Colonialism And The Professions .

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A critical analysis of the role of the professions in the colonial project and their links to capitalist hegemony. Main Street vs. Wall Street! The need to dramatically transform professional …

A critical analysis of the role of the professions in the colonial project and their links to capitalist hegemony. Main Street vs. Wall Street! The need to dramatically transform professional education.

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  • Hard hitting and informative. Very thought provoking.
    You are a person of immense courage.
    Hats off to you

    Human beings are by nature good.
    It's the few who possess or acquire power that get corrupted that continuously attempt to propogate their power.

    The sad part is they use the indegenious people themselves for their evil designs.
    At the height of its power the British empire had only 1500 British officers. The rest were local Indian officers and staff engaged by the British Crown.

    May God bless you.

    Gurvinder Singh
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  • The profits from these dispossessions and exploitations was poured into the large mansion houses that now (dis) grace the English countryside.
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  • 1. COLONIALISM AND THE PROFESSIONS © Tony Ward 2009 TRICK OR TREAT? For related work visit:
  • 3. POWER/KNOWLEDGE The Business profession is not alone in its public image • Business • Law • Economics • Education • Medicine • Architecture • Art • Science and other professions are all held in differing degrees of low esteem by the public. One reason is because they have all grown out of and are instrumental in the growth of capitalist exploitation through a process of colonization. Under capitalism, knowledge is treated as another commodity, to be hoarded and sold to the highest bidder. Under capitalism knowledge is power. Let’s take a look at how this has happened through an investigation of Architecture’s own Colonial project
  • 4. HISTORY Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. George Orwell, 1984. The idea that we can control the past seems absurd. But of course the past is being rewritten all of the time. While it is now commonly accepted that History is written by the victors. What interests me are the silent and suppressed histories - particularly the histories of the oppressed and of indigenous peoples.
  • 5. COLONISING ARCHITECTURE? ST. MICHAEL GLASTONBURY MT. ST. MICHAEL, CORNWALL All of these early Christian churches, dedicated to St. Michael, the Archangel are located on very ancient pre- Christian (Celtic) sacred sites. ST. MICHAEL BURROWBRIDGE
  • 6. Such ancient places of pilgrimage have for over a thousand years been surmounted by a fortress-like churches, claiming their dominance of the surrounding c o m m u n i t y. S u c h sites were important in the process of hegemony. ST. MICHEL LE PUY MT. ST. MICHELE AD.708 Throughout Europe, the same process occurred. Here, the famous Benedictine monastery of Mt St, Michele, built in 708. (above) stands on an island-rock that was sacred to pre-Christian peoples. And (left) the chapel of St-Michel d'Aiguilhe dominates the surrounding landscape.
  • 7. What each of these sites has in ST. MICHAEL common, is a dedication to St. Michael, who slew a dragon. The dragon (horned, winged and breathing fire) was not only characterised as Satan in early Christian iconography, but also of the Earth Spirit - the source of the pre- Christian spirituality, of the Mother Goddess cult. The symbolic skewering (By a piece of Christian Architecture) of the Earth Goddess represented the imposition of Christian patriarchy over gynocentric Europe. The Freudian symbolism is not too obscure! The Goddess was replaced, by a male deity. But she lives on even today in the re-branded guise of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus.
  • 8. DOME OF THE ROCK (685-691) 5 years after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in 632, in a war of liberation from the Byzantine Empire (the remnant Eastern Roman Imperium that had merged with the Roman Church), Jerusalem was conquered by the Islamic army. The Dome of the Rock was erected as a statement of reclamation by the indigenous people between 685 and 691 CE. The loss of pilgrimage revenues from Jerusalem was a serious blow to Church finances as well as affront to Christian hegemony and power.
  • 9. This act of reclamation was quite conscious, and sought to compete with and overwhelm the Christian buildings that has been built on the site during the Byzantine occupation. Historians contend that the Caliph wished to create a structure which would compete with the existing buildings of other religions in the city. al-Maqdisi writes that he: ”sought to build for the Muslims a masjid that should be unique and a wonder to the world. And in like manner, is it not evident that Caliph Abd al-Malik, seeing the greatness of the martyrium of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and its magnificence was moved lest it should dazzle the minds of Muslims and hence erected above the Rock the dome which is now seen there.”
  • 10. EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM CRUSADES Church and State 1095-1291 From the 11th-13th Centuries, successive Popes and monarchs formed alliances to wrest the Holy Land from Islam. The Crusades failed in their purpose to “retake” the Holy Land for Christ, but established an imperialist pattern that would prevail for centuries (down to none other than George Bush?) There were 9 crusades in all - most of them failures. The Crusades were a series of religiously- sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific Crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291. Other campaigns in Spain and Eastern Europe continued into the 15th century. The Crusades were fought mainly against Muslims, although campaigns were also waged against pagan Slavs, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians, and political enemies of the popes.
  • 12. St Chapelle, Paris (1248) The Crown of Thorns If the mountain won’t come to Mohammed.., (If the pilgrims can’t come to the Holy Land, then the Holy Land must come to the pilgrims). Built by Louis IX to house the Crown of Thorns - retrieved during The Crusades. Purchased by him from the Latin Emperor at Constantinople, as an investment in his move to become rightful King. He paid 135,000 livres and 40,000 livres to build the chapel. His endorsement of ownership by the Pope was a powerful aid to his ambitions. Despite the fact that it was Louis’ private Chapel, the presence of the relics in Paris (and Louis’ own increased prestige) would no doubt have been a big draw-card to the pilgrims of the day, and an economic boost for the economy of the city and the King.
  • 13. Michelle Obama's Chicago Olympics pep rally The Obama’s attempt to gain the Olympics for Chicago in 2016 is just the latest example of a very old economic strategy: Promise State investment, build it, and they will come, bringing private returns from Tourism.
  • 14. The processes of colonisation that had been established in the crusades was COLUMBUS 1492 carried to a fine art in the 15th-16th Centuries by the Spanish, with the blessing and twisted legal logic of Alexander VI, the Spanish (Borgia) Pope. After the discovery of the New World, the Pope’s papal bull Inter Cetera Divini (1493) divided the planet into franchises, and established a right to colonise and appropriate resources based upon the legitimating argument of “saving souls”.
  • 15. OVIEDO 1328-1528 What is interesting about this picture? It’s possible to see here the shift that happened to Spanish Church Architecture after 1492. The plain, simple, yet elegant architecture of the Gothic remains. But the Sanctuary has become an extravaganza of imagery and iconic motifs, dripping with gold.
  • 16. The “discovery” of America, was very profitable to the European colonisers CONQUISTADORS (primarily the Spanish). The amounts of gold and silver taken from the New World by Columbus and those who followed him were staggering. In the mid-Seventeenth Century silver constituted more than 99 percent of mi n e ral exports from Sp a n i sh America, and between 1503 and 1660, 185,000 kilograms of gold and 16,000,000 of silver arrived at the Spanish port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Silver shipped to Spain in little more than a century and a half exceeded more than three times the total European reserves - and probably much more since these official figures are not complete.
  • 17. TOLEDO ALTAR CHAPTER HOUSE Once simple churches such as those in Oviedo and Toledo suddenly soared to new heights, expanded, and had new windows installed to let the sun pour down on the vast collection of gold and jewels from the New World. The cathedral of Toledo boasts a five-hundred pound monstrance made from the Indian booty brought back by Columbus himself.
  • 18. In the Chapter House this 500-pound, 10-foot high, 15th-century gilded monstrance by Juan del Arfe, a silversmith. Made of solid silver, it was gilded 70 years later, allegedly with gold brought back by Columbus. It is still carried through the streets of Toledo (left) during the feast of Corpus Christi. Cordoba, Avila and every other city in the south boast similar artifacts. Gold became so common in European palaces and churches that architects developed a novel style of decoration emphasising entering light that could illuminate the gold and make it dazzle the observer.
  • 19. MALAGA & VALENCIA As Jack Weatherford notes: “I first saw this wealth of silver and gold in a Holy Week procession in Cōrdoba… Dressed in their long robes of purple and white topped by tall conical hats from which hung veils covering their faces they looked like marchers in a Ku Klux Klan rally The first one carried a six foot high cross of silver. Twelve young boys…followed him, each of them carried a gold trumpet four feet long and a foot wide at the mouth. From each trumpet hung a banner of the Hapsburg eagle… Following…marched more boys with tall silver crosses and more men with covered faces. In Andalusia over 300 such processions marched during Holy Week.”
  • 20. THE CHURCH AND THE BANKS Florentine Banking Cardinals (alone): • Medici (2 Popes) • Strozzi • Salviati Insider Trading? • Ridolfi • Gaddi (2 cardinals) Medici Villa Madama, 1518 Many of the great banking families of Italy were deeply connected to the Church hierarchy. Election to the Papacy was invariably accompanied by simony and bribery, because of the great power that the position wielded. These banking families lent the Church money for projects (which their sibling-cardinals and popes initiated), and then claiming their interest on the spoils of colonial conquest which their family’s Pope, had sanctioned.
  • 21. THE CHURCH AND STATE: EL ESCORIAL Phillip II (1556-1598) moved the capital from Toledo to El Escarole (1563) near Madrid. Reacting to the Protestant Reformation sweeping through Europe, he devoted most of his New World gold to stemming the Protestant tide and consequent loss of revenues. The Spanish Crown owed nearly all of the silver shipments before they arrived to German, Genoese, Flemish and Spanish bankers. In 1543, sixty-five percent of all Royal revenues went to paying debts to the Fuggers, (German bankers who had advanced to the Pope the funds needed to finish St. Peter’s), and of the Welsers, the Shetzes, and the Grimaldi, the other major bankers in the Italian and Spanish economies. The ongoing expropriation of gold and silver was needed to replace Church monies lost by Henry VIII’s dissolution of the Monasteries and appropriation of their assets and revenues (1536-41).
  • 22. THE COUNTER-REFORMATION The Coronaro (1646) Assumption (Rohr, 1720) To counter the potential loss of revenue that the Reform movement threatened, the Church threw all of its economic and political might behind the Counter-Reformation project. Much of the wealth acquired by Phillip and the Church was used to combat the austerity of the Protestant architecture. The Church adopted a specific design policy of that we might call Enrapturement- incorporating perceptual ambiguity intended to overwhelm the senses through a sensual experience that would swamp the auditory, visual, olefactory and haptic representational systems, inducing a trance-like experience. Bromini (left), Bernini and the Asam brothers (right), were masters.
  • 23. The process worked! Whereas in 1600 Europe was all but lost to the Reformists, by 1650, more than two-thirds of the continent was once again under the sway of orthodox Catholicism ZIMMERMAN WIESKIRCHE 1746
  • 24. THE COST? WHO PAID FOR ALL THIS? • In the Potosi mines of Bolivia alone, six thousand African slaves all died of altitude sickness. • Four out of five of the local Indians forced into slave labour for the Spanish died in their first year in the mines. • By 1600 over three million native people were murdered or died from the results of their enslavement in South America • In the fourteen years after of Columbus’ arrival more than a quarter of a million Haitians were murdered by the Spanish Historian David Stannard argues that the destruction of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas, in a "string of genocide campaigns" by Europeans and their descendants, was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world
  • 25. CULPABLE CHURCH So while the late Pope John Paul may have sought to defend the activities of the Church in the process of colonisation and the genocide of indigenous communities on spiritual grounds (right), there is no denying that the Church’s greed for gold (both to pay off growing debt and to stem reform) was also one of its motivations. The Church continues today to support despotic dictators in El Salvador, Guatemala, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, the Phillipines and elsewhere in the interests of maintaining its power and hegemony. I am referring here to the institutionalized Church. There are, of course, courageous liberation theologians who devote and often give their lives for the people. They have my deepest admiration and respect. But they are often persecuted by the Church
  • 26. ZAPATISTAS of CHIAPAS Indigenous Mexicans still suffer from the privations caused by the original genocide. Here, in 1989, the Zapatista Mayan peasants cluster around the entrance to the Cathedral in Mexico City’s Zoccalo in a land protest against State and Church policies toward the Mayan people, especially in Chiapas, the southernmost and poorest (and most indigenous) province. Their plight has been highlighted by the Zapatista Army of National Liberation and its leader Sub-connate Marcos.
  • 27. TERRORIST COLUMBUS In European culture, Christopher Columbus is portrayed as a hero-explorer who brought “progress” and Christianity to native peoples. To many of these same native peoples, Columbus is seen as a terrorist who brought Demonstrations such as this death, slavery, starvation and centuries of took place all across the all subjugation. This poster (below right) is taken Americas to mark the start of from indigenous demonstrations such as the their subjugation and one in Columbia during the 500th Anniversary exploitation. of Columbus’ voyage in 1992.
  • 28. COLONISATION & CAPITALISM Marx put it succinctly: “...(the) discovery of gold and silver in America, the extirpation, enslavement and entombment in mines of the aboriginal population, the beginning of the conquest and looting of the East Indies, the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black skins, signaled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production”.. Karl Marx
  • 29. COLONIAL EXPANSION 1898 The activity of the Church and the Spanish monarchy was just the beginning of a process of colonial expansion that in the next 400 years would cover the planet. So much wealth poured into Europe from South America that it fuelled a massive investment programme. Each of the European nations joined in the subjugation of indigenous peoples to increase its economic power.
  • 30. BRITISH IMPERIALISM AT HOME: THE ENCLOSURES Throughout the 17th, 18th and part of the 19th Centuries, British society and the British landscape were transformed by a series of Parliamentary Acts - the Enclosure Acts. These Acts allowed rich and powerful politicians, and landowners (you had to be a land- owner to vote) to force millions of peasants off what had been until then, common land over which they had living, grazing, hunting and growing rights. These displaced folk were herded into the burgeoning towns where they formed an immense pool of cheap labour, ready to be exploited in the factories - owned, of course, by the same land-owning class interests that had displaced them in the first place. Those caught “poaching” to feed their families were transported to the penal colonies in America and Australia.
  • 31. LEGAL THEFT Graffiti, Auckland, NZ 1987 The law locks up the man or woman ' Who steals the goose from off the common; But lets the greater villain loose 18th Century poem Who steals the common from the goose.'
  • 32. URBAN ENGLAND 1830s+
  • 33. Salford factory town by LS Lowry 1887-1976 - the world I was born into.
  • 34. STOURHEAD 1741-80
  • 35. BLENHEIM PALACE 1705-24 Blenheim Palace, “gift of a grateful nation” to the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough in return for military triumph against the French and Bavarians. The birthplace and burial place of Sir Winston Churchill. “Set in 2100 acres of “beautiful” parkland landscaped by ‘Capability’ Brown, the exquisite Baroque Palace is surrounded by sweeping lawns, formal gardens and the magnificent Lake.” The architect was Sir John Vanbrugh.
  • 36. People still pass from village to village, guidebook in hand, to HARLAXTON HALL see the next and yet the next example, to look at the stones and the furniture. But stand at any point and look at that land. Look at what those fields, those streams, those woods even today produce. Think it through as labour and see how long and systematic the exploitation and seizure must have been, to rear that many houses on that scale... What these ‘great’ houses do is to break the scale, by an act of will corresponding to their real and systematic exploitation of others. For look at the sites, the facades, the defining avenues and walls, the great iron gates and the guardian lodges. These were chosen for more than their effect from the inside out... they were chosen, also, you now see, for the other effect, from the outside looking in: a visible stamping of power, of displayed wealth and command: a social disproportion which was meant to impress and overawe. Much of the real profit of a more modern agriculture went not into productive investment, but into that explicit social declaration: a mutually competitive but still uniform exposition, at every turn, of an established and commanding class power.”
  • 37. MR & MRS ANDREWS Painted by Gainsborough, the landscape evokes Robert Andrews' estate, to which his marriage added property. The gun, intended to indicate a recreational interest in hunting, no doubt had a more sinister purpose. Key to these estates was the availability of cheap labour - vast pools of unemployed, hungry peasants and convicted transportees who hover beyond the edge of vision.
  • 38. PETERLOO MASSACRE The lie was given to this supposed pastoral harmony in August, 1819, when 60,000-80,000 Northern demonstrators peacefully seeking representation were charged by sabre-wielding cavalry. 15 people were killed and 400–700 were injured.
  • 39. TRANSPORTATION The prisons were overflowing and convicted felons were usually transported to a penal colony - either to the Americas, from the 1610s through the American Revolution in the 1770s, and then to Australia between 1788 and 1868. During the late 18th and 19th centuries, large numbers of convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government, many for petty crimes they were driven to commit because of the poverty they were forced to live in. Over the 80 years more than 165,000 convicts were transported to Australia.
  • 40. THE SLAVE TRADE In the Americas: • Not enough workers • Not enough Transportees • Slavery was the answer • 15 million Africans shipped • Up to 600 slaves per ship • Chained together hand & foot • Half became effective workers • 7.5M died or were crippled • Cost price: £25 • Sale Price: £150 (500% profit) British were the biggest traders • Profits financed Empire building • Development of America The number of transportees and immigrant workers to the new American colony was not enough to keep up with the demands of economic growth. The gap was filled by slaves. The trade in slaves was the ground upon which the economies of both Britain and United States was built.
  • 41. MONTICELLO Monticello in Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. His power was built on slavery As the country moved from an agrarian to an industrial economy, the disposition of the slave population became a source of dispute. Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war. In 1860, about 385,000 individuals (i.e. 1.4% of White Americans in the country, or 4.8% of southern whites) owned one or more slaves. 95% of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution, these slaves represented a potential source of cheap labour to Northern industrialists. The entire United States Economy is built on the bodies of African slaves
  • 42. AMERICAN PROGRESS 1830 - 1880 American Progress - John Gast, 1872 The American colonisation of the West, and the dispossession of its indigenous peoples was carried out under the ideology of Manifest Destiny. Europeans believed that they had a superior culture, and that it was their God-given destiny to occupy the land and to extinguish the culture of its original inhabitants. In this illustration, we see Progress leading the settlers across the prairie, Bible in hand, stringing telegraph wires with the other, while the “savages” flee ahead
  • 43. PAHA SAPA The Black Hills are sacred to all the Plains Indians. In the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty the United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people. However, after the “discovery” of gold in 1874, the United "They made us many States confiscated the land in 1877. promises, more than I can remember, but they never kept but It is clear that the US had no intention of one; they promised to honoring the Ft. Laramie Treaty. Gold was take our land and they not “discovered” by accident in 1874. Six took it." years after the signing, George Armstrong Custer was in fact authorised to take his exploration team into the Black Hills specifically to look for gold.
  • 44. FOUR RACIST PRESIDENTS Abraham Lincoln Thomas Jefferson ordered the execution, wrote of the Indians by hanging, of 38 Dakota in America that the Sioux prisoners in government was Mankato, Minnesota. obliged "now to Most of those executed pursue them to were holy men or extermination, or political leaders of their drive them to new camps. None of them seats beyond our were responsible for reach." committing the crimes they were accused of. George Washington Theodor Roosevelt instructed Major once said, "I don't go General John Sullivan so far as to think that to attack Iroquois the only good people and "lay waste Indians are dead a l l t h e settlements Indians, but I believe around...that the nine out of ten are, country may not be and I shouldn't like merely overrun, but to inquire too closely destroyed", and to “not into the case of the listen to any overture of tenth". peace before the total ruin of their settlements is effected".
  • 45. In a simple, present day context, we might MATO PAHA cite the example of Mato Paha - bear Butte, in South Dakota where the spiritual traditions and space of indigenous people are annually violated. Mato Paha - Bear Butte is the most sacred of all sacred mountains to the Plains Indians. For untold centuries they have gone their to pray and to carry out their sacred ceremonies. It lies about 6 miles from Sturgis, S.D., where, every August, tens of thousands of bikers congregate for the annual Harley Davidson Rally. The local authorities have consistently refused to grant the Lakota (or the mountain) any special status that might protect them from the visual and noise intrusion and the drunken behavior that attends the rally. The map (left) indicates (in red) the bars and concert venues that have been allowed to develop around the mountain. Were it the Vatican, offensive development would be banned.
  • 46. AMERICAN GENOCIDE Historian David Stannard estimates that almost 100 million died in what he calls the American Holocaust. What distinguished the genocide of Latin America from that of the United States was that in the former case the outcome was not the intent but rather the effect of a policy of enslavement and economic production. In the case of the United States, the eradication, removal and assimilation of native American culture was a stated policy. It was itself a form of production.
  • 47. LIBERTY (WHAT PRICE) LIBERTY 1865-86? What price Liberty? A gift from one supposedly libertarian colonial regime to another at a time when Native Americans were being dispossessed and eradicated, the year after the Navajo Long Walk..
  • 48. COLONIALISM & THE PROFESSIONS Since the 14th Century, Architecture (and the other professions) have been complicit in the oppression and genocide of indigenous communities. Even with the advent of Modernism’s theories of the Social Good, this process has not ceased. The development of Brasilia (right) required the removal of thousands of Indigenous people. It is listed as a World Heritage Site. Brasilia 1956 The professions are the whores of capitalism and the handmaidens of oppression. The question is, How can we turn them into antiracist, anti-colonial projects? How can we change the role of the professional to serve, rather than oppress?
  • 49. “The most odious form of colonisation, and that which has brought with it the greatest pain for the colonised (is) the colonisation of the mind” Franz Fanon "The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas; ie., the class, which is the ruling material force of society, is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production...” Karl Marx
  • 50. WHITE POWER AND IMPOSED MEANING Carlisle Indian Boarding School Thousands of these Indian children were abducted from their homes in surprise raids. They were put in boarding schools and indoctrinated into European ways and forbidden to speak their own language under threat of punishment. The field of Education is one of the major arenas of mind colonisation in which capitalism conducts and effects its global project. If we can transform Education, we can change the world.
  • 51. (WHITE) CAPITALIST CONCEPTS Our education must proceed through the critical demystification of, every idea, every concept, every theory that has been shaped and mythologised by the ruling class. Some key concepts: • Knowledge (Whose knowledge?) • Human Nature (Innate?) • Education (Indoctrination?) • Responsibility (To self?) • Beauty (Spanish churches?) • Intelligence (What kind?) • Liberty (For whom? • Development (Sustainable?) • History (Whose History?) • Sustainability (Without change?) • Democracy (For the few?) • Space (Given or created?) • Individualism (vs. co-operativism) • Time (Whose time?) • Competition (Human nature?) • Rationality (Eurocentrism? Meaning is a site of struggle. Decolonising ourselves requires that we demystify and decolonise these and other concepts. For critical analyses of these see:
  • 52. CULTURE 4: EDUCATIONAL SPATIAL SYSTEMS Learner seen as child Learner seen as adult Authority Authority Authority Authority PhD Grade School Lecture Grad. Seminar Cultural hurdles/barriers Programmed Learning Research Control Decreasing Degrees of Control Freedom Knowledge seekers are not allowed to graduate until they have demonstrated that they can reproduce the elitist, disconnected system that has produced them Compare this with the Maori/Lakota/Iroquois Talking Circle, where learning is leaderless, accretive, cooperative, mutually supportive and consensus-based and where the freedom (and power) to speak is universal. Knowledge is not the property of the individual to be used for personal ambition or profit but is collectively created and owned.
  • 53. THE CYCLE OF PEDAGOGICAL REPRODUCTION • Competition • Hierarchy • Judgement • Individualism It is a system of power relationships that promotes and reproduces systems of individualism, hierarchy, competition, passivity and quiescence to authority. It progressively insulates learners from everyday life and community and creates an elite system of experts who hoard their knowledge for sale to the highest bidder.
  • 56. Ask yourself this: Is it surprising that Business School students who spend all of their educational time from Grade School to Grad School: • In paranoid locked-down, schools • In an isolated “silo” discipline • Cocooned within a “free-market” culture and ideology • Indoctrinated into a competitive ethic • Being told that “Knowledge is Power” • In subterranean classrooms without light • On 50 minute schedules that leave no time for digestion or reflection. • Having no community engagement • Over a fifteen year period go out to work on Wall Street to earn millions while the people in the street below become homeless and starving as a consequence of their competitive, collective myopia? In an indigenous culture, knowledge is not power, but responsibility - responsibility to share and support. Knowledge is not a commodity for individual ownership and exploitation. It belongs to the group.
  • 57. MAORI The indigenous Maori people. Arrived approx. 800 years ago from Oceania
  • 58. TREATY OF WAITANGI 1840 In return for permission to settle the land, the British promised that they would protect Maori land, culture, language and resources. As elsewhere in colonized countries like Canada and the USA, the British had no intention of keeping their side of the bargain. Representatives of the British Crown signed a Treaty with Maori chiefs at Waitangi on 6th February 1940. There were two versions of the Treaty, One in English and one in Maori. They were not the same. In the Maori version, they ceded Governorship (Kawanatanga). In the English version they ceded sovereignty (Rangatiratanga). They would not have signed if they had known. The Treaty was written by Samuel Marsden - a Missionary who spoke Maori. From the get-go the Crown intended to deceive Maori into signing away self-government in return for British citizenship. The Treaty promised that the Crown would guarantee and protect Maori land, culture, language and resources.
  • 59. LAND OCCUPATION From Cook’s “discovery” of NZ in 1769 Maori were dispossessed of 95% of their land through government legislation and fraud. 1860 1908 1960 Maori land ownership patterns
  • 60. CONFISCATIONS One of the primary means of land dispossession was “legal” confiscation. Under the New Zealand Settlement Act of 1863, tribes that were deemed “Rebels” had their land confiscated by the government. The definition of “rebellious” bore striking (slippery) similarities to American Indian “Hostiles” and today’s “Terrorists” - convenient labels for demonising those we oppress When provocative Government raids of native lands were resisted by Maori tribes, they were labeled “Rebellious”, their leaders imprisoned and hung and their lands were taken. The struggle continues today as Maori attempt to gain redress and resist globalisation
  • 61. THE WHAKATANE STUDY ©2009 Tony Ward To download a more extensive version visit:
  • 62. Project: WHAKATANE To design a commercial development for the LOCATION: Bay of Plenty North Island Whakatane D. C. POPULATION: 15,000 MAORI POP.: 30% (Town) 52% (Region) NORTH ISLAND Bay of Plenty 15% (Nationally) UNEMPLOYMENT: 8% MAORI UNEMPLOYMENT: 30% ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME: $15,000 AVE. NATIONAL INCOME: $54,000 SOUTH ISLAND MAIN INDUSTRY: Farming, Tourism,
  • 63. MAORI HISTORY About two hundred years before the Santa Maria arrived in Haiti the Mataatua canoe landed in what is now called Whakatane. Site of one of the first Maori settlements in New Zealand - deeply historical and of great spiritual significance. Landing place of the Mataatua Waka (canoe) party - the origin of seven separate tribes. ”Me whakatāne au i ahau nei!”
  • 64. WAIRAKA When the Mataatua canoe landed 800 years ago, the men climbed the escarpment to explore. The tide came in and the canoe started to drift away. Wairaka, the daughter of the captain, Toroa leapt into the canoe to save it, uttering the incantation “Me whakatāne au i ahau nei!” (“Make me a man!”) because women were forbidden from paddling. She saved the canoe and now the Wairaka district (above) is named after her. It is still inhabited by her descendants.
  • 65. LANDLESS Traditional home of Ngati Awa whose entire lands were confiscated in 1866 on the false charge of murdering a missionary. The leaders were hanged. They were later (1988) pardoned and exonerated and the Government apologised but the land was gone!
  • 66. TOWN DEVELOPMENT Successive Local Governments then began to “reclaim” the harbour, and develope a European township along the river.
  • 67. MODERN TOWNSHIP • The modern (1988) town centre occupies the narrow space between the Escarpment and the river. • Residential Development is mainly to the North and West • Council wanted to develop the triangle of “reclaimed” land between the Strand and the river Residential development Wairaka (Maori Settlement Area) is to the East Proposed Development Site
  • 68. THE COUNCIL The Council had almost no Maori representation (one token member from distant Rotorua), - this despite the fact that more than 50% of the Region’s population were Maori. The Council seemed reluctant for us to meet Maori representatives, saying they would “just obstruct the process”
  • 69. NGATI AWA Nevertheless we arranged a separate meeting with Ngati Awa. After initial suspicion and our assurances of commitment they told a heart-rending tale of colonial oppression, pointing to specific locations and landmarks on our model of the town. What we learned changed all of our attitudes and lives. Stories were told of: • land confiscation, • dispossession, • displacement, • racism, • political, spiritual and economic oppression, • persecution • execution of leaders • the destruction of almost all sacred sites • deep mistrust and anger
  • 70. SACRED LANDSCAPE DESPOILED Numerous Pa (village) Sites around the escarpment ridge Toroa’s Wananga The Heads Muriwai’s Piripai Irakewa Cave Marae Wairere Stream/ Falls Munuka Burial Caves Tuatahi PA SITE
  • 71. WAHI TAPU For more than 150 years sacred sites had been systematically violated and desecrated by Councils, despite the pleas of the tribe. These included the three that had been cited as location markers by Irakewa to his son Toroa, 700 years ago, as the site of a possible settlement. Toroa was the captain of the Mataatua Canoe which founded Whakatane Wairere Stream and Falls (polluted by a landfill) Muriwai’s Cave (Isolated, filled in) Irakewa Rock (dynamited)
  • 72. PIRIPAI Ancient Urupa (burial site) One of the Council’s plans was to open up Piripai (the Sand-spit) for residential and commercial development, despite the fact that is the site of numerous ancient burials, many centuries old.
  • 73. POHATUROA - ULTIMATE INSULT POHATUROA Toilet Pohaturoa - the Rock - was the centre of ceremonial life. Here, mothers buried the whenua (afterbirth) and pito (umbilicus) of their newborn. In Maori, the word whenua has a double meaning. One the one hand it means afterbirth. It also means land - signifying that the spiritual connection between the person and the place is more than metaphorical. The Council built a public toilet over the spot!
  • 74. DESIGN DILEMMA We faced a stark choice: • Conform to Council philosophies and ignore the pain of Ngati Awa and the cultural history of all previous developments • Confront Council and risk the project We collectively decided on a third alternative: • Using design as a lever, broker a reconciliation between the two communities
  • 75. RECONCILIATION &TRUST-BUILDING Neither party trusted the other Creating an environment of mutual enough to initiate the process of trust required that: trust-building (a vicious circle). • We establish the trust of both parties. • We operate a process of inclusivity • We develop a common language • We make no attempt to dictate the dialogue • We continually reflect-back community concerns and issues • We interpret, explain and mediate • We stress common goals rather than differences • We facilitate open dialogue and community decision-making WE LISTEN!
  • 76. LINKING ISSUES We developed 67 Patterns to guide Town Development. They addressed not only: • economic and material concerns • employment creation • investment • tourism etc. but also: • Reinstatement of Wahi Tapu, • A truthful recounting of history • Acknowledgment of past wrongs • Constitutional representation on Local Bodies Our task became to demonstrate the linkages between these issues (for instance by portraying Maori culture and history as an essential ingredient for tourism and economic growth).
  • 77. DETAILS Four design proposals were fleshed out with sketches, plans and a scale model designed to illustrate the proposal for the non-professional general public.
  • 78. COUNCIL DISPLAY The model, the four design proposals and all of the supporting arguments and Patterns were displayed in the foyer of the District Council offices for a week in preparation for a Town Forum that was advertised in the local press and on talkback radio. A large number of people visited the exhibition.
  • 79. THE TOWN FORUM 170 people attended on a stormy night. All Councilors, Ngati Awa Trust Board members, many retailers and large numbers of Maori and pakeha members of the public came. The meeting was facilitated by the students.
  • 80. DISCUSSION Following a general description and explanation, break-out sessions, facilitated by students were asked to suggest: • Five points of agreement • Five points of disagreement • Five points overlooked Breakout Session Plenary Session Student Facilitation
  • 81. CONSENSUS DESIGN Based on this feedback and internal review a final design was proposed that seemed to contain the best elements of all of the preliminaries.
  • 82. THE REPORT The Mayor concluded the meeting by saying: “We have all witnessed and participated in a truly historic moment in the history of Whakatane in which for the first time, people with long-standing differences have come together to find common ground in the interests of the whole community.” And this accomplished by a group of sophomore undergraduates
  • 83. SINCE THEN.... In the ensuing years, many of the recommendations in the Report were incorporated into the District Scheme and have had a major impact upon the quality of life in Whakatane. The landfill has been closed Irekawa Wairere Falls The proposed Cultural Heritage Trail has been completed. All sites have been included. Signs with Maori versions of historical events, critical of past Council actions, are prominently displayed Muriwai’s Cave
  • 84. THE TOILETS . The offensive public toilets (right) have been removed and the area landscaped.
  • 85. PIRIPAI Recommendations on the need to preserve the un-built nature of Piripai have so far been successful, but the pressure for development remains. The struggle continues, assisted now by a new representational structure.
  • 86. REPRESENTATION Whakatane District Council is now considered one of the most culturally sensitive Councils in New Zealand. A Maori Liaison Committee has been appointed. This Committee comprises 12 members: • The Mayor • 11 Tribal representatives from different Iwi and Hapu in the region • 2 Councillors The Committee has only an advisory capacity, but its voice is increasingly heard by the Council as a whole.
  • 87. THE ENGAGED UNIVERSITY From an indigenous perspective, Knowledge is Responsibility. Responsibility to: • Acknowledge that are privilege is built on the sacrifice of others • Build relationships with those silent and invisible ones upon whom our privilege is founded • Share the knowledge acquired to help others find justice and freedom • Support their struggle for equity and justice • Speak truth to power The University itself, as a place of privileged knowledge has a responsibility to the community of disadvantaged and oppressed. Some Universities and some Departments take this responsibility seriously.