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ASEAN Human Rights Mechanisms (Yuyun Wahyuningrum, 2012)

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  • 1. STRENGTHENING HUMAN RIGHTS SYSTEMS IN ASEAN: THE ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY YUYUN WAHYUNINGRUM|Senior Advisor on ASEAN and Human Rights | Human Rights Working Group (HRWG) Indonesia wahyuningrum@gmail.com
  • 2. In Search of Human Rights Mechanism in ASEAN  1993 FMs agreed that ASEAN should consider the establishment of an appropriate regional mechanism on human rights  1995 Establishment of the Working Group on ASEAN Human Rights Mechanism (WG)  1996 First meeting between WG and ASEAN SOM  Establishment of NHRIs in Philippines 1987, Indonesia 1993, Thailand 1998 and Malaysia 1999  2004 Adoption of VAP with action programs relating to human rights  2007 Signing of Declaration of Cooperation among the 4 NHRIs  2007 Signing of the ASEAN Charter, Article 14: AHRB
  • 3. History of Human Rights in ASEAN  History of civil society engagement with ASEAN. It is a journey of believing that engagement can make change.  History of interaction between national and international efforts and dialogue on human rights.  History of national political opening contribute to the political space at regional level.  Journey of believing that a human rights commission can be created in context of the region with no respect of values of democracy and human rights.
  • 4. The 3Cs in Human Rights Architecture ASEAN Human Rights Systems Conventions: Norms/ Commission/Committee ASEAN Human Rights Court?? Instruments ACWC 2010 AICHR 2009 ACMW 2008
  • 5. 1st C: “Commissions” AICHR  Created based on Article 14, Charter  Established: 23 Oct 2009  10 Representatives  14 Mandates  No individual complaint  Provide advises to ASEAN sectorial government upon request  Can obtain information on HR issues from Member States  Consult stakeholders  Submit Annual Report ACWC  Created based on SC Blueprint  Established: 7 April 2010  20 Representatives (Women Rights and Child Rights)  16 Mandates  No individual complaint  Provide advises to ASEAN sectorial government upon request  Consult CS, women, children  Advocate on behalf of women and children & encourage ASEAN Member States to improve their situation  Submit Annual Report
  • 6. AICHR & ACWC MODALITIES, PRINCIPLES, NATURE noninterference intergovernment al body evolutionary approach consultative consultation consensus
  • 7. FACTS ABOUT AICHR & ACWC AICHR & ACWC are part of ASEAN organs AICHR & ACWC work based on TOR, RoP, and Work Plan AICHR & ACWC members are representing the government AICHR is an overarching body on human rights ACWC is specialized body on the rights of women and children AICHR reports to Foreign Ministers ACWC reports to ASEAN Ministers Meeting on Social Welfare and Development AICHR has standard setting mandate: Declaration, Conventions ACWC can speak on behalf of women, children, victims 7
  • 8. ACMW: An Overview  Mandated by the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint  2007 Jan - ASEAN Declaration on the protection and promotion of the rights of migrant workers (ASEAN Summit/AMM)  2007 July - ASEAN Statement of the establishment of the ASEAN Committee on the implementation of the ASEAN Declaration  2007 October - formation of the ACMW (ALMM/SLOM)  2008-2011 stalled discussion over the Instrument for the protection of migrant workers  The 4th ACMW DT Meeting in Manila, September 2011agreed to continue discussing gradually through Phases and to find issues that have commonalities and comfortable to all:  Phase 1: regular migrant workers (by end 2012)  Phase 2: irregular migrant workers (by end 2013)  Phase 3: legal status of the Instrument (by end of 2014)
  • 9. Norms/Instruments Children Women Trafficking • Declaration on Commitments on for Children in ASEAN (August 2001) • Ha Noi Declaration on The Enhancement of Welfare and Development of ASEAN Women and Children ; 28 Oct 2010 • Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in the ASEAN Region; 30 June 2004 • Ha Noi Declaration on The Enhancement of Welfare and Development of ASEAN Women and Children ; 28 October 2010 •1997 ASEAN Transnational Crime •ASEAN Declaration Against Trafficking in Persons Particularly Women and Children; 29 November 2004 • ASEAN Practitioner Guidelines on Effective Criminal Justice Responses to Trafficking in Persons (2007) •Leaders Joint Statements on TIPs in Southeast Asia, May 2011. Migrant workers •ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers 13 January 2007, Cebu, Philippi nes
  • 10. 2nd C: “Convention”: Standard-Setting Scenario • Article 4.2 of the TOR AICHR: “to develop an ASEAN Human Rights Declaration with a view to establishing a framework for human rights cooperation through various ASEAN conventions and other instruments dealing with human rights” • Is adopted on 18 November 2012, during the 21st ASEAN Summit • Is the effort to universalize human rights at the regional level, or regionalize the universal political commitment of human rights ASEAN Charter, Arti cle 14, 2008 Terms of Reference on AICHR, 2009 ASEAN Declaration on Human Rights, 2012 Conventions on Human Rights in ASEAN?
  • 11. ASEAN HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION  Is A TWO-IN-ONE DOCUMENT: 1) PHNOM PENH STATEMENT, and 2) AHRD  PHNOM PENH STATEMENT with signatures of ASEAN Leaders, Article 3:  “REAFFIRM further our commitment to ensure that the implementation of the AHRD be in accordance with Our commitment with the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Vienna Declaration and its Programme of Action, and other international human rihts instrument to which ASEAN Members Sttes are parties,as well as relevant ASEAN declarations and instruments pertaining to human rights”
  • 12. ASEAN Human Rights Declaration IS CONSISTED OF:  Preamble  General Principles  Civil and Political Rights  Economic, Social and Cultural Rights  Right to Peace  Right to Development  Cooperation on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights  GENERALLY, THE CONTENT IS GOOD. Some Article has good formulation of rights, compare with the UDHR
  • 13. INCLUSION OF CSO’S INPUTS IN AHRD  Article 9: …. The process of such realisation shall take into account peoples’ participation, inclusivity and the need for accountability.  Article 22: ... All forms of intolerance, discrimination and incitement of hatred based on religion and beliefs shall be eliminated.  Article 27 (3) …Those who employ children and young people in work harmful to their morals or health, dangerous to life, or likely to hamper their normal development, including their education should be punished by law.  Article 36: …ASEAN Member States should adopt meaningful people-oriented and gender responsive development programmes aimed at poverty alleviation  Total erasure on the section on duties and responsibilities
  • 14.  The content of AHRD is a reflection of difficult negotiation between two extreme position on human rights and democracy in ASEAN  AHRD starts with REAFFIRMATION of state’s international obligation to human rights, and ends with the recognition of non-derogable rights. But the general principles of AHRD are not inline with international human rights standards.  The process had been closed for civil society. Two consultations with CSOs were conducted and two consultations with ASEAN sectoral bodies without sharing the working draft  Public only know the final draft after the adoption, Nov 18, 2012
  • 15. CSO’s positions toward AHRD
  • 16. AFTERTHOUGHTS  AHRD is a political document with the context of democratic deficits in ASEAN  The challenge is now how to make AHRD promote reform in domestic politics & how to use AHRD to make ASEAN function as a ruled-based organization  We should not be idealistically naive, but rather more tactical and strategic when dealing with ASEAN. We know how the game is played or unfairly played, so let us play it well  Let us look at the declaration as a means to an end, a living evolving document.  Many international law and standards including in the field of human rights continue to expand with time as cultural norms evolved. New demands would be made for legal instrument to keep up with the development
  • 17. What next?  ACCOUNTABILITY EXERCISE:  We are of the opinion that AICHR should not rush to draft any convention on human rights. Not now, maybe in next 10-115 years  Annual Report on Human Rights in ASEAN  Put all mandates of AICHR, especially Article 4.10 of AICHR to obtain information from Member States into reality by using AHRD  Monitor ASEAN Ministerial Meeting proceeding to what extent AHRD has been used to bring human rights issues on the table (using its Joint Communique)  Review TOR AICHR in 2014
  • 18. TOR AICHR REVIEW in 2014  It is the time when we can work together to make AICHR as an INDEPENDENT HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISM by changing the selection process of AICHR  To make AICHR accessible by pushing the body to finalize a democratic guideline on engaging civil society, including receiving complaints on human rights and sharing information topublic  To make AICHR a responsive body by changing its mandate to be be able to respond the issues by having a fact-finding mission, investigation
  • 19. Civil Society Involvement during and after the drafting of TOR AICHR
  • 20. TOR AICHR & Its Timelines Protection of HRs Promotion of HRs
  • 21. What to Review? Based-on Cha-Am Declaration  Objective of the Review: to strengthen the mandate and functions of the AICHR in order to further develop mechanisms on both the protection and promotion of human rights.  Indicator 1: Has AICHR provide an ASEAN’s commitment to pursue forward-looking strategies to strengthen regional cooperation on human rights?  Indicator 2: Has AICHR serve as a vehicle for progressive social development and justice, the full realization of human dignity and the attainment of a higher quality of life for ASEAN peoples?  Indicator 3: Has AICHR receive full support and provision of adequate resources by ASEAN Member States?  Indicator 4: Has AICHR acknowledge contribution of stakeholders in the promotion and protection of human rights in ASEAN, and encourage their continuing engagement and dialogue with the AICHR?  Indicator 5: Has ASEAN cooperation on human rights support the evolution of AICHR as an overarching institution?
  • 22. CIVIL SOCIETY ENGAGEMENT WITH ASEAN
  • 23. It is about building a democratic dialogue in ASEAN Since the adoption of ASEAN Charter in 2008, much was said about engaging civil society, respecting human rights, promoting democracy and about good governance in ASEAN’s high-level statements and documents.
  • 24. ASEAN Guideline for the Engagement with Civil Society 2006’S GUIDELINE  Member states are still in control of deciding who can in and who cannot  The participation is perceived as privilege  The participation is not understood as RIGHT. It is more like “stick” and “carrot”  The affiliation is used as a way to control  The affiliation to ASEAN is a political issue rather than a only administrative requirement  CSOs are not seen as partners in developing ASEAN Community 2012’S GUIDELINE  Generally better than the 2006’s  As a general rule, only a CSO whose membership is confined to ASEAN nationals may be considered for accreditation with ASEAN;  Approval of application for accreditation of a CSO with ASEAN shall be based primarily upon the assessment of the positive contribution which such a CSO could make to the enhancement, strengthening and realisation of the aims and objectives of ASEAN
  • 25. Current CS Engagement with Human Rights Mechanisms AICHR  AICHR only want to meet with those who are affiliated with the ASEAN Charter  The newly adopted AICHR Guideline of Operation silent on CS engagement  Two consultations o AHRD: June 22, and Sept 12  Consultation only happen in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines  CS continue to submit inputs, reports, papers to AICHR  CS is a sensitive issue in AICHR, but during their visit to US, they met US-based CSOs ACWC  Started with Informal Dinner (2011), Informal Session (2011), Joint-Workshop (2012), Formal Session (2012)  Informal Session: 9 out of 20 Reps attended  Informal Session: 16 out 20 Reps attended  Joint-Workshop: 18 out of 20 Reps attended  Formal Session: 20 Reps attended  Good Result, Good process, substantive discussion, cordial ambiance  Inputs from CS have been included in the reference documents of the ACWC  The initial suggestion to erase civil society” & international standards” in TOR ACWC has been put down  ACWC uses inputs from CS in formulating their positions
  • 26. ASEAN Civil Society Conferences/ASEAN Peoples Forums 2005-2013 Year Place The Name of the Event 2005 Shah Alam, Malaysia 1st ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC) 2006 Cebu, the Philippines 2nd ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC) 2007 Singapore 3rd ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC) 2009 Bangkok, Thailand 4th ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC)/ 1st ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (APF) 2009 Hua Hin, Thailand 5th ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC)/2nd ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (APF) 2010 Hanoi, Vietnam 6th ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (APF) 2011 Jakarta, Indonesia ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC)/ ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (APF) 2011 2012 Phnom Penh, Cambodia ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC)/ ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (APF) 2012 – March & November 2013 Brunei ASEAN Civil Society Conference (ACSC)/ ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (APF) 2013 – April 2014 Myanmar ?
  • 27. What has been the collective knowledge we produced through 8 years’ ACSC/APF? ASEAN’s Alternative Regionalism (Source: HRWG Study, 2011) •Particularly: Women & Youth, Indigenous People / Ethnic Minority, and CSOs •Against unjust FTA, privatization, •Reject neoliberal economic policies •Democracy •Human Rights •Transparency •Accountability •Mainly: ILO, UNFCCC, CED AW, UNCRC, UNDRI P, &MDGs
  • 28. CSO Platforms in engaging ASEAN Name frequent Engaging the body ACSC/APF annually ASEAN Disability Forum (ADF) annually ASEAN Youth Forum annually ASEAN Grass-root People Assembly annually ASEAN Community Dialogue ASEAN SUMMIT Head of States/Governmen ts annually ASEAN Committee Permanent Representatives (CPR) CPR Civil Society Forum to AMM on human rights annually ASEAN Ministers Meeting (AMM) Foreign Ministers Informal Dialogue between CSO and ASG annually ASEAN Secretary General (ASG) Secretary General Jakarta Human Rights Dialogue in ASEAN annually ASEAN Human Rights Mechanisms AICHR, ACWC GO-NGO Forum on Social Welfare & Development annually ASEAN Senior Official Meeting on SWD SOM officials
  • 29. Leaders’ Interface Meeting with CS Year ACSC/APF Process (Track III/CS) 2005, Malaysi a ASEAN ISIS Process (Track II/Think Tank) 1st ACSC/ ASEAN Civil Society Conference in Shah Alam 15 Minute Meeting Mixed Delegation of 10 and 10 ASEAN Heads of State 2006, Ph 2nd ACSC ilippines No Interface Meeting with Leaders APA/ASEAN Peoples’ Assembly by ASEAN ISIS (process recognized by ASEAN Chair) in Manila No Interface Meeting with Leaders. Instead Reading of APA Chairman’s Report 2007, 3rd ACSC Singapo No Interface Meeting with re Leaders ACSC 2007 by SIIA Simon Tay (process recognized by ASEAN Chair) No Interface Meeting with Leaders. Instead Reading of ACSC 2007 Chairman’s Report
  • 30. Leaders’ Interface Meeting with CS Year ACSC/APF Process (Track III/CS) 2009, Feb ruary, Ba ngkok 4th ACSC (within the 1st ASEAN Peoples’ Forum) 30 minute Interface between CS Delegation and ASEAN Heads of State Hua-Hin, Thailand was divided into two sections. The first 15 minutes was for the meeting with CS Delegates and the rest 15 minutes was for those who have been rejected by the Rep of Government (Myanmar and Cambodia) 2009 October, Cha-am 2nd ASEAN Peoples’ Forum/5th ASEAN Civil Society Conference 15 minutes, Interface Meeting between CS Delegation (some government appointed) and ASEAN Heads of State (optional) 2010 Hanoi 6th APF No Interface Meeting with Leaders. Instead CS Reps met with Chair of ASEAN, the Vice Prime Minister of Vietnam. Recognition of the process. ASEAN Chairman’s statement: 2 paragraphs appreciation of organizing of the APF and took note of
  • 31. Leaders’ Interface Meeting with CS Year ACSC/APF Process (Track III/CS) 2011, J akarta •10 persons representing 10 countries •45 minutes (additional 15 mins from earlier agreement 30 mins) •4 speakers (extended from initially only one speaker allowed) •Time: 15:45 – •10+1 (HoS/G + Foreign Min), ASG + DSG Corp and Comm Affairs •Indonesia’s President greets all CS Delegates at the door •Indonesia’s President welcomes CS Delegates, makes speech and allows CS Delegate to speak •All delegates introduce themselves by mentioning the name and followed by “I am from ASEAN” •Indonesia’s President, Malaysia PM Najib, Razak, Thai PM Abishit Vejajiva, and PM Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dzung responded (see Annexes) •Indonesia’s President gives closing remarks and walks toward the CS Delegate and shakes their hand one by one. All leaders
  • 32. Leaders’ Interface Meeting with CS Year ACSC/APF Process (Track III/CS) 2012, Phnom Penh • Head of States met representatives from GONGOs of 8 countries (absent: Indonesia and the Philippines) •30 minutes •Topic: gender and development 2013, Brunei
  • 33. CULTIVATING GAINS  Civil Society’s role is visible in ASEAN community building  Civil Society engagement improve the accountability of ASEAN. A critical and watchful civil society is a factor of paramount importance for good governance  Growing discussion on governance and government, people-oriented versus people-centered organization  ACSC should remain as one of the key platforms which civil society uses to exchange ideas and advance their inputs to ASEAN leaders and relevant policy-makers  Civil-Society should maintain its process as civil society-led and show willingness and readiness to engage with ASEAN and its Member Government  He organizing of ACSC should be improved from time to time through trying and experiencing