1. GROUP 6
• Munsif Ali Naqvi
• Iftikhar Zulfiqar
• Mobasher Iqbal
• Danial Sultan
• Walli Ejaz
2. TYPES OF INTERSECTIONS OF
ROAD AND DESIGN
PARAMETERS OF INTERSECTION
3. Intersection of road
• Intersection is an area shared by two or more
• This area is designated for the vehicles to turn to
different directions to reach their desired
• This is because vehicles moving in different
direction want to occupy same space at the same
There are two main types of intersection of
Grade-separated intersections or interchanges
At-grade intersections .
5. Grade Seperated intersection
6. Grade separated intersection
• It is a bridge that eliminates crossing conflicts at
intersections by vertical separation of roadways in space.
• Route transfer at grade separations is accommodated by
interchange facilities consisting of ramps.
• The interchange configurations are designed in such a
way to accommodate economically the traffic
requirements of flow, operation on the crossing facilities,
physical requirements of the topography, adjoining land
use, type of controls, right-of-way and direction of
7. Grade separated intersection or
• The ultimate objective of grade separated intersections is
to eliminate all grade crossing conflicts and to
accommodate other intersecting maneuvers by merging,
diverging and weaving at low relative speed.
8. Classification of Grade Separated
One of the distinctions made in type of
Interchange is between the directional and the
non directional interchange.
• Directional interchanges are those having
ramps that tend to follow the natural direction
• Non directional interchanges require a change in
the natural path of traffic flow.
An underpass or a tunnel is an underground passageway,
completely enclosed except for openings for ingress and
egress, commonly at each end.
A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail
• An overpass also known as a flyover, is a bridge, road,
railway or similar structure that crosses over another
road or railway.
• A pedestrian overpass allows pedestrians safe crossing
over busy roads without impacting traffic.
14. Trumpet interchanges
• Trumpet interchanges have been used where one
highway terminates at another highway.
• These involve at least one loop ramp connecting traffic
either entering or leaving the terminating expressway
with the far lanes of the continuous highway.
• The principal advantages are low construction cost and
are useful for highways as well as toll roads.
15. Trumpet interchanges
16. Diamond interchange
• A diamond interchange is a common type of road
junction, used where a freeway crosses a minor road.
• The diamond interchange uses less space than most
types of freeway interchange, and avoids
the interweaving traffic flows that occur in interchanges
such as the cloverleaf.
• Diamond interchanges are most effective in areas where
traffic is light.
17. Diamond interchange
18. Cloverleaf interchange
• A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level interchange in
which left turns are handled by ramp roads .
• To go left (in right-hand traffic), vehicles first continue as
one road passes over or under the other, then exit right
onto a one-way three-fourths loop ramp (270°) and
merge onto the intersecting road.
19. Cloverleaf interchange
20. Partial cloverleaf interchange
• Partial clover leaf is a modification that combines some
elements of a diamond interchange with one or more
loops of a cloverleaf to eliminate only the more critical
• It provides more acceleration and deceleration space on
21. Partial cloverleaf interchange
22. Directional interchange
• A Directional interchange provides direct paths for left
• These interchanges contain ramps for one or more direct
or semi direct left turning movements.
• Interchanges of two freeways or interchanges with one
or more very heavy turning movements usually warrant
direct ramps, which have higher speeds of operation and
higher capacities, compared to loop ramps.
23. Directional interchange
24. At Grade Intersections
25. At grade intersections
• At-grade intersections in which all the exchanges
between the roads take place on the same plane.
These are of two main types:
Standard at- grade intersections
Round about at-grade intersections.
26. Key elements of intersection of road
27. Different types of at grade intersections
28. Most intersections have three or four
legs, but multi-leg intersections (fiveand even six-leg intersections) are not
29. Flared intersections
• Flared intersections expand the cross-section of the
• The flaring is often done to accommodate a left-turn
lane, so that left-turning bicycles and motor vehicles are
removed from the through-traffic stream to increase
capacity at high-volume locations, and safety on higher
• Right-turn lanes, less frequently used than left-turn
lanes, are usually a response to large volumes of right
30. Flared intersections
31. Simple intersections
• Simple intersections maintain the street’s typical crosssection and number of lanes throughout the intersection,
on both the major and minor streets.
• Simple intersections are best-suited to locations where
auxiliary (turning) lanes are not needed to achieve the
32. Simple intersections
33. Channelized intersections
• Vehicles approaching an intersection are directed to
definite paths by islands, marking etc. and this method of
control is called channelization.
• Channelized intersection provides more safety and
• It reduces the number of possible conflicts by reducing
the area of conflicts available in the carriageway.
• If no channelizing is provided the driver will have less
tendency to reduce the speed while entering the
intersection from the carriageway.
34. Channelized intersections
35. Roundabout intersections
• A roundabout is a type of circular intersection or junction
in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one
direction around a central island.
• It provides maximum safety in all types of intersections .
• Cross-section — Bicyclists position themselves for their
intended destination regardless of the presence of bike
lanes or shoulders.
• Operating Speed — At unsignalized intersections, an
average bicycle speed of 15 miles per hour can be
assumed on the major street.
• Bicycle Capacity — The number of bicycles per hour that
can be accommodated by the facility under normal
• Traffic Control — Bicyclists are required by law to obey
control devices at intersections. Therefore, traffic control
devices need to account for bicycle activity.
41. Motor Vehicles
• The largest type of motor vehicle that is normally expected to be
accommodated through the intersection.
• At intersections, the most important attribute of design vehicles is
their turning radius, which in turn influences the pavement corner
radius and therefore the size of the intersection.
• Lane width, another feature related to the design vehicle, has
some impact on intersection design .
• The design vehicle appropriate for most types of transit service is
the “City-Bus” as defined by AASHTO.
42. Motor Vehicles
• Design Speed
The motor vehicle speed selected on adjoining segments
• Motor Vehicle Capacity
The number of motor vehicles that can be moved
through an intersection under normal conditions
43. Motor Vehicles
• Much like other users, motor vehicles are influenced by the
type and timing of traffic control installed at an intersection,
and number of other users.
• At roundabouts, STOP controlled and uncontrolled
intersections, motor vehicle capacity and delay are
influenced by conflicting traffic streams.
• At signalized intersections, the time provided for each
movement, conflicting turning movements, and the volume
and mix of other users are key influences on both motor
vehicle capacity and delay.
44. Levels of intersection control
45. Levels of intersection control
Traffic signs plus marking .
46. Levels of intersection control
Grade separated intersections