Ngo diplomacy ui-2013


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Ngo diplomacy ui-2013

  1. 1. NGO Diplomacy Yuyun Wahyuningrum Senior Advisor on ASEAN and Human Rights, Human Rights Working Group (HRWG) E-mail:
  2. 2.  In 1972, 250 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) attended the UN Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm.  These NGOs served as technical experts, helped develop the rules for NGO participation, participated in plenary sessions and committee meetings, and engaged in several parallel forums designed to strengthen their connections with one another.  This event emerged the beginning of a “slow yet steady liberalization of the NGO system occurring over the following two decades”.  Since Stockholm, NGO involvement in international decision-making processes related to the environment and sustainable development has escalated, as demonstrated by their participation in the two subsequent global conferences.
  3. 3.  In 1992, more than 1,400 NGOs were accredited to United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, and more than 25,000 individuals from 167 countries participated in the parallel Global Forum, where NGOs negotiated alternative treaties and engaged in extensive networking.  Paragraph 38 of the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action (VDPA) contains a crucial recognition regarding the role that NGOs play “in the promotion of all human rights and in humanitarian activities at national, region- al and international levels”.  Since then, while NGOs have been able to slowly carve their rightful place, it is still of concern that many human rights defenders across the globe pay a heavy price, sometimes with their lives, for doing their work.  In 2002, more than 3,200 organizations were accredited to the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, where NGOs were central to the creation of partnerships for sustainable development.
  4. 4. NGOs NGOs Civil Society Organisations Non State Actors
  5. 5. What is NGO and what are the types of NGO that currently exist?  A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any nonprofit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level.  Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.  Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights, environment or health. Some focus on advocacy, humanitarian aid, campaign, research, community development etc.  They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms and help monitor and implement international agreements.  Their relationship with offices and agencies of the United Nations system differs depending on their goals, their venue and the
  6. 6. Civil Society Organizations (CSO) “Civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family and market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated. London School of Economics Center for Civil Society  Civil society comprises the realm of organizations that lie between the family at one extreme and the state at the other (Hegel 1821)  Civil society is the sphere of institutions, organisations and individuals located between the family, the state and the marketin which people associate voluntarily to advance common interests (Anheirer 2004)   “associations of citizens (outside their families, friends and businesses) entered into voluntarily to advance their interests, ideas and ideologies. The term does not include profit-making activity (the private sector) or governing (the public sector)” (Cardoso et al. (2004), We the peoples: civil society, the United Nations and global governance. Report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society Relations, UN document UN A/58/817,
  7. 7. Contemporary dimensions of civil society Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) therefore are a wide array of organisations: community groups, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), labour unions, indigenous groups, charitable organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, and foundations (World Bank 2006). Civil society embraces: Institutionalised groups: such as religious organisations, trades unions, business associations and co-operatives. Local organisations: such as community associations, farmers’ associations, local sports groups, non-governmental organisations and credit societies. Social movements and networks (DFID 2006).
  8. 8. Non-state actors  NON-STATE ACTORS: non governmental organisations, organisations representing indigenous peoples, organisations representing national and/or ethnic minorities, local traders' associations and citizens' groups, cooperatives, trade unions, organisations representing economic and social interests, organisations fighting corruption and fraud and promoting good governance, civil rights organisations and organisations combating discrimination, local organisations (including networks) involved in decentralised regional cooperation and integration, consumer organisations, women's and youth organisations, teaching, cultural, research and scientific organisations, universities, churches and religious associations and communities, the media and any non-governmental associations and independent foundations, including independent political foundations.  gather the main structures of organised society outside government and public administration; are independent of the state; are active in different fields;
  9. 9. What have NGO‟s done so far in contributing to solve global problem and what kind of cooperation it has done with other institution?  Global problem? Poverty? The failure of human rights protection mechanism around the world? Inequality?  Along the years, civil society defines its role as :  the vehicle of citizen‟s participation,  the voice for the voiceless,  the promoter to the social cohesion and equality,  the architect of social capacities,  supporter of the structural reform,  The watch dog to ensure that the Association is accountable, and  act as an important check-and-balance for the promotion and protection of human rights in the region.
  10. 10. Role of NGO at UN Human Rights Council  NGOs bring a different picture from those presented by governments on the ground human rights situation  Engage with different actors, in particular, special procedures mandate holders  Advocacy at the HRC is long and tedious but it pays off  Need for clear goals and strategy  Credibility is important
  11. 11. NGO Participation at the HRC Sessions  Written statements    Deadline for submission before start of the session Circulation as official UN document in UN languages Oral intervention  Directly relevant to agenda item  Limited time  Joint statements are encouraged  Organization of parallel events  Lobbying, Networking…  Negotiations on draft resolutions  Can also be done at the country, not necessarily have to go to Geneva
  12. 12. How to negotiate with states to promote NGO‟s interest? Regional Lobby, Network & Advocacy Government/Intergovernmental bodies National Lobby, Network, Advocacy & Campaign  Top Down: Creation of demand through regional/international organizations.  Bottom Up: mobilizing civil society/ people from below
  13. 13. INSIDE Dimension of engagement INSIDE OUTSIDE Government/ Intergovernm ental bodies OUTSIDE Repertories of action and strategies towards policy processes Cooperative attitude: active engagement in policy-making processes through lobbying, advocacy and participation in multistakeholder processes. Policy processes are seen as “potential gain”. Insiders are the least independent from the political process. Confrontational attitude: “engagement” through pressure from the outside (counter-summits, campaigns, norm change…) and disruptive direct actions. Policy processes are perceived as “threats”.
  14. 14. INSIDERS VS Outsiders  PRESSURE FROM THE OUTSIDE through confrontational tactics: marching, attacking the „red zone‟, showing the weakness or the contradictions of „the system‟, raise public consciousness, „show the king is naked‟  ENGANGEMENT with policy-makers trying to provoke change „from within‟  Accept the rules of the game in order to gain access to policy arenas  „Insiders‟ use techniques like persuasion, lobbying, campaigning  Critiques: Who is representative of CS/global public good? Risk of „watering down‟ criticism in favor of participation
  15. 15. Achievements? (Indonesia context)  Influenced the formulation of the UN Resoution such as the Resolution on Combating Intolerance, Negative Stereotyping and Stigmatization of, and Discrimination, Incitement to Violence and Violence Againts, Persons Bases on Religion or Belief during the 16th Session of UN Human Rights Council in March 2011 and Resolution related to the protection of the rights of migrant workers – together with the Philippines – during the 66th Committee Session III UN General Assembly in November 2011
  16. 16.  Ratification of UN Convention on Migrant Workers  Report to treaty bodies, concluding comments of CAT that include Indonesia‟s real situation.  ASEAN and OIC – civil society as the State‟s representative  Opening up number of spaces for people participation