managing director of the White Star Line and he was aboard the Titanic. Competition for Atlantic passengers was fierce and the White Star Line wanted to show that they could make a six-day crossing. To meet this schedule the Titanic could not afford to slow down. It is believed that Ismay put pressure on Captain Smith to maintain the speed of the ship.
  • 9.  The ship continued at a speed of about 21.5 knots.  Each ship had three propellers  Each outboard propeller was driven by a separate four-cylinder, triple expansion, reciprocating steam engine.  The center propeller was driven by a low- pressure steam turbine using the exhaust steam from the two reciprocating engines.  The power plant was rated at 51,000 I.H.P.
  • 10. It was Thomas Andrews' faultThe belief that the ship was unsinkable was, in part, due to the fact that the Titanic had sixteen watertight compartments. However, the compartments did not reach as high as they should have done. The White Star Line did not want them to go all the way up because this would have reduced living space in first class. If Mr Andrews, the ship's architect, had insisted on making them the correct height then maybe the
  • 11.  269.1 meters long, 28.2 meters maximum wide, and 18 meters tall from the water line to the boat deck.  a gross weight of 46,000 tons.  The steel plate from the hull of the Titanic was nominally 1.875 cm thick.  while the bulkhead plate had a thickness of 1.25 cm.
  • 12. On an expedition in 1991 to the Titanic wreck, scientists discovered a chunk of metal lying on the ocean floor that once was a part of the Titanic's hull The Frisbee sized piece of steel was an inch thick with three rivet holes (each 1.25 inches in diameter)
  • 13.  The causes of brittle fracture  Low Temperature  High Impact Loading  High Sulfur Content
  • 14.  Titanic disaster came following the recovery of a piece of the hull steel from the Titanic wreck  After cleaning the piece of steel, the scientists noted the condition of the edges  The edges of the piece of steel appeared almost shattered, like broken china  The metal showed no evidence bending or deformation
  • 15.  Charpy test determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture  A piece of modern high-quality steel was tested along with the coupon from the hull steel  Both coupons were placed in a bath of alcohol at -1°C to simulate the conditions on the night of the Titanic disaster
  • 16.  Charpy test is run by holding the coupon against a steel backing and striking the coupon with a 67 pound pendulum on a 2.5-foot-long arm
  • 17.  Results of the Charpy test for modern steel and Titanic steel [Gannon, 1995]. When a pendulum struck the modern steel, on the left, with a large force, the sample bent without breaking into pieces; it was ductile. Under the same impact loading, the Titanic steel, on the right, was extremely brittle; it broke in two pieces with little deformation.
  • 18.  How rivets may have contributed to disaster
  • 19.  When the iceberg tore through the hull plates  Huge holes were created that allowed water to flood the hull of the ship  The hull plates transferred the inward forces  The rivets were then either elongated or snapped in two, which broke the caulking along the seams and provided another inlet for water to flood the ship
  • 20. Vessel Particulars •LOA: 882 ft 9 in •Breadth: 92 ft 6 in •Depth: 64 ft 3 in •Draft: 34 ft 7 in •Gross Tonnage: 46,328 GT •Displacement: 52,310 LT •Passengers & Crew: 3,547 •Design Speed: 21 knots •Builder: Harland and Wolff, Belfast, Ireland •Year Built: 1912 •Flag: United Kingdom •Registered Owner: White Star Line •Vessel Type: Passenger Liner •Hull Material: Riveted Steel
  • 21.  These type of bulkheads are used nowadays in all most all types of ships.  They provide maximum safety in times of flooding or damage of hull.  They divide the ship into watertight compartments which prevents seeping of water to other parts of the ship incase the hull is broken.  The number of compartments that a particular ship has depends on the type and requirement of the vessel.
  • 22.  Correct height of the water tight compartments.  One of Titanic's greatest innovations was the placement of fifteen watertight bulkheads (with electrically operated watertight doors) that extended from the ship's double bottom through four or five of her nine decks and were said to make the ship "unsinkable."
  • 23.  700 survivors among 2235 passengers.  Most of 2nd and 3rd class passengers came to about sinking of ship when water entered their compartments.  Unethical act  Crew should have treat all passengers equally.
  • 24.  Titanic was receiving warnings from other ships 60 hours before collision • uncommon warnings, • Ship was cruising with maximum speed • Difficult for the crews to spot icebergs
  • 25. • Pride E.J Smith • Unethical act • Decision that strongly influenced , as the crews were not emphasizing safety for the passengers. . • According to our perspective , if they would not treated warnings uncommon and could have reduced the speed ‘loss of many lives would not occurred’
  • 26. • Ship was cruising at maximum speed (22 knots), on a moonless night. • Design speed was 21 knots. • Unethical act , causes death of so many passengers
  • 27.  There was room on deck for twice as many lifeboats.  Carried just over half of passengers and crew.  Unethical act  Decision supported concept of ‘unsinkable ship’  Number of lifeboats were more , more passengers could’ve survived.  Designer shouldn’t approved this change that leads to the death of many passengers.
  • 28.  2,235 passengers in Titanic , includes Mr Ismay, whose company The White Star Line, owned the Titanic. Loss of 1,522 lives Cause There were not enough life boats.  Mr Ismay aware that capacity of lifeboats was not enough ,Did not bother him  Unethical act. Had explanations – The Titanic was unsinkable so there was no risk; Lifeboats were expensive both in cost and the deck space they occupied.
  • 29.  He complied with the law.  Number of lifeboats required by law to carry was measured on the weight of the ship not on the number of passengers.
  • 30.  Portion of the hull was damaged by filled with water quickly and, water filled the other compartments. • Design was not watertight, Engineers/designers made clear assumptions of the amount of water they predicted would enter the hull. • As it would reduce the living space in first class Said by ‘WHITE STAR LION’. • Unethical act • If there were no watertight compartments , Titanic could have been afloat for 2 to 3 days.
  • 31.  The ice patrol could have informed the captain of the ice fields and surrounding icebergs and instructed him to stop the ship until morning.  Most of the life boards had the capacity of 65 people,held only 27 people.  Unethical act.  By carring equal no of people in each boat,could ‘ve saved the life of many passengers. The crew stands blameworthy.
  • 32.  About three million rivets were used to hold the sections of the Titanic together. Some rivets have been recovered from the wreck and analysed. The findings show that they were made of sub- standard iron.  When the ship hit the iceberg, the force of the impact caused the heads of the rivets to break and the sections of the Titanic to come apart. If good quality iron rivets had been used the sections may have stayed together and the ship may not have sunk.
  • 33.  Bruce Ismay was the managing director of the White Star Line and he was aboard the Titanic. Competition for Atlantic passengers was fierce and the White Star Line wanted to show that they could make a six-day crossing  To meet this schedule the Titanic could not afford to slow down. It is believed that Ismay put pressure on Captain Smith to maintain the speed of the ship.
  • 34.  The belief that the ship was unsinkable was, in part, due to the fact that the Titanic had sixteen watertight compartments. However, the compartments did not reach as high as they should have.  The White Star Line did not want them to go all the way up because this would have reduced living space in first class. If Mr Andrews had insisted on making them the correct height then maybe the Titanic would not have sunk.
  • 35.  What changes does the titanic design required?  How life of more peoples could have saved?  What changes could’ve occurred when “Women and Children first” policy would not have applied?  What decision Captain Smith could have made , when ship was recieving uncommon warnings?  Why ship was moving with 22 knots speed when design speed was 21 knots?
  • 36.  The Titanic tragedy was a warning to all other ships  From that point on ALL ships had enough lifeboats for every single person on the ship and sometimes more  There has been some other big ship crashes after that but usually not as many people died and the ship did not make the same mistakes as the Titanic did
  • 37.  There was certainly no such thing as an “unsinkable ship”  The Titanic will most likely continue to lure people for generations to come, since every generation is able to take something different from its historic tragedy.

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